Incidence and Risk Factors for Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus Infections among Children in the Remote Highlands of Peru
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{"title"=>"Incidence and risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus infections among children in the remote highlands of Peru", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"Wu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56746982200"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip J.", "last_name"=>"Budge", "scopus_author_id"=>"36830369100"}, {"first_name"=>"John", "last_name"=>"Williams", "scopus_author_id"=>"7409582883"}, {"first_name"=>"Marie R.", "last_name"=>"Griffin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403310386"}, {"first_name"=>"Kathryn M.", "last_name"=>"Edwards", "scopus_author_id"=>"55628579424"}, {"first_name"=>"Monika", "last_name"=>"Johnson", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188659623"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuwei", "last_name"=>"Zhu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7406071429"}, {"first_name"=>"Stella", "last_name"=>"Hartinger", "scopus_author_id"=>"55584410200"}, {"first_name"=>"Hector", "last_name"=>"Verastegui", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507000504"}, {"first_name"=>"Ana I.", "last_name"=>"Gil", "scopus_author_id"=>"26643218000"}, {"first_name"=>"Claudio F.", "last_name"=>"Lanata", "scopus_author_id"=>"16208026200"}, {"first_name"=>"Carlos G.", "last_name"=>"Grijalva", "scopus_author_id"=>"8544613100"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"26107630", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0130233", "sgr"=>"84939137823", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84939137823", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"605585948"}, "id"=>"a7dc6aef-6e47-3224-972c-d83ba5ebfe5f", "abstract"=>"INTRODUCTION: The disease burden and risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (MPV) infections among children living in remote, rural areas remain unclear.\\n\\nMATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, household-based cohort study of children aged <3 years living in remote rural highland communities in San Marcos, Cajamarca, Peru. Acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), including lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), were monitored through weekly household visits from March 2009 through September 2011. Nasal swabs collected during ARI/LRTI were tested for RSV, MPV, and other respiratory viruses using real-time RT-PCR. Incidence rates and rate ratios were calculated using mixed effects Poisson regression.\\n\\nRESULTS: Among 892 enrolled children, incidence rates of RSV and MPV ARI were 30 and 17 episodes per 100 child-years, respectively. The proportions of RSV and MPV ARI that presented as LRTI were 12.5% and 8.9%, respectively. Clinic visits for ARI and hospitalizations were significantly more frequent (all p values <0.05) among children with RSV (clinic 41% and hospital 5.3%) and MPV ARI (38% and 3.5%) when compared with other viral infections (23% and 0.7%) and infections without virus detected (24% and 0.6%). In multivariable analysis, risk factors for RSV detection included younger age (RR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00-1.03), the presence of a smoker in the house (RR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.12-2.38), residing at higher altitudes (RR 1.93, 95% CI: 1.25-3.00 for 2nd compared to 1st quartile residents; RR 1.98, 95% CI: 1.26-3.13 for 3rd compared to 1st quartile residents). Having an unemployed household head was significantly associated with MPV risk (RR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.12-4.01).\\n\\nCONCLUSION: In rural high altitude communities in Peru, childhood ARI due to RSV or MPV were common and associated with higher morbidity than ARI due to other viruses or with no viral detections. The risk factors identified in this study may be considered for interventional studies to control infections by these viruses among young children from developing countries.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/incidence-risk-factors-respiratory-syncytial-virus-human-metapneumovirus-infections-among-children-r-1", "reader_count"=>23, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>12, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>12}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Japan"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2147148"], "description"=>"<p>RSV and MPV incidence rates per 100 child-years stratified by age.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Human Metapneumovirus Infections", "rr", "Peru IntroductionThe disease burden", "lrti", "September 2011. Nasal swabs", "Respiratory Syncytial Virus", "risk factors", "MPV ARI", "ci", "infection", "effects Poisson regression.ResultsAmong 892", "1 st quartile residents", "rsv"], "article_id"=>1462424, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Andrew Wu", "Philip J. Budge", "John Williams", "Marie R. Griffin", "Kathryn M. Edwards", "Monika Johnson", "Yuwei Zhu", "Stella Hartinger", "Hector Verastegui", "Ana I. Gil", "Claudio F. Lanata", "Carlos G. Grijalva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130233.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_RSV_and_MPV_incidence_rates_per_100_child_years_stratified_by_age_/1462424", "title"=>"RSV and MPV incidence rates per 100 child-years stratified by age.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:50:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2147149"], "description"=>"<p>Data represent median values (IQR) and proportions (95% CI).</p><p>Values that were significantly different (p<0.05) when compared to RSV* (†) and MPV* (ⱡ).</p><p>*These values for RSV, MPV, and other virus infections include infections with only 1 virus detected.</p><p>**These values include co-infections.</p><p>θWheezing, tachypnea, and any LRTI symptoms were calculated among all children with ARI regardless of whether or not an exam was performed for the given symptom. Tachypnea was defined separately for specific age groups.</p><p>Clinical attributes by viral infection type.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Human Metapneumovirus Infections", "rr", "Peru IntroductionThe disease burden", "lrti", "September 2011. Nasal swabs", "Respiratory Syncytial Virus", "risk factors", "MPV ARI", "ci", "infection", "effects Poisson regression.ResultsAmong 892", "1 st quartile residents", "rsv"], "article_id"=>1462425, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Andrew Wu", "Philip J. Budge", "John Williams", "Marie R. Griffin", "Kathryn M. Edwards", "Monika Johnson", "Yuwei Zhu", "Stella Hartinger", "Hector Verastegui", "Ana I. Gil", "Claudio F. Lanata", "Carlos G. Grijalva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130233.