The Identification of Proteoglycans and Glycosaminoglycans in Archaeological Human Bones and Teeth
Publication Date
June 24, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Yvette M. Coulson Thomas, Vivien J. Coulson Thomas, Andrew L. Norton, Tarsis F. Gesteira, et al
Volume
10
Issue
6
Pages
e0131105
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131105
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0131105
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26107959
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4481269
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26107959
Web of Science
000356932500141
Scopus
84939124958
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/identification-proteoglycans-glycosaminoglycans-archaeological-human-bones-teeth
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Yvette M.", "last_name"=>"Coulson-Thomas", "scopus_author_id"=>"24066430900"}, {"first_name"=>"Vivien J.", "last_name"=>"Coulson-Thomas", "scopus_author_id"=>"24066571300"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew L.", "last_name"=>"Norton", "scopus_author_id"=>"55344123600"}, {"first_name"=>"Tarsis F.", "last_name"=>"Gesteira", "scopus_author_id"=>"36660765100"}, {"first_name"=>"Renan P.", "last_name"=>"Cavalheiro", "scopus_author_id"=>"35749400000"}, {"first_name"=>"Maria Cecília Z.", "last_name"=>"Meneghetti", "scopus_author_id"=>"56779705600"}, {"first_name"=>"João R.", "last_name"=>"Martins", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201798849"}, {"first_name"=>"Ronald A.", "last_name"=>"Dixon", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402020717"}, {"first_name"=>"Helena B.", "last_name"=>"Nader", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006630749"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84939124958", "sgr"=>"84939124958", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0131105", "pui"=>"605585901", "pmid"=>"26107959", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"44e88038-d3e7-35d8-8eb1-5e79a80cc4d9", "abstract"=>"Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite) and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs). Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA). In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin) and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/identification-proteoglycans-glycosaminoglycans-archaeological-human-bones-teeth", "reader_count"=>14, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Psychology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148169"], "description"=>"<p>(A and C) GAGs isolated from archaeological human bones and teeth, as well as from a modern adult human tooth, were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis in PDA buffer. The gels were stained with 0.1% toluidine blue prepared in a solution containing 1% acetic acid and 50% ethanol, and destained with the same solution without toluidine blue (for staining CS, DS and HS). (B and D) After photography of (A), the gels were stained with 0.1% toluidine blue prepared in 25 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0, and destained in this solution without toluidine blue (for also staining HA). CS: chondroitin sulfate; DS: dermatan sulfate; HS: heparan sulfate; St: standard (CS, DS and HS extracted from shark cartilage); Or: origin.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["skeleton", "hplc", "whilst adolescent bones", "cspg", "Teeth Bone tissue", "Extracellular matrix proteins", "Archaeological Human Bones", "pg", "adult bones", "dna", "cs", "ha", "gag"], "article_id"=>1463149, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Yvette M. Coulson-Thomas", "Vivien J. Coulson-Thomas", "Andrew L. Norton", "Tarsis F. Gesteira", "Renan P. Cavalheiro", "Maria Cecília Z. Meneghetti", "João R. Martins", "Ronald A. Dixon", "Helena B. Nader"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131105.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>57, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Electrophoresis_in_PDA_buffer_of_glycosaminoglycans_extracted_from_archaeological_human_bones_and_teeth_/1463149", "title"=>"Electrophoresis in PDA buffer of glycosaminoglycans extracted from archaeological human bones and teeth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 04:50:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148227"], "description"=>"<p>Archaeological human femur slices (60 μm thick) were labeled for BSPII, osteocalcin and collagen I, and developed using DAB (brown). Cortical bone is viewed on the left and trabecular bone on the right. Scale bar: 200 μm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["skeleton", "hplc", "whilst adolescent bones", "cspg", "Teeth Bone tissue", "Extracellular matrix proteins", "Archaeological Human Bones", "pg", "adult bones", "dna", "cs", "ha", "gag"], "article_id"=>1463195, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Yvette M. Coulson-Thomas", "Vivien J. Coulson-Thomas", "Andrew L. Norton", "Tarsis F. Gesteira", "Renan P. Cavalheiro", "Maria Cecília Z. Meneghetti", "João R. Martins", "Ronald A. Dixon", "Helena B. Nader"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131105.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Immunolocalization_of_BSPII_osteocalcin_and_collagen_I_in_archaeological_human_bone_slices_/1463195", "title"=>"Immunolocalization of BSPII, osteocalcin and collagen I in archaeological human bone slices.