pvsR: An Open Source Interface to Big Data on the American Political Sphere
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{"title"=>"pvsR: An open source interface to big data on the american political sphere", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ulrich", "last_name"=>"Matter", "scopus_author_id"=>"56800597000"}, {"first_name"=>"Alois", "last_name"=>"Stutzer", "scopus_author_id"=>"56223307000"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84940056531", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0130501", "sgr"=>"84940056531", "pmid"=>"26132154", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"605761576"}, "id"=>"e76e9419-766d-37ea-9c01-39503273a339", "abstract"=>"Digital data from the political sphere is abundant, omnipresent, and more and more directly accessible through the Internet. Project Vote Smart (PVS) is a prominent example of this big public data and covers various aspects of U.S. politics in astonishing detail. Despite the vast potential of PVS’ data for political science, economics, and sociology, it is hardly used in empirical research. The systematic compilation of semi-structured data can be complicated and time consuming as the data format is not designed for conventional scientific research. This paper presents a new tool that makes the data easily accessible to a broad scientific community. We provide the software called pvsR as an add-on to the R programming environment for statistical computing. This open source interface (OSI) serves as a direct link between a statistical analysis and the large PVS database. The free and open code is expected to substantially reduce the cost of research with PVS’ new big public data in a vast variety of possible applications. We discuss its advantages vis-à-vis traditional methods of data generation as well as already existing interfaces. The validity of the library is documented based on an illustration involving female representation in local politics. In addition, pvsR facilitates the replication of research with PVS data at low costs, including the pre-processing of data. Similar OSIs are recommended for other big public databases.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/pvsr-open-source-interface-big-data-american-political-sphere", "reader_count"=>21, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>12, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>12}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Luxembourg"=>1, "Finland"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158156"], "description"=>"<p><i>Notes:</i> Reinold-Tilford tree-graph representing the document structure of data returned from two CandidateBio.getBio queries. The nodes in the graph represent XML-elements (-tags). The edges represent parent-child relationships between nodes/elements and thereby capture the nested structure of the documents. <i>Data source:</i> Own compilation based on Project Vote Smart.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["R programming environment", "data generation", "source interface", "PVS database", "U.S", "research", "project Vote Smart", "Similar OSIs", "Sphere Digital data", "data format", "Big Data", "Open Source Interface", "PVS data"], "article_id"=>1470432, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ulrich Matter", "Alois Stutzer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130501.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tree_structure_of_PVS_data_I_/1470432", "title"=>"Tree structure of PVS data I.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:13:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158154"], "description"=>"<p><i>Notes:</i> Effect plots based on the estimated logit model with specification (3) presented in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0130501#pone.0130501.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. The y-axis is labelled on the probability scale. The red error bars display a 95-percent confidence interval around the estimated effect. <i>Data source:</i> Own compilation based on Project Vote Smart.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["R programming environment", "data generation", "source interface", "PVS database", "U.S", "research", "project Vote Smart", "Similar OSIs", "Sphere Digital data", "data format", "Big Data", "Open Source Interface", "PVS data"], "article_id"=>1470430, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ulrich Matter", "Alois Stutzer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130501.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_plots_/1470430", "title"=>"Effect plots.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:13:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158150"], "description"=>"<p><i>Data sources:</i> Own compilation based on Project Vote Smart using pvsR.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["R programming environment", "data generation", "source interface", "PVS database", "U.S", "research", "project Vote Smart", "Similar OSIs", "Sphere Digital data", "data format", "Big Data", "Open Source Interface", "PVS data"], "article_id"=>1470426, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ulrich Matter", "Alois Stutzer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130501.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_current_share_of_women_in_county_legislative_offices_across_the_United_States_/1470426", "title"=>"The current share of women in county legislative offices across the United States.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:13:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158159"], "description"=>"<p><i>Notes:</i> Reinold-Tilford tree-graph representing the document structure of data returned from a Votes.getBill query. The nodes in the graph represent XML-elements (-tags). The edges represent parent-child relationships between nodes/elements and thereby capture the nested structure of the documents. Adjacent parallel edges between the same two nodes represent the number of leaves contained in the child node. <i>Data source:</i> Own compilation based on Project Vote Smart.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["R programming environment", "data generation", "source interface", "PVS database", "U.S", "research", "project Vote Smart", "Similar OSIs", "Sphere Digital data", "data format", "Big Data", "Open Source Interface", "PVS data"], "article_id"=>1470435, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ulrich Matter", "Alois Stutzer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130501.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tree_structure_of_PVS_data_II_/1470435", "title"=>"Tree structure of PVS data II.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:13:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158152"], "description"=>"<p><i>Notes:</i> Graphical display of the association between the professional backround of a legislator and his or her voting behavior (based on a Pearson chi-squared test of independence, p-value reported in plot). The width of the cells represents the relative share of the professional background categories, while the hight of the cells refers to the proportion of votes within each category. The shading of the cells refers to the sign and magnitude of the respective Pearson residuals. Additionally, the number of observations per cell is presented. <i>Data source:</i> Own compilation based on Project Vote Smart.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["R programming environment", "data generation", "source interface", "PVS database", "U.S", "research", "project Vote Smart", "Similar OSIs", "Sphere Digital data", "data format", "Big Data", "Open Source Interface", "PVS data"], "article_id"=>1470428, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ulrich Matter", "Alois Stutzer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130501.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mosaic_plot_of_votes_by_professional_background_/1470428", "title"=>"Mosaic plot of votes by professional background.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:13:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158147"], "description"=>"<p>Open source interface to an API.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["R programming environment", "data generation", "source interface", "PVS database", "U.S", "research", "project Vote Smart", "Similar OSIs", "Sphere Digital data", "data format", "Big Data", "Open Source Interface", "PVS data"], "article_id"=>1470423, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ulrich Matter", "Alois Stutzer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130501.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Open_source_interface_to_an_API_/1470423", "title"=>"Open source interface to an API.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:13:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158161", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158162", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158163", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158164"], "description"=>"<div><p>Digital data from the political sphere is abundant, omnipresent, and more and more directly accessible through the Internet. Project Vote Smart (PVS) is a prominent example of this big public data and covers various aspects of U.S. politics in astonishing detail. Despite the vast potential of PVS’ data for political science, economics, and sociology, it is hardly used in empirical research. The systematic compilation of semi-structured data can be complicated and time consuming as the data format is not designed for conventional scientific research. This paper presents a new tool that makes the data easily accessible to a broad scientific community. We provide the software called pvsR as an add-on to the R programming environment for statistical computing. This open source interface (OSI) serves as a direct link between a statistical analysis and the large PVS database. The free and open code is expected to substantially reduce the cost of research with PVS’ new big public data in a vast variety of possible applications. We discuss its advantages vis-à-vis traditional methods of data generation as well as already existing interfaces. The validity of the library is documented based on an illustration involving female representation in local politics. In addition, pvsR facilitates the replication of research with PVS data at low costs, including the pre-processing of data. Similar OSIs are recommended for other big public databases.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["R programming environment", "data generation", "source interface", "PVS database", "U.S", "research", "project Vote Smart", "Similar OSIs", "Sphere Digital data", "data format", "Big Data", "Open Source Interface", "PVS data"], "article_id"=>1470437, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ulrich Matter", "Alois Stutzer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130501.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130501.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130501.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130501.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_pvsR_An_Open_Source_Interface_to_Big_Data_on_the_American_Political_Sphere_/1470437", "title"=>"pvsR: An Open Source Interface to Big Data on the American Political Sphere", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:13:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158146"], "description"=>"<p>APIs as part of a dynamic website.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["R programming environment", "data generation", "source interface", "PVS database", "U.S", "research", "project Vote Smart", "Similar OSIs", "Sphere Digital data", "data format", "Big Data", "Open Source Interface", "PVS data"], "article_id"=>1470422, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ulrich Matter", "Alois Stutzer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130501.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_APIs_as_part_of_a_dynamic_website_/1470422", "title"=>"APIs as part of a dynamic website.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:13:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2158160"], "description"=>"<p><i>Notes:</i> Estimated logit models. Standard errors are in parentheses. Statistical significance: * 0.1>p>0.05, ** 0.05>p>0.01 and *** p<0.01. <i>Data source:</i> Own compilation based on Project Vote Smart.</p><p>Voting behavior in the U.S. Congress on the tort reform bill HR 2366.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["R programming environment", "data generation", "source interface", "PVS database", "U.S", "research", "project Vote Smart", "Similar OSIs", "Sphere Digital data", "data format", "Big Data", "Open Source Interface", "PVS data"], "article_id"=>1470436, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ulrich Matter", "Alois Stutzer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130501.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Voting_behavior_in_the_U_S_Congress_on_the_tort_reform_bill_HR_2366_/1470436", "title"=>"Voting behavior in the U.S. Congress on the tort reform bill HR 2366.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-01 03:13:15"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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