The Fractal Patterns of Words in a Text: A Method for Automatic Keyword Extraction
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{"title"=>"The fractal patterns of words in a text: A method for automatic keyword extraction", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Elham", "last_name"=>"Najafi", "scopus_author_id"=>"56779793100"}, {"first_name"=>"Amir H.", "last_name"=>"Darooneh", "scopus_author_id"=>"8521486400"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"605586353", "pmid"=>"26091207", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0130617", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84939182588", "sgr"=>"84939182588"}, "id"=>"a6e58a9e-ee59-3fca-a510-ccec6e4b96ad", "abstract"=>"A text can be considered as a one dimensional array of words. The locations of each word type in this array form a fractal pattern with certain fractal dimension. We observe that important words responsible for conveying the meaning of a text have dimensions considerably different from one, while the fractal dimensions of unimportant words are close to one. We introduce an index quantifying the importance of the words in a given text using their fractal dimensions and then ranking them according to their importance. This index measures the difference between the fractal pattern of a word in the original text relative to a shuffled version. Because the shuffled text is meaningless (i.e., words have no importance), the difference between the original and shuffled text can be used to ascertain degree of fractality. The degree of fractality may be used for automatic keyword detection. Words with the degree of fractality higher than a threshold value are assumed to be the retrieved keywords of the text. We measure the efficiency of our method for keywords extraction, making a comparison between our proposed method and two other well-known methods of automatic keyword extraction.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/fractal-patterns-words-text-method-automatic-keyword-extraction", "reader_count"=>24, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Psychology"=>2, "Computer Science"=>11, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>11}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2126839"], "description"=>"<p>Frequency of each word is inversely proportional to its rank in form of power law. The Zipf curve follows a straight line with a slope of −1.01 when plotted on a double-logarithmic scale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fractal dimensions", "method", "importance", "Automatic Keyword Extraction", "keyword", "fractal pattern", "fractality"], "article_id"=>1454924, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elham Najafi", "Amir H. Darooneh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130617.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Zipf_s_law_for_the_book_The_Origin_of_Species_/1454924", "title"=>"Zipf’s law for the book <i>The Origin of Species</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-19 03:10:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2126841"], "description"=>"<p>Size of vocabulary increases as size of text increases, in form of power law. The Heap curve follows a straight line with a slope of 0.73 when plotted on a double-logarithmic scale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fractal dimensions", "method", "importance", "Automatic Keyword Extraction", "keyword", "fractal pattern", "fractality"], "article_id"=>1454926, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elham Najafi", "Amir H. Darooneh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130617.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Heap_s_law_for_the_book_The_Origin_of_Species_/1454926", "title"=>"Heap’s law for the book <i>The Origin of Species</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-19 03:10:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2126842"], "description"=>"<p>The number of words that is placed in a box, is the box-size. Box-Size for first row is equal to 2 and for the second and third rows are 4 and 8 respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fractal dimensions", "method", "importance", "Automatic Keyword Extraction", "keyword", "fractal pattern", "fractality"], "article_id"=>1454927, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elham Najafi", "Amir H. Darooneh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130617.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_of_how_an_instance_text_is_devided_into_boxes_/1454927", "title"=>"Schematic of how an instance text is devided into boxes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-19 03:10:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2126845"], "description"=>"<p>As seen, distributions in all scales, <i>s</i> = 1, <i>s</i> = 256 and <i>s</i> = 1024, are statistically the same. They have similar clusters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fractal dimensions", "method", "importance", "Automatic Keyword Extraction", "keyword", "fractal pattern", "fractality"], "article_id"=>1454930, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elham Najafi", "Amir H. Darooneh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130617.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_distribution_of_HYBRID_in_the_book_The_Origin_of_Species_for_three_different_scales_/1454930", "title"=>"Spatial distribution of HYBRID in the book, <i>The Origin of Species</i> for three different scales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-19 03:10:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2126846"], "description"=>"<p>According to subject of the book, hybrid is an important and the rarely is an irrelevant word, both of them have the same frequency equal to 45. rarely is distributed in the text, uniformly but,hybrid is clustered.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fractal dimensions", "method", "importance", "Automatic Keyword Extraction", "keyword", "fractal pattern", "fractality"], "article_id"=>1454931, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elham Najafi", "Amir H. Darooneh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130617.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_distribution_of_two_words_HYBRID_and_RARELY_in_the_book_The_Origin_of_Species_/1454931", "title"=>"Spatial distribution of two words, HYBRID and RARELY, in the book, <i>The Origin of Species</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-19 03:10:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2126847"], "description"=>"<p>The dashed line and dash dotted line demonstrate the power law regression. The fractal dimension is about 0.4 for hybrid and is close to 0.8 for rarely. The box counting result of cell and actually is also showed. The fractal dimension is about 0.4 for cell and is close to 0.8 for actually.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fractal dimensions", "method", "importance", "Automatic Keyword Extraction", "keyword", "fractal pattern", "fractality"], "article_id"=>1454932, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elham Najafi", "Amir H. Darooneh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130617.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_box_counting_for_HYBRID_and_RARELY_/1454932", "title"=>"Results of box counting for, HYBRID and RARELY.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-19 03:10:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2126848"], "description"=>"<p>\nhybrid is an important word in the book, <i>The Origin of Species</i>. So, there is a considerable difference between box-counting of this word in the original and shuffled text.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fractal dimensions", "method", "importance", "Automatic Keyword Extraction", "keyword", "fractal pattern", "fractality"], "article_id"=>1454933, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elham Najafi", "Amir H. Darooneh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130617.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_box_counting_for_distribution_of_HYBRID_in_the_original_and_shuffled_text_/1454933", "title"=>"Results of box counting for distribution of HYBRID in the original and shuffled text.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-19 03:10:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2126849"], "description"=>"<p>The curves correspond to box counting result for these two words in the original and shuffled text. The area corresponds to cell is bigger than the case of hybrid. cell is more important than hybrid in the book <i>The Origin of Species</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fractal dimensions", "method", "importance", "Automatic Keyword Extraction", "keyword", "fractal pattern", "fractality"], "article_id"=>1454934, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elham Najafi", "Amir H. Darooneh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130617.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Area_which_is_bounded_between_two_curves_for_CELL_and_HYBRID_in_the_box_counting_diagram_/1454934", "title"=>"Area which is bounded between two curves for CELL and HYBRID in the box counting diagram.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-19 03:10:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2126852"], "description"=>"<p>The fractal method has the highest value of Recall in all frequencies and higher value of Precision than C Value method.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fractal dimensions", "method", "importance", "Automatic Keyword Extraction", "keyword", "fractal pattern", "fractality"], "article_id"=>1454936, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elham Najafi", "Amir H. Darooneh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130617.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_calculating_Recall_and_Precision_with_Herrera_and_Purri_approach_for_the_book_The_Origin_of_Species_for_10_cut_off_frequencies_/1454936", "title"=>"Results of calculating Recall and Precision with Herrera and Purri approach for the book <i>The Origin of Species</i> for 10 cut-off frequencies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-19 03:10:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2126854"], "description"=>"<p>The fractal method has the highest value of Recall and precision in all vocabulary fractions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fractal dimensions", "method", "importance", "Automatic Keyword Extraction", "keyword", "fractal pattern", "fractality"], "article_id"=>1454937, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elham Najafi", "Amir H. Darooneh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130617.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_calculating_Recall_and_Precision_with_Mehri_and_Darooneh_approach_for_the_book_The_Origin_of_Species_/1454937", "title"=>"Results of calculating Recall and Precision with Mehri and Darooneh approach for the book <i>The Origin of Species</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-19 03:10:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2126855"], "description"=>"<p>Words with high degree of fractality are important words according to subject of the book and common words have low degree of fractality. The string <i>un</i> which is placed in the second row of list of top-ranked words is a French determinant which appears four times in a single sentence. So, it is highly clustered and has high value of fractality. Because we do not perform any pre-processing to eliminate foreign words, this word appears in the list.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fractal dimensions", "method", "importance", "Automatic Keyword Extraction", "keyword", "fractal pattern", "fractality"], "article_id"=>1454938, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elham Najafi", "Amir H. Darooneh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130617.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_the_twenty_top_ranked_words_according_to_degree_of_fractality_left_and_the_first_twenty_frequent_words_right_from_the_book_The_Origin_of_Species_/1454938", "title"=>"List of the twenty top-ranked words according to degree of fractality (left) and the first twenty frequent words (right) from the book <i>The Origin of Species</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-19 03:10:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2126856"], "description"=>"<p>These words are important according to the subject of the book. The word, <i>f</i> is related to some classification of species such as f8, f10, f14, … and some proper names. <i>f</i> is kept because non-alphabetical characters are removed in our method.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fractal dimensions", "method", "importance", "Automatic Keyword Extraction", "keyword", "fractal pattern", "fractality"], "article_id"=>1454939, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elham Najafi", "Amir H. Darooneh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130617.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_the_twenty_top_ranked_words_according_to_Combined_Measure_from_the_book_The_Origin_of_Species_/1454939", "title"=>"List of the twenty top-ranked words according to Combined Measure from the book <i>The Origin of Species</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-19 03:10:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2126857"], "description"=>"<p>Words with equal Combined Measures take equal ranks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fractal dimensions", "method", "importance", "Automatic Keyword Extraction", "keyword", "fractal pattern", "fractality"], "article_id"=>1454940, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elham Najafi", "Amir H. Darooneh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130617.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_ten_words_and_their_ranks_from_the_book_The_Origin_of_Species_/1454940", "title"=>"List of ten words and their ranks from the book <i>The Origin of Species</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-19 03:10:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2126858"], "description"=>"<p><i>N</i><sub><i>v</i></sub> and <i>N</i><sub><i>g</i></sub> are the number of vocabulary words from the book and number of glossary words for each cut-off frequency, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fractal dimensions", "method", "importance", "Automatic Keyword Extraction", "keyword", "fractal pattern", "fractality"], "article_id"=>1454941, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elham Najafi", "Amir H. Darooneh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130617.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_vocabulary_words_and_number_of_glossary_words_for_various_cut_off_frequencies_/1454941", "title"=>"Number of vocabulary words and number of glossary words for various cut-off frequencies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-19 03:10:16"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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