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 04:50:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148201"], "description"=>"<p>Archaeological human adult or juvenile humerus slices (60 μm thick) were labeled with biotinylated binding protein and developed using DAB (brown). Cortical bone is viewed on the left and trabecular bone on the right. The asterisks show HA in a concentric pattern surrounding the osteons. Scale bar: 200 μm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["skeleton", "hplc", "whilst adolescent bones", "cspg", "Teeth Bone tissue", "Extracellular matrix proteins", "Archaeological Human Bones", "pg", "adult bones", "dna", "cs", "ha", "gag"], "article_id"=>1463180, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Yvette M. Coulson-Thomas", "Vivien J. Coulson-Thomas", "Andrew L. Norton", "Tarsis F. Gesteira", "Renan P. Cavalheiro", "Maria Cecília Z. Meneghetti", "João R. Martins", "Ronald A. Dixon", "Helena B. Nader"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131105.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Immunolocalization_of_hyaluronic_acid_in_archaeological_human_bone_slices_/1463180", "title"=>"Immunolocalization of hyaluronic acid in archaeological human bone slices.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 04:50:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148226"], "description"=>"<p>Archaeological human juvenile humerus and adolescent femur slices (70 μm thick) were labeled for biglycan and developed using DAB (brown). Cortical bone is viewed on the left and trabecular bone on the right. Scale bar: 200 μm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["skeleton", "hplc", "whilst adolescent bones", "cspg", "Teeth Bone tissue", "Extracellular matrix proteins", "Archaeological Human Bones", "pg", "adult bones", "dna", "cs", "ha", "gag"], "article_id"=>1463194, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Yvette M. Coulson-Thomas", "Vivien J. Coulson-Thomas", "Andrew L. Norton", "Tarsis F. Gesteira", "Renan P. Cavalheiro", "Maria Cecília Z. Meneghetti", "João R. Martins", "Ronald A. Dixon", "Helena B. Nader"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131105.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Immunolocalization_of_biglycan_in_archaeological_human_juvenile_and_adolescent_bone_slices_/1463194", "title"=>"Immunolocalization of biglycan in archaeological human juvenile and adolescent bone slices.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 04:50:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148202"], "description"=>"<p>PGs were extracted from various types of archaeological human bone samples (femur, humerus, radius, tibia and ulna) identified as juvenile, adolescent or adult, and also archaeological adult teeth and a modern wisdom tooth. Extracted PGs were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis in PDA buffer, and stained by amide black followed by toluidine blue. Proteins are stained in blue and GAG chains in purple. CS: chondroitin sulfate; DS: dermatan sulfate; HS: heparan sulfate; St: standard (CS, DS and HS extracted from shark cartilage).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["skeleton", "hplc", "whilst adolescent bones", "cspg", "Teeth Bone tissue", "Extracellular matrix proteins", "Archaeological Human Bones", "pg", "adult bones", "dna", "cs", "ha", "gag"], "article_id"=>1463181, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Yvette M. Coulson-Thomas", "Vivien J. Coulson-Thomas", "Andrew L. Norton", "Tarsis F. Gesteira", "Renan P. Cavalheiro", "Maria Cecília Z. Meneghetti", "João R. Martins", "Ronald A. Dixon", "Helena B. Nader"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131105.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proteoglycans_extracted_from_ancient_bones_and_teeth_/1463181", "title"=>"Proteoglycans extracted from ancient bones and teeth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 04:50:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148177"], "description"=>"<p>GAGs were extracted from archaeological human adult and juvenile humerus (A), archaeological human adult and adolescent ulna (B and C), and archaeological human adult radius (D), subjected to β-elimination in some instances (samples 16 and 25), digested with chondroitin AC lyase, chondroitin ABC lyase, heparin lyase II or <i>Flavobacterium heparinum</i> extract, and analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis in PDA buffer. The gels were stained with 0.1% toluidine blue prepared in a solution containing 1% acetic acid and 50% ethanol, destained with the same solution without toluidine blue, restained with 0.1% toluidine blue prepared in 25 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0, and destained in this solution without toluidine blue. CS: chondroitin sulfate; DS: dermatan sulfate; HS: heparan sulfate; Or: origin; St: standard (CS, DS and HS extracted from shark cartilage); C4S: chondroitin 4-sulfate; AC: chondroitin AC lyase; ABC: chondroitin ABC lyase; h’aseII: heparin lyase II; Flavo: <i>Flavobacterium heparinum</i> extract; 16: adult radius; 18: adult humerus; 19: juvenile humerus; 22: adolescent ulna; 24: adult ulna; 25: adult ulna.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["skeleton", "hplc", "whilst adolescent bones", "cspg", "Teeth Bone tissue", "Extracellular matrix proteins", "Archaeological Human Bones", "pg", "adult bones", "dna", "cs", "ha", "gag"], "article_id"=>1463156, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Yvette M. Coulson-Thomas", "Vivien J. Coulson-Thomas", "Andrew L. Norton", "Tarsis F. Gesteira", "Renan P. Cavalheiro", "Maria Cecília Z. Meneghetti", "João R. Martins", "Ronald A. Dixon", "Helena B. Nader"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131105.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>48, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Electrophoresis_in_PDA_buffer_of_glycosaminoglycans_extracted_from_archaeological_bones_and_degraded_with_glycosaminoglycan_specific_enzymes_/1463156", "title"=>"Electrophoresis in PDA buffer of glycosaminoglycans extracted from archaeological bