Partitioning the Relative Importance of Phylogeny and Environmental Conditions on Phytoplankton Fatty Acids
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{"title"=>"Partitioning the relative importance of phylogeny and environmental conditions on phytoplankton fatty acids", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Aaron W.E.", "last_name"=>"Galloway", "scopus_author_id"=>"15839580900"}, {"first_name"=>"Monika", "last_name"=>"Winder", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603887949"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0130053", "sgr"=>"84937046740", "pui"=>"605142850", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84937046740", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"26076015", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"68eae7f5-f586-3af1-8dfe-abe1497d5f31", "abstract"=>"Essential fatty acids (EFA), which are primarily generated by phytoplankton, limit growth and reproduction in diverse heterotrophs. The biochemical composition of phytoplankton is well-known to be governed both by phylogeny and environmental conditions. Nutrients, light, salinity, and temperature all affect both phytoplankton growth and fatty acid composition. However, the relative importance of taxonomy and environment on algal fatty acid content has yet to be comparatively quantified, thus inhibiting predictions of changes to phytoplankton food quality in response to global environmental change. We compiled 1145 published marine and freshwater phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, consisting of 208 species from six major taxonomic groups, cultured in a wide range of environmental conditions, and used a multivariate distance-based linear model to quantify the total variation explained by each variable. Our results show that taxonomic group accounts for 3-4 times more variation in phytoplankton fatty acids than the most important growth condition variables. The results underscore that environmental conditions clearly affect phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, but also show that conditions account for relatively low variation compared to phylogeny. This suggests that the underlying mechanism determining basal food quality in aquatic habitats is primarily phytoplankton community composition, and allows for prediction of environmental-scale EFA dynamics based on phytoplankton community data. We used the compiled dataset to calculate seasonal dynamics of long-chain EFA (LCEFA; ≥C20 ɷ-3 and ɷ-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid) concentrations and ɷ-3:ɷ-6 EFA ratios in Lake Washington using a multi-decadal phytoplankton community time series. These analyses quantify temporal dynamics of algal-derived LCEFA and food quality in a freshwater ecosystem that has undergone large community changes as a result of shifting resource management practices, highlighting diatoms, cryptophytes and dinoflagellates as key sources of LCEFA. Moreover, the analyses indicate that future shifts towards cyanobacteria-dominated communities will result in lower LCEFA content in aquatic ecosystems.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/partitioning-relative-importance-phylogeny-environmental-conditions-phytoplankton-fatty-acids", "reader_count"=>86, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>25, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>43, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7, "Energy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>43}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>25}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "United States"=>2, "Denmark"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Iceland"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113272"], "description"=>"<p>The DISTLM partitioned the variance in phytoplankton fatty acids explained by the predictor variables for all 621 phytoplankton % FA profiles for which all culture conditions were available [follows <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053#pone.0130053.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> variable descriptions except salinity here is coded as freshwater (FW) or saline water (SW) for visualization)]. The group abbreviations are: Chl (Chlorophyta); Cry (Cryptophyta); Cya (Cyanobacteria); Dia [diatoms (Bacillariophyceae, Coscinodiscophyceae, Fragilariophyceae)]; Din (Dinophyta); and Hap (Haptophyta). The first two axes explained 75% of the variability in the fitted model. The top two ranked variables in the model for this dataset, group and salinity, are identified with the symbols. Vector overlays show the strength of the relationship between the predictor variables and the dbRDA axes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton community composition", "resource management practices", "Phytoplankton Fatty Acids Essential", "efa", "growth condition variables", "taxonomic group accounts", "LCEFA", "acid profiles", "phytoplankton community data", "phytoplankton food quality", "basal food quality"], "article_id"=>1449609, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aaron W. E. Galloway", "Monika Winder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>123, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distance_based_redundancy_analysis_dbRDA_ordination_of_the_full_multivariate_ISTLM_/1449609", "title"=>"Distance-based redundancy analysis (dbRDA) ordination of the full multivariate ISTLM.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-15 03:11:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113273"], "description"=>"<p>Panels: (a) hours light, (b) light intensity, (c) temperature, and (d) salinity for all phytoplankton groups pooled together. Each point is from a different % DW fatty acid profile (i.e., not species means), and all points are the same tone of grey, but are plotted with semi-transparency and jittering to accommodate for overplotting of points with similar values. Best-fit lines are significant (Kendall’s Tau, p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton community composition", "resource management practices", "Phytoplankton Fatty Acids Essential", "efa", "growth condition variables", "taxonomic group accounts", "LCEFA", "acid profiles", "phytoplankton community data", "phytoplankton food quality", "basal food quality"], "article_id"=>1449610, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aaron W. E. Galloway", "Monika Winder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Post_hoc_correlations_between_continuous_culture_conditions_and_the_931_LCEFA_in_the_DW_dataset_/1449610", "title"=>"Post-hoc correlations between continuous culture conditions and the Σ LCEFA in the % DW dataset.