Burn Injury Alters the Intestinal Microbiome and Increases Gut Permeability and Bacterial Translocation
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{"title"=>"Burn injury alters the intestinal microbiome and increases gut permeability and bacterial translocation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Zachary M.", "last_name"=>"Earley", "scopus_author_id"=>"56601375000"}, {"first_name"=>"Suhail", "last_name"=>"Akhtar", "scopus_author_id"=>"36967602100"}, {"first_name"=>"Stefan J.", "last_name"=>"Green", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403569147"}, {"first_name"=>"Ankur", "last_name"=>"Naqib", "scopus_author_id"=>"56674638200"}, {"first_name"=>"Omair", "last_name"=>"Khan", "scopus_author_id"=>"56835214500"}, {"first_name"=>"Abigail R.", "last_name"=>"Cannon", "scopus_author_id"=>"56835259300"}, {"first_name"=>"Adam M.", "last_name"=>"Hammer", "scopus_author_id"=>"56825340900"}, {"first_name"=>"Niya L.", "last_name"=>"Morris", "scopus_author_id"=>"56513349200"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiaoling", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"55832179400"}, {"first_name"=>"Joshua M.", "last_name"=>"Eberhardt", "scopus_author_id"=>"36135362400"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard L.", "last_name"=>"Gamelli", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005692189"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard H.", "last_name"=>"Kennedy", "scopus_author_id"=>"55708293300"}, {"first_name"=>"Mashkoor A.", "last_name"=>"Choudhry", "scopus_author_id"=>"35375173500"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"605952285", "sgr"=>"84941351063", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"26154283", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84941351063", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0129996", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"f94928de-2a95-344c-88a0-6263a4349c6c", "abstract"=>"Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of death in burn patients who survive the initial insult of injury. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier has been shown after burn injury; this can lead to the translocation of bacteria or their products (e.g., endotoxin) from the intestinal lumen to the circulation, thereby increasing the risk for sepsis in immunocompromised individuals. Since the maintenance of the epithelial barrier is largely dependent on the intestinal microbiota, we examined the diversity of the intestinal microbiome of severely burned patients and a controlled mouse model of burn injury. We show that burn injury induces a dramatic dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome of both humans and mice and allows for similar overgrowths of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria. Furthermore, we show that the bacteria increasing in abundance have the potential to translocate to extra-intestinal sites. This study provides an insight into how the diversity of the intestinal microbiome changes after burn injury and some of the consequences these gut bacteria can have in the host.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/burn-injury-alters-intestinal-microbiome-increases-gut-permeability-bacterial-translocation", "reader_count"=>68, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>22, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>22}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2167956"], "description"=>"<p>The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) plot (<b>A</b>) demonstrates the effect of burn injury on the overall human fecal microbial community structure, as assessed by bacterial ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing. The NMDS plot is based on sample-standardized and log transformed abundance data. The NMDS plot and the hierarchical cluster overlay are based on a resemblance matrix calculated using Bray-Curtis similarity. The 2D stress value was 0.10. Fecal samples were taken from eight control patients and from four burn injury patients and analyzed at different time points (days after injury), as indicated in the figure. The most abundant bacterial families in control patients and burn patients are indicated in pie charts <b>(B)</b>, and taxa which were significantly different by Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (*,FDR-P <0.05). A box-plot of the distribution of the ratio of rRNA genes from Enterobacteraceae to total bacterial rRNA genes in control and burn patients measured by qPCR is shown <b>(C)</b>, and the ratio of each individual is shown adjacent to the box-plot. A statistically significant effect of burn injury was observed (two-tailed t-test ***, p< 0.0001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Increases Gut Permeability", "Burn Injury Alters", "diversity", "epithelial barrier", "bacteria", "injury", "Bacterial Translocation Sepsis", "microbiome"], "article_id"=>1477648, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zachary M. Earley", "Suhail Akhtar", "Stefan J. Green", "Ankur Naqib", "Omair Khan", "Abigail R. Cannon", "Adam M. Hammer", "Niya L. Morris", "Xiaoling Li", "Joshua M. Eberhardt", "Richard L Gamelli", "Richard H. Kennedy", "Mashkoor A. Choudhry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129996.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_Burn_Injury_on_Human_Gut_Microbiome_/1477648", "title"=>"Effects of Burn Injury on Human Gut Microbiome.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-08 03:43:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2167957"], "description"=>"<p>The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) plot (<b>A</b>) demonstrates the differences in microbial community structure as a result of burn injury, time since burn injury, and sampling from small and large intestine in a mouse experimental model system of five animals per group. Box-plots of the distribution of the ratio of rRNA genes from Enterobacteriaceae to total bacterial rRNA genes in sham and burn animals, calculated by qPCR, are shown for small and large intestines, one and three days post-burn injury <b>(B)</b>. A statistically significant effect of burn injury was observed between sham and one-day burn injury mice in the small intestine (n = 9 sham, 7 burn mice, two-tailed t-test **, p< 0.01), and between one-day and three-day burn injury mice (n = 9 sham, 8 burn mice, two-tailed t-test *, p< 0.05). A statistically significant effect of burn injury was observed for the large intestine between one-day and three-day burn injury mice (n = 8 animals per group, two-tailed t-test *, p< 0.05). The most abundant bacterial families in sham and burn injury mice (small intestine) are indicated in pie charts <b>(C)</b>, and taxa which were significantly different by Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (*, FDR-P <0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Increases Gut Permeability", "Burn Injury Alters", "diversity", "epithelial barrier", "bacteria", "injury", "Bacterial Translocation Sepsis", "microbiome"], "article_id"=>1477649, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zachary M. Earley", "Suhail Akhtar", "Stefan J. Green", "Ankur Naqib", "Omair Khan", "Abigail R. Cannon", "Adam M. Hammer", "Niya L. Morris", "Xiaoling Li", "Joshua M. Eberhardt", "Richard L Gamelli", "Richard H. Kennedy", "Mashkoor A. Choudhry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129996.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Burn_Injury_Alters_the_Mouse_Intestinal_Microbiome_/1477649", "title"=>"Burn Injury Alters the Mouse Intestinal Microbiome.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-08 03:43:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2167958"], "description"=>"<p>Tissue sections were taken from the small intestine of sham or burn injured animals one day after injury, and stained with fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide conjugated probes to label 16s rRNA and counterstained with DAPI to label intestinal nuclei blue. Alexa 555 (Red) EUB 338 probe was used to stain total Bacteria, and Alexa 488 (Green) ENTBAC 183 was used to stain Enterobacteriaceae. Orange depicts co-localization of both probes and bacteria that are Enterobacteriaceae. (<b>A</b>) is a representative picture of sham animals and (<b>B</b>) is a representative image of burn injury animals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Increases Gut Permeability", "Burn Injury Alters", "diversity", "epithelial barrier", "bacteria", "injury", "Bacterial Translocation Sepsis", "microbiome"], "article_id"=>1477650, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zachary M. Earley", "Suhail Akhtar", "Stefan J. Green", "Ankur Naqib", "Omair Khan", "Abigail R. Cannon", "Adam M. Hammer", "Niya L. Morris", "Xiaoling Li", "Joshua M. Eberhardt", "Richard L Gamelli", "Richard H. Kennedy", "Mashkoor A. Choudhry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129996.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Direct_Observation_of_Enterobacteriaceae_in_the_Small_Intestine_/1477650", "title"=>"Direct Observation of Enterobacteriaceae in the Small Intestine.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-08 03:43:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2167959"], "description"=>"<p>MLN were aseptically removed from sham, burn day 1, and burn day 3 animals and Enterobacteriaceae were quantified by qPCR and standardized by total bacterial 16s rRNA gene abundance, (<b>A</b>). Data were expressed as mean ± SEM of 5–11 animals per group. Enterobacteriaceae abundance from sham and burn day 3 animals were all not detectable (ND). In addition, MLN homogenates were plated on Tryptic Soy Agar with 5% sheep blood and MacConkey Agar plates and cultured aerobically for 24 hours with 5% CO<sub>2.</sub> (<b>B</b>) is a representative image of plates produced from one animal.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Increases Gut Permeability", "Burn Injury Alters", "diversity", "epithelial barrier", "bacteria", "injury", "Bacterial Translocation Sepsis", "microbiome"], "article_id"=>1477651, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zachary M. Earley", "Suhail Akhtar", "Stefan J. Green", "Ankur Naqib", "Omair Khan", "Abigail R. Cannon", "Adam M. Hammer", "Niya L. Morris", "Xiaoling Li", "Joshua M. Eberhardt", "Richard L Gamelli", "Richard H. Kennedy", "Mashkoor A. Choudhry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129996.