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clinical_attributes_by_viral_infection_type_/1462425", "title"=>"Clinical attributes by viral infection type.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:50:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2147151"], "description"=>"<p>Values that were significantly different (p<0.05) when compared to reference values are indicated by the symbol †. Numbers of RSV and MPV infections are smaller than <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0130233#pone.0130233.t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> because analysis was restricted to infections occurring during the RSV or MPV season among children who were observed and at risk during each season.</p><p>Risk factors for specific viral infections.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Human Metapneumovirus Infections", "rr", "Peru IntroductionThe disease burden", "lrti", "September 2011. Nasal swabs", "Respiratory Syncytial Virus", "risk factors", "MPV ARI", "ci", "infection", "effects Poisson regression.ResultsAmong 892", "1 st quartile residents", "rsv"], "article_id"=>1462427, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Andrew Wu", "Philip J. Budge", "John Williams", "Marie R. Griffin", "Kathryn M. Edwards", "Monika Johnson", "Yuwei Zhu", "Stella Hartinger", "Hector Verastegui", "Ana I. Gil", "Claudio F. Lanata", "Carlos G. Grijalva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130233.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Risk_factors_for_specific_viral_infections_/1462427", "title"=>"Risk factors for specific viral infections.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:50:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2147153"], "description"=>"<div><p>Introduction</p><p>The disease burden and risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (MPV) infections among children living in remote, rural areas remain unclear.</p><p>Materials and Methods</p><p>We conducted a prospective, household-based cohort study of children aged <3 years living in remote rural highland communities in San Marcos, Cajamarca, Peru. Acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), including lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), were monitored through weekly household visits from March 2009 through September 2011. Nasal swabs collected during ARI/LRTI were tested for RSV, MPV, and other respiratory viruses using real-time RT-PCR. Incidence rates and rate ratios were calculated using mixed effects Poisson regression.</p><p>Results</p><p>Among 892 enrolled children, incidence rates of RSV and MPV ARI were 30 and 17 episodes per 100 child-years, respectively. The proportions of RSV and MPV ARI that presented as LRTI were 12.5% and 8.9%, respectively. Clinic visits for ARI and hospitalizations were significantly more frequent (all p values <0.05) among children with RSV (clinic 41% and hospital 5.3%) and MPV ARI (38% and 3.5%) when compared with other viral infections (23% and 0.7%) and infections without virus detected (24% and 0.6%). In multivariable analysis, risk factors for RSV detection included younger age (RR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00-1.03), the presence of a smoker in the house (RR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.12-2.38), residing at higher altitudes (RR 1.93, 95% CI: 1.25-3.00 for 2<sup>nd</sup> compared to 1<sup>st</sup> quartile residents; RR 1.98, 95% CI: 1.26-3.13 for 3<sup>rd</sup> compared to 1<sup>st</sup> quartile residents). Having an unemployed household head was significantly associated with MPV risk (RR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.12-4.01).</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>In rural high altitude communities in Peru, childhood ARI due to RSV or MPV were common and associated with higher morbidity than ARI due to other viruses or with no viral detections. The risk factors identified in this study may be considered for interventional studies to control infections by these viruses among young children from developing countries.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Human Metapneumovirus Infections", "rr", "Peru IntroductionThe disease burden", "lrti", "September 2011. Nasal swabs", "Respiratory Syncytial Virus", "risk factors", "MPV ARI", "ci", "infection", "effects Poisson regression.ResultsAmong 892", "1 st quartile residents", "rsv"], "article_id"=>1462429, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Andrew Wu", "Philip J. Budge", "John Williams", "Marie R. Griffin", "Kathryn M. Edwards", "Monika Johnson", "Yuwei Zhu", "Stella Hartinger", "Hector Verastegui", "Ana I. Gil", "Claudio F. Lanata", "Carlos G. Grijalva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130233", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Incidence_and_Risk_Factors_for_Respiratory_Syncytial_Virus_and_Human_Metapneumovirus_Infections_among_Children_in_the_Remote_Highlands_of_Peru_/1462429", "title"=>"Incidence and Risk Factors for Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus Infections among Children in the Remote Highlands of Peru", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:50:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2147146"], "description"=>"<p>Data are displayed as percentages (95% CI) unless otherwise noted.</p><p>RSV and MPV values were calculated using infections either with RSV + no MPV or MPV + no RSV. Therefore, this data do not necessarily reflect isolated infections. The two RSV+MPV episodes were not included for this table. 42% of RSV ARI and 33% of MPV ARI were co-detected with other study viruses. “Other Viral” ARI included rhinovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza (types 1, 2, 3), and influenza (A, B, C).</p><p>Demographics and characteristics associated with ARI episodes by virus type.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Human Metapneumovirus Infections", "rr", "Peru IntroductionThe disease burden", "lrti", "September 2011. Nasal swabs", "Respiratory Syncytial Virus", "risk factors", "MPV ARI", "ci", "infection", "effects Poisson regression.ResultsAmong 892", "1 st quartile residents", "rsv"], "article_id"=>1462422, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Andrew Wu", "Philip J. Budge", "John Williams", "Marie R. Griffin", "Kathryn M. Edwards", "Monika Johnson", "Yuwei Zhu", "Stella Hartinger", "Hector Verastegui", "Ana I. Gil", "Claudio F. Lanata", "Carlos G. Grijalva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130233.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographics_and_characteristics_associated_with_ARI_episodes_by_virus_type_/1462422", "title"=>"Demographics and characteristics associated with ARI episodes by virus type.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 03:50:22"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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