A Comparative Study of Early Afterdepolarization-Mediated Fibrillation in Two Mathematical Models for Human Ventricular Cells
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{"title"=>"A comparative study of early afterdepolarization-mediated fibrillation in two mathematical models for human ventricular cells", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Soling", "last_name"=>"Zimik", "scopus_author_id"=>"56764413600"}, {"first_name"=>"Nele", "last_name"=>"Vandersickel", "scopus_author_id"=>"16833869500"}, {"first_name"=>"Alok Ranjan", "last_name"=>"Nayak", "scopus_author_id"=>"26421359300"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexander V.", "last_name"=>"Panfilov", "scopus_author_id"=>"35585363900"}, {"first_name"=>"Rahul", "last_name"=>"Pandit", "scopus_author_id"=>"56261443900"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"605481014", "sgr"=>"84938614582", "pmid"=>"26125185", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84938614582", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0130632", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"b9381c0a-50b0-3ad2-ac55-04677ef8992f", "abstract"=>"Early afterdepolarizations (EADs), which are abnormal oscillations of the membrane potential at the plateau phase of an action potential, are implicated in the development of cardiac arrhythmias like Torsade de Pointes. We carry out extensive numerical simulations of the TP06 and ORd mathematical models for human ventricular cells with EADs. We investigate the different regimes in both these models, namely, the parameter regimes where they exhibit (1) a normal action potential (AP) with no EADs, (2) an AP with EADs, and (3) an AP with EADs that does not go back to the resting potential. We also study the dependence of EADs on the rate of at which we pace a cell, with the specific goal of elucidating EADs that are induced by slow or fast rate pacing. In our simulations in two- and three-dimensional domains, in the presence of EADs, we find the following wave types: (A) waves driven by the fast sodium current and the L-type calcium current (Na-Ca-mediated waves); (B) waves driven only by the L-type calcium current (Ca-mediated waves); (C) phase waves, which are pseudo-travelling waves. Furthermore, we compare the wave patterns of the various wave-types (Na-Ca-mediated, Ca-mediated, and phase waves) in both these models. We find that the two models produce qualitatively similar results in terms of exhibiting Na-Ca-mediated wave patterns that are more chaotic than those for the Ca-mediated and phase waves. However, there are quantitative differences in the wave patterns of each wave type. The Na-Ca-mediated waves in the ORd model show short-lived spirals but the TP06 model does not. The TP06 model supports more Ca-mediated spirals than those in the ORd model, and the TP06 model exhibits more phase-wave patterns than does the ORd model.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/comparative-study-early-afterdepolarizationmediated-fibrillation-two-mathematical-models-human-ventr", "reader_count"=>15, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Mathematics"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156623"], "description"=>"<p>The dependence on PCL of the EAD region for the ORd (left panel) and TP06 (right panel) models. Note that the red region, EAD associated with AP type-(2), shrinks in the ORd model as PCL decreases; by contrast, it expands in the TP06 model as PCL decreases.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469120, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PCL_dependence_of_EAD_regions_in_the_ORd_and_TP06_models_/1469120", "title"=>"PCL dependence of EAD regions in the ORd and TP06 models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156684", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156685", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156686", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156687", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156688", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156689", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156690", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156691"], "description"=>"<div><p>Early afterdepolarizations (EADs), which are abnormal oscillations of the membrane potential at the plateau phase of an action potential, are implicated in the development of cardiac arrhythmias like Torsade de Pointes. We carry out extensive numerical simulations of the TP06 and ORd mathematical models for human ventricular cells with EADs. We investigate the different regimes in both these models, namely, the parameter regimes where they exhibit (1) a normal action potential (AP) with no EADs, (2) an AP with EADs, and (3) an AP with EADs that does not go back to the resting potential. We also study the dependence of EADs on the rate of at which we pace a cell, with the specific goal of elucidating EADs that are induced by slow or fast rate pacing. In our simulations in two- and three-dimensional domains, in the presence of EADs, we find the following wave types: (A) waves driven by the fast sodium current and the L-type calcium current (Na-Ca-mediated waves); (B) waves driven only by the L-type calcium current (Ca-mediated waves); (C) phase waves, which are pseudo-travelling waves. Furthermore, we compare the wave patterns of the various wave-types (Na-Ca-mediated, Ca-mediated, and phase waves) in both these models. We find that the two models produce qualitatively similar results in terms of exhibiting Na-Ca-mediated wave patterns that are more chaotic than those for the Ca-mediated and phase waves. However, there are quantitative differences in the wave patterns of each wave type. The Na-Ca-mediated waves in the ORd model show short-lived spirals but the TP06 model does not. The TP06 model supports more Ca-mediated spirals than those in the ORd model, and the TP06 model exhibits more phase-wave patterns than does the ORd model.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469179, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Comparative_Study_of_Early_Afterdepolarization_Mediated_Fibrillation_in_Two_Mathematical_Models_for_Human_Ventricular_Cells_/1469179", "title"=>"A Comparative Study of Early Afterdepolarization-Mediated Fibrillation in Two Mathematical Models for Human Ventricular Cells", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156632"], "description"=>"<p>Plots of V<sub>m</sub> versus time for the ORd (a1) and TP06 (b1) models. The second row, (a2) ORd and (b2) TP06, shows the averaged power spectra of the time-series; these spectra are obtained by averaging the spectra of time-series of V<sub>m</sub> over 2500 grid points. Parameter sets: ORd: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 4 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.37; TP06: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 3.5 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.8.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469129, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_series_and_power_spectra_of_Na_Ca_mediated_waves_/1469129", "title"=>"Time-series and power spectra of Na-Ca-mediated waves:", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156631"], "description"=>"<p>The left and right panels show the time evolution of typical wave patterns of Na-Ca-mediated wave-types in the ORd and TP06 models, respectively. The parameter sets for the two models are as follows. ORd: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 4 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.37; TP06: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 3 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.5.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469128, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Typical_wave_patterns_of_Na_Ca_mediated_waves_in_the_ORd_and_TP06_models_/1469128", "title"=>"Typical wave patterns of Na-Ca-mediated waves in the ORd and TP06 models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156629"], "description"=>"<p>Pseudocolor plots of V<sub>m</sub>, at representative times between 10ms and 450ms, illustrating the elimination of Na-Ca-mediated and Ca-mediated waves by a mesh that divides the simulation domain into squares of 32 × 32 grid points. We set the diffusion constant to zero at the boundaries of the squares. Note that phase waves (row 3) are not eliminated by this mesh. The parameter sets are as follows. Na-Ca-mediated wave: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 4 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.37; Ca-mediated wave: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 2 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.175; phase wave: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 5 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.225.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469126, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustration_of_the_time_evolution_of_the_three_wave_types_in_the_ORd_model_with_obstacles_/1469126", "title"=>"Illustration of the time evolution of the three wave-types in the ORd model with obstacles:", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156626"], "description"=>"<p>Pseudocolor plots of V<sub>m</sub> (top row), I<sub>Na</sub> (middle row), and I<sub>CaL</sub> (bottom row) illustrating Na-Ca-mediated (left column), Ca-mediated (middle column), and phase (right column) waves. The parameter sets are as follows. Na-Ca-mediated wave: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 4 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.37; Ca-mediated wave: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 4 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.275; phase wave: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 4 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469123, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pseudocolor_plots_depicting_the_three_types_of_spiral_fibrillations_in_the_ORd_model_/1469123", "title"=>"Pseudocolor plots depicting the three types of spiral-fibrillations in the ORd model:", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156645"], "description"=>"<p>Psedocolor plots of V<sub>m</sub> illustrating the progression of the medium into a refractory steady state when G<sub>Kr</sub> is very low such that the repolarizing power of the medium is obliterated. Parameter set: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 4 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.15.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469140, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Refractory_steady_state_/1469140", "title"=>"Refractory steady state.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156625"], "description"=>"<p>Enlarged versions of two of the stability diagrams of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632#pone.0130632.g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 3</a> (PCL = 3500ms for the ORd model and PCL = 500ms for the TP06 model) showing the types of waves, which occur at different values in the G<sub>CaL</sub>-G<sub>Kr</sub> plane, by the following symbols: yellow and magenta circles (phase waves); yellow-filled triangles (Ca-mediated waves); open squares (Na-Ca-mediated waves); yellow-filled squares (waves mediated by I<sub>Na</sub>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469122, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Points_at_which_different_types_of_waves_are_observed_in_the_G_CaL_G_Kr_parameter_space_/1469122", "title"=>"Points at which different types of waves are observed in the G<sub>CaL</sub>-G<sub>Kr</sub> parameter space.