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bacterial_Abundance_in_the_Mesenteric_Lymph_Nodes_MLN_of_Mice_/1477651", "title"=>"Bacterial Abundance in the Mesenteric Lymph Nodes (MLN) of Mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-08 03:43:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2167960"], "description"=>"<p>Sham, burn day 1, and burn day 3 mice were gavaged with FITC-dextran and 3 hours later blood was drawn and the concentration of FITC-dextran was determined spectrophotometrically in the plasma (<b>A</b>). RNA was purified from the distal small (<b>B</b>) and large (<b>C</b>) intestine one day after burn, reverse transcribed and quantified with qPCR using primers for claudin (Cldn 4, and Cldn 8), in combination with endogenous control Gapdh. ΔCt values were calculated and the mean ± SEM of 10–15 animals/group was expressed relative to sham. (<b>A</b>), *, p<0.05 ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons post hoc test of sham and burn day 1. (<b>B</b>), unpaired student t-test sham and burn day 1, * p<0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Increases Gut Permeability", "Burn Injury Alters", "diversity", "epithelial barrier", "bacteria", "injury", "Bacterial Translocation Sepsis", "microbiome"], "article_id"=>1477652, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zachary M. Earley", "Suhail Akhtar", "Stefan J. Green", "Ankur Naqib", "Omair Khan", "Abigail R. Cannon", "Adam M. Hammer", "Niya L. Morris", "Xiaoling Li", "Joshua M. Eberhardt", "Richard L Gamelli", "Richard H. Kennedy", "Mashkoor A. Choudhry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129996.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intestinal_Permeability_/1477652", "title"=>"Intestinal Permeability.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-08 03:43:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2167961"], "description"=>"<p>Significant Effects of Burn Injury on Gut Microbial Community Structure.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Increases Gut Permeability", "Burn Injury Alters", "diversity", "epithelial barrier", "bacteria", "injury", "Bacterial Translocation Sepsis", "microbiome"], "article_id"=>1477653, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zachary M. Earley", "Suhail Akhtar", "Stefan J. Green", "Ankur Naqib", "Omair Khan", "Abigail R. Cannon", "Adam M. Hammer", "Niya L. Morris", "Xiaoling Li", "Joshua M. Eberhardt", "Richard L Gamelli", "Richard H. Kennedy", "Mashkoor A. Choudhry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129996.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Significant_Effects_of_Burn_Injury_on_Gut_Microbial_Community_Structure_/1477653", "title"=>"Significant Effects of Burn Injury on Gut Microbial Community Structure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-08 03:43:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2167962", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2167963"], "description"=>"<div><p>Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of death in burn patients who survive the initial insult of injury. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier has been shown after burn injury; this can lead to the translocation of bacteria or their products (e.g., endotoxin) from the intestinal lumen to the circulation, thereby increasing the risk for sepsis in immunocompromised individuals. Since the maintenance of the epithelial barrier is largely dependent on the intestinal microbiota, we examined the diversity of the intestinal microbiome of severely burned patients and a controlled mouse model of burn injury. We show that burn injury induces a dramatic dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome of both humans and mice and allows for similar overgrowths of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria. Furthermore, we show that the bacteria increasing in abundance have the potential to translocate to extra-intestinal sites. This study provides an insight into how the diversity of the intestinal microbiome changes after burn injury and some of the consequences these gut bacteria can have in the host.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Increases Gut Permeability", "Burn Injury Alters", "diversity", "epithelial barrier", "bacteria", "injury", "Bacterial Translocation Sepsis", "microbiome"], "article_id"=>1477654, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zachary M. Earley", "Suhail Akhtar", "Stefan J. Green", "Ankur Naqib", "Omair Khan", "Abigail R. Cannon", "Adam M. Hammer", "Niya L. Morris", "Xiaoling Li", "Joshua M. Eberhardt", "Richard L Gamelli", "Richard H. Kennedy", "Mashkoor A. Choudhry"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129996.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129996.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>15, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Burn_Injury_Alters_the_Intestinal_Microbiome_and_Increases_Gut_Permeability_and_Bacterial_Translocation_/1477654", "title"=>"Burn Injury Alters the Intestinal Microbiome and Increases Gut Permeability and Bacterial Translocation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-07-08 03:43:33"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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