An Analysis of Predator Selection to Affect Aposematic Coloration in a Poison Frog Species
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{"title"=>"An analysis of predator selection to affect aposematic coloration in a poison frog species", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Corinna E.", "last_name"=>"Dreher", "scopus_author_id"=>"56747720800"}, {"first_name"=>"Molly E.", "last_name"=>"Cummings", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202375104"}, {"first_name"=>"Heike", "last_name"=>"Pröhl", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603065471"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84938397760", "sgr"=>"84938397760", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"26110826", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0130571", "pui"=>"605398444"}, "id"=>"b16f1f53-d27c-327c-8339-fe773c17b2f5", "abstract"=>"Natural selection is widely noted to drive divergence of phenotypic traits. Predation pres-sure can facilitate morphological divergence, for example the evolution of both cryptic and conspicuous coloration in animals. In this context Dendrobatid frogs have been used to study evolutionary forces inducing diversity in protective coloration. The polytypic straw-berry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio) shows strong divergence in aposematic coloration among populations. To investigate whether predation pressure is important for color diver-gence among populations of O. pumilio we selected four mainland populations and two island populations from Costa Rica and Panama. Spectrometric measurements of body col-oration were used to calculate color and brightness contrasts of frogs as an indicator of con-spicuousness for the visual systems of several potential predators (avian, crab and snake) and a conspecific observer. Additionally, we conducted experiments using clay model frogs of different coloration to investigate whether the local coloration of frogs is better protected than non-local color morphs, and if predator communities vary among populations. Overall predation risk differed strongly among populations and interestingly was higher on the two island populations. Imprints on clay models indicated that birds are the main predators while attacks of other predators were rare. Furthermore, clay models of local coloration were equally likely to be attacked as those of non-local coloration. Overall conspicuousness (and brightness contrast) of local frogs was positively correlated with attack rates by birds across populations. Together with results from earlier studies we conclude that conspicu-ousness honestly indicates toxicity to avian predators. The different coloration patterns among populations of strawberry poison frogs in combination with behavior and toxicity might integrate into equally efficient anti-predator strategies depending on local predation and other ecological factors.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/analysis-predator-selection-affect-aposematic-coloration-poison-frog-species", "reader_count"=>64, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>48, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>48}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Costa Rica"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148780"], "description"=>"<p>The correlation is highly significant (r = Spearman rank correlation coefficient).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predator", "island populations", "context Dendrobatid frogs", "divergence", "clay model frogs", "polytypic strawberry poison frog", "clay models", "Poison Frog Species Natural selection", "coloration", "strawberry poison frogs"], "article_id"=>1463611, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Corinna E. Dreher", "Molly E. Cummings", "Heike Pröhl"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130571.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_between_dorsal_overall_conspicuousness_of_local_frogs_for_avian_eyes_and_avian_predation_on_clay_frogs_across_frog_populations_/1463611", "title"=>"Correlation between dorsal overall conspicuousness of local frogs for avian eyes and avian predation on clay frogs across frog populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-25 02:53:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148779"], "description"=>"<p>Overall number of attacks on clay frogs from all six studied populations of <i>O</i>. <i>pumilio</i>. <b>+</b> P < 0.10; <b>*</b> P < 0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predator", "island populations", "context Dendrobatid frogs", "divergence", "clay model frogs", "polytypic strawberry poison frog", "clay models", "Poison Frog Species Natural selection", "coloration", "strawberry poison frogs"], "article_id"=>1463610, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Corinna E. Dreher", "Molly E. Cummings", "Heike Pröhl"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130571.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predation_on_clay_frogs_of_different_colors_/1463610", "title"=>"Predation on clay frogs of different colors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-25 02:53:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148781"], "description"=>"<p>Results (P-values) of generalized linear models (GLM´s), which tested whether there was an effect of population, coloration of clay frogs or clay frog origin (local versus non-local coloration) on the attack rate of different predators.</p><p>Effects of frog population, clay frogs coloration and origin on the attack rate of different predator on clay frogs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predator", "island populations", "context Dendrobatid frogs", "divergence", "clay model frogs", "polytypic strawberry poison frog", "clay models", "Poison Frog Species Natural selection", "coloration", "strawberry poison frogs"], "article_id"=>1463612, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Corinna E. Dreher", "Molly E. Cummings", "Heike Pröhl"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130571.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_frog_population_clay_frogs_coloration_and_origin_on_the_attack_rate_of_different_predator_on_clay_frogs_/1463612", "title"=>"Effects of frog population, clay frogs coloration and origin on the attack rate of different predator on clay frogs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-25 02:53:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148778"], "description"=>"<p>Bar coloration indicates the predator category the attack was assigned to. Light grey: U- and V-shaped attack marks caused by birds; grey: holes and scratches potentially caused by birds; and black: non-bird predation. Isla Colón and Isla Solarte are island populations, while all others are located on the main land.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predator", "island populations", "context Dendrobatid frogs", "divergence", "clay model frogs", "polytypic strawberry poison frog", "clay models", "Poison Frog Species Natural selection", "coloration", "strawberry poison frogs"], "article_id"=>1463609, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Corinna E. Dreher", "Molly E. Cummings", "Heike Pröhl"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130571.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_predation_events_in_each_population_/1463609", "title"=>"Number of predation events in each population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-25 02:53:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148777"], "description"=>"<p>Graphs show average color and brightness contrasts of dorsal and ventral measurements of reflectance, normalized for each observer. Circles indicate mean values for brightness and color contrasts, bars show standard deviation of means for each population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predator", "island populations", "context Dendrobatid frogs", "divergence", "clay model frogs", "polytypic strawberry poison frog", "clay models", "Poison Frog Species Natural selection", "coloration", "strawberry poison frogs"], "article_id"=>1463608, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Corinna E. Dreher", "Molly E. Cummings", "Heike Pröhl"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130571.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visual_conspicuousness_of_O_pumilio_from_the_study_populations_for_three_different_heterospecific_avian_snake_and_crab_and_a_conspecific_observer_/1463608", "title"=>"Visual conspicuousness of <i>O</i>. <i>pumilio</i> from the study populations for three different heterospecific (avian, snake and crab) and a conspecific observer.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-25 02:53:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148784", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148785", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148786", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148787", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148788", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148789", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148790", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148791"], "description"=>"<div><p>Natural selection is widely noted to drive divergence of phenotypic traits. Predation pressure can facilitate morphological divergence, for example the evolution of both cryptic and conspicuous coloration in animals. In this context Dendrobatid frogs have been used to study evolutionary forces inducing diversity in protective coloration. The polytypic strawberry poison frog (<i>Oophaga pumilio</i>) shows strong divergence in aposematic coloration among populations. To investigate whether predation pressure is important for color divergence among populations of <i>O</i>. <i>pumilio</i> we selected four mainland populations and two island populations from Costa Rica and Panama. Spectrometric measurements of body coloration were used to calculate color and brightness contrasts of frogs as an indicator of conspicuousness for the visual systems of several potential predators (avian, crab and snake) and a conspecific observer. Additionally, we conducted experiments using clay model frogs of different coloration to investigate whether the local coloration of frogs is better protected than non-local color morphs, and if predator communities vary among populations. Overall predation risk differed strongly among populations and interestingly was higher on the two island populations. Imprints on clay models indicated that birds are the main predators while attacks of other predators were rare. Furthermore, clay models of local coloration were equally likely to be attacked as those of non-local coloration. Overall conspicuousness (and brightness contrast) of local frogs was positively correlated with attack rates by birds across populations. Together with results from earlier studies we conclude that conspicuousness honestly indicates toxicity to avian predators. The different coloration patterns among populations of strawberry poison frogs in combination with behavior and toxicity might integrate into equally efficient anti-predator strategies depending on local predation and other ecological factors.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predator", "island populations", "context Dendrobatid frogs", "divergence", "clay model frogs", "polytypic strawberry poison frog", "clay models", "Poison Frog Species Natural selection", "coloration", "strawberry poison frogs"], "article_id"=>1463615, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Corinna E. Dreher", "Molly E. Cummings", "Heike Pröhl"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130571.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130571.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130571.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130571.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130571.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130571.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130571.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130571.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>17, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_Analysis_of_Predator_Selection_to_Affect_Aposematic_Coloration_in_a_Poison_Frog_Species_/1463615", "title"=>"An Analysis of Predator Selection to Affect Aposematic Coloration in a Poison Frog Species", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-06-25 02:53:34"}

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