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156638"], "description"=>"<p>The left and right panels show the time evoultion of typical wave patterns of the Ca-mediated wave-type in the ORd and TP06 models, respectively. The parameter sets for the two models are as follows. ORd: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 4 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.275; TP06: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 3.5 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469135, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Typical_wave_patterns_of_Ca_mediated_waves_in_the_ORd_and_TP06_models_/1469135", "title"=>"Typical wave patterns of Ca-mediated waves in the ORd and TP06 models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156639"], "description"=>"<p>Plots of V<sub>m</sub> versus time for the ORd (a1) and TP06 (b1) models and their averaged power spectrums (a2) and (b2), respectively. Parameter sets: ORd: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 4 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.275; TP06: G<sub>cal</sub> = 5 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.6</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469136, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_series_and_power_spectra_of_Ca_mediated_waves_/1469136", "title"=>"Time-series and power spectra of Ca-mediated waves:", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156620"], "description"=>"<p>Pseudocolor plots of the membrane potential V<sub>m</sub> illustrating the growth of a wave generated by an asymmetric pulse, stimulated over a region of 0.12 × 6 cm<sup>2</sup> (6 × 300 grid points) at the lower boundary of the domain. The strength of the stimulus current is −150 <i>μ</i>A/<i>μ</i>F, applied for a duration of 3 ms.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469117, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_assymetric_pulsing_protocol_used_for_our_tissue_simulations_/1469117", "title"=>"The assymetric-pulsing protocol used for our tissue simulations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156648"], "description"=>"<p>The various ionic currents incorporated in the ORd and TP06 models are tabulated above. The symbols used for the currents follow Refs. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632#pone.0130632.ref036\" target=\"_blank\">36</a>] and [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632#pone.0130632.ref034\" target=\"_blank\">34</a>] for the ORd and TP06 models, respectively.</p><p>Table of currents.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469143, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Table_of_currents_/1469143", "title"=>"Table of currents.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156647"], "description"=>"<p>The leftmost set of figures represents the Na-Ca-mediated type; the middle represents the Ca-mediated type; the rightmost represents the phase waves. The parameter sets are as follows. Na-Ca-mediated: (ORd) G<sub>CaL</sub> = 4 and G<sub>Kr</sub> = 0.37; (TP06)G<sub>CaL</sub> = 3 and G<sub>Kr</sub> = 0. Ca-mediated: (ORd) G<sub>CaL</sub> = 4 and G<sub>Kr</sub> = 0.275; (TP06)G<sub>CaL</sub> = 4 and G<sub>Kr</sub> = 0. Phase waves: (ORd) G<sub>CaL</sub> = 4 and G<sub>Kr</sub> = 0.2; (TP06) G<sub>CaL</sub> = 6.8 and G<sub>Kr</sub> = 0.1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469142, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pseudocolor_plots_showing_V_m_on_the_surfaces_of_our_3D_domain_illustrating_the_wave_patterns_of_the_three_wave_types_in_ORd_and_TP06_models_/1469142", "title"=>"Pseudocolor plots showing V<sub>m</sub> on the surfaces of our 3D domain illustrating the wave patterns of the three wave-types in ORd and TP06 models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156644"], "description"=>"<p>Plots of V<sub>m</sub> versus time for the ORd (a1) and TP06 (b1) models and their averaged power spectra E(<i>ω</i>) (a2) and (b2), respectively. Parameter sets: ORd: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 4 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.2; TP06: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 5 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.1</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469139, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_series_and_power_spectra_of_phase_waves_/1469139", "title"=>"Time-series and power spectra of phase waves:", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156643"], "description"=>"<p>The left and right panels show the time evolution of phase waves in the ORd and TP06 models, respectively, when an assymetric pulse is applied. The parameter sets for the two models are as follows. ORd: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 4 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.2; TP06: G<sub>CaL</sub> = 5 and G<sub>kr</sub> = 0.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469138, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Typical_wave_patterns_of_phase_waves_in_the_ORd_and_TP06_models_/1469138", "title"=>"Typical wave patterns of phase waves in the ORd and TP06 models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2156622"], "description"=>"<p>In the top panel, black, red, cyan and blue indicate, respectively, regions of the following AP types: (1) a normal AP; (2) an AP with one or more EADs that returns to the resting state; (3) an AP that is in a triggered (oscillatory) state; (4) an AP, which, after few oscillations, relaxes towards a new higher resting potential. The ORd stability diagram is presented in the top-left panel and the TP06 one in the top-right panel. The cell is paced at PCL = 1000ms and the states of the APs are decided by considering the final AP after 50 pulses. Here the values of G<sub>CaL</sub> and G<sub>Kr</sub> indicate the multiples of their control values. Hence, G<sub>CaL</sub> = 5 and G<sub>Kr</sub> = 0.4 denote, respectively, that we use a value of G<sub>CaL</sub> (G<sub>Kr</sub>) that is 5 (0.4) times its control value. The bottom panel elucidates the APs of types (1)-(4) shown, respectively, by black, red, cyan, and blue curves for representative values of G<sub>CaL</sub> and G<sub>Kr</sub> for ORd (bottom-left) and TP06 (bottom-right) models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TP 06 model exhibits", "ORd model show", "Human Ventricular Cells", "TP 06 model", "ORd model", "phase waves", "ead", "wave patterns", "ap"], "article_id"=>1469119, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Soling Zimik", "Nele Vandersickel", "Alok Ranjan Nayak", "Alexander V. Panfilov", "Rahul Pandit"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130632.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stability_diagrams_for_different_types_of_APs_in_the_G_CaL_G_Kr_parameter_space_/1469119", "title"=>"Stability diagrams for different types of APs in the G<sub>CaL</sub>-G<sub>Kr</sub> parameter space.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-30 03:22:45"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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