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-15 03:11:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113275"], "description"=>"<p>Salinity and % LCEFA was positively correlated (Kendall’s Tau, p<0.001) for chlorophytes and cryptophytes, negatively correlated for dinoflagellates, and not correlated for the other groups. Group abbreviations follow <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053#pone.0130053.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>. All points within each algal group are the same color, but are plotted with semi-transparency to accommodate for over plotting of points with similar values. Separate correlations for each phytoplankton group were performed due to the larger within-group sample sizes in this dataset.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton community composition", "resource management practices", "Phytoplankton Fatty Acids Essential", "efa", "growth condition variables", "taxonomic group accounts", "LCEFA", "acid profiles", "phytoplankton community data", "phytoplankton food quality", "basal food quality"], "article_id"=>1449611, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aaron W. E. Galloway", "Monika Winder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phytoplankton_group_specific_correlations_between_the_931_LCEFA_in_the_FA_dataset_and_salinity_of_culture_conditions_/1449611", "title"=>"Phytoplankton group specific correlations between the Σ LCEFA in the % FA dataset and salinity of culture conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-15 03:11:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113276"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Shows the % FA dataset, consisting of 208 averages from 666 raw profiles. (b) Shows the FA % DW dataset, consisting of 55 averages from 105 raw profiles. Group name abbreviations follow <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053#pone.0130053.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>. The heavy line is the median, box boundaries are the 25<sup>th</sup> and 75<sup>th</sup> percentiles, and whiskers extend to the most extreme value within 1.5*IQR (interquartile range). The y-axis is set to show the extent of whiskers, thus some extreme outliers are not plotted (outliers were included in calculation of average group LCEFA).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton community composition", "resource management practices", "Phytoplankton Fatty Acids Essential", "efa", "growth condition variables", "taxonomic group accounts", "LCEFA", "acid profiles", "phytoplankton community data", "phytoplankton food quality", "basal food quality"], "article_id"=>1449612, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aaron W. E. Galloway", "Monika Winder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Boxplots_of_species_averages_of_931_long_chain_essential_fatty_acids_LCEFA_in_six_major_phytoplankton_groups_/1449612", "title"=>"Boxplots of species averages of Σ long-chain essential fatty acids (LCEFA) in six major phytoplankton groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-15 03:11:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113277"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Stacked barplots of annual average phytoplankton biomass, color-coded by taxonomic group, from 1961–2001. Boxplot of average total phytoplankton biomass during the (a) eutrophic years (1961–1969) prior to sewage treatment, and (b) the oligotrophic years (1975–2001) after the transition (1970–1974) to sewage treatment in Lake Washington. Abbreviations follow <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053#pone.0130053.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton community composition", "resource management practices", "Phytoplankton Fatty Acids Essential", "efa", "growth condition variables", "taxonomic group accounts", "LCEFA", "acid profiles", "phytoplankton community data", "phytoplankton food quality", "basal food quality"], "article_id"=>1449613, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aaron W. E. Galloway", "Monika Winder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lake_Washington_annual_and_monthly_phytoplankton_biomass_from_1961_8211_2001_/1449613", "title"=>"Lake Washington annual and monthly phytoplankton biomass from 1961–2001.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-15 03:11:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113278"], "description"=>"<p>Panels (a) and (c) show the group composition during the eutrophic years (1961–1969), and panels (b) and (d) summarize the oligotrophic years (1975–2001) for biomass and LCEFA, respectively. Group specific LCEFA are calculated following <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053#pone.0130053.e002\" target=\"_blank\">Eq 2</a>. The mean calculated annual LCEFA value across years within each time period is superimposed as a line on panels c and d. Abbreviations follow <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053#pone.0130053.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton community composition", "resource management practices", "Phytoplankton Fatty Acids Essential", "efa", "growth condition variables", "taxonomic group accounts", "LCEFA", "acid profiles", "phytoplankton community data", "phytoplankton food quality", "basal food quality"], "article_id"=>1449614, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aaron W. E. Galloway", "Monika Winder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stacked_barplots_of_observed_average_monthly_phytoplankton_biomass_a_b_and_calculated_LCEFA_concentrations_c_d_in_Lake_Washington_/1449614", "title"=>"Stacked barplots of observed average monthly phytoplankton biomass (a, b) and calculated LCEFA concentrations (c, d) in Lake Washington.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-15 03:11:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113279"], "description"=>"<p>The boxplot colors represent the time periods and boxplot dimensions follow description in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053#pone.0130053.g004\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 4</a>. The y-axis is set to show the extent of whiskers, excluding extreme outliers with ratio values >18.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton community composition", "resource management practices", "Phytoplankton Fatty Acids Essential", "efa", "growth condition variables", "taxonomic group accounts", "LCEFA", "acid profiles", "phytoplankton community data", "phytoplankton food quality", "basal food quality"], "article_id"=>1449615, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aaron W. E. Galloway", "Monika Winder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lake_Washington_monthly_631_3_631_6_fatty_acid_ratios_calculated_from_phytoplankton_biomass_from_1961_8211_2001_/1449615", "title"=>"Lake Washington monthly ɷ-3:ɷ-6 fatty acid ratios calculated from phytoplankton biomass from 1961–2001.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-15 03:11:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113280"], "description"=>"<p>Results of distance-based linear model (DISTLM) sequential step-wise tests using adjusted <i>R</i><sup><i>2</i></sup> selection criterion for both fatty acid datasets (% FA and FA % DW). This test reports the proportion of the variation explained (prop. var) and the cumulative variation (cum. var) explained by the model at each step. Variable abbreviations: nutrient status [Nutrient (replete or limited)]; light intensity (Light); hours of light (Hrs. Light); temperature (Temp).</p><p>Results of the DISTLM sequential step-wise tests.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton community composition", "resource management practices", "Phytoplankton Fatty Acids Essential", "efa", "growth condition variables", "taxonomic group accounts", "LCEFA", "acid profiles", "phytoplankton community data", "phytoplankton food quality", "basal food quality"], "article_id"=>1449616, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aaron W. E. Galloway", "Monika Winder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_DISTLM_sequential_step_wise_tests_/1449616", "title"=>"Results of the DISTLM sequential step-wise tests.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-15 03:11:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113281"], "description"=>"<p>Phytoplantkon group mean and standard deviation (sd) for each fatty acid category (% LCEFA, % ɷ-3, and % ɷ-6) and a relative food quality index (FQI) based on total LCEFA content, calculated across unique species (e.g., species N, not all raw fatty acid profiles) in each dataset.</p><p>Summary of % LCEFA, % ɷ-3, and % ɷ-6 by phytoplankton group and dataset.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton community composition", "resource management practices", "Phytoplankton Fatty Acids Essential", "efa", "growth condition variables", "taxonomic group accounts", "LCEFA", "acid profiles", "phytoplankton community data", "phytoplankton food quality", "basal food quality"], "article_id"=>1449617, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aaron W. E. Galloway", "Monika Winder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_LCEFA_631_3_and_631_6_by_phytoplankton_group_and_dataset_/1449617", "title"=>"Summary of % LCEFA, % ɷ-3, and % ɷ-6 by phytoplankton group and dataset.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-15 03:11:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113282", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113283", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113284", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113285", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113286", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113287", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2113288"], "description"=>"<div><p>Essential fatty acids (EFA), which are primarily generated by phytoplankton, limit growth and reproduction in diverse heterotrophs. The biochemical composition of phytoplankton is well-known to be governed both by phylogeny and environmental conditions. Nutrients, light, salinity, and temperature all affect both phytoplankton growth and fatty acid composition. However, the relative importance of taxonomy and environment on algal fatty acid content has yet to be comparatively quantified, thus inhibiting predictions of changes to phytoplankton food quality in response to global environmental change. We compiled 1145 published marine and freshwater phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, consisting of 208 species from six major taxonomic groups, cultured in a wide range of environmental conditions, and used a multivariate distance-based linear model to quantify the total variation explained by each variable. Our results show that taxonomic group accounts for 3-4 times more variation in phytoplankton fatty acids than the most important growth condition variables. The results underscore that environmental conditions clearly affect phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, but also show that conditions account for relatively low variation compared to phylogeny. This suggests that the underlying mechanism determining basal food quality in aquatic habitats is primarily phytoplankton community composition, and allows for prediction of environmental-scale EFA dynamics based on phytoplankton community data. We used the compiled dataset to calculate seasonal dynamics of long-chain EFA (LCEFA; ≥C<sub>20</sub> ɷ-3 and ɷ-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid) concentrations and ɷ-3:ɷ-6 EFA ratios in Lake Washington using a multi-decadal phytoplankton community time series. These analyses quantify temporal dynamics of algal-derived LCEFA and food quality in a freshwater ecosystem that has undergone large community changes as a result of shifting resource management practices, highlighting diatoms, cryptophytes and dinoflagellates as key sources of LCEFA. Moreover, the analyses indicate that future shifts towards cyanobacteria-dominated communities will result in lower LCEFA content in aquatic ecosystems.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton community composition", "resource management practices", "Phytoplankton Fatty Acids Essential", "efa", "growth condition variables", "taxonomic group accounts", "LCEFA", "acid profiles", "phytoplankton community data", "phytoplankton food quality", "basal food quality"], "article_id"=>1449618, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aaron W. E. Galloway", "Monika Winder"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130053.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Partitioning_the_Relative_Importance_of_Phylogeny_and_Environmental_Conditions_on_Phytoplankton_Fatty_Acids_/1449618", "title"=>"Partitioning the Relative Importance of Phylogeny and Environmental Conditions on Phytoplankton Fatty Acids", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-06-15 03:11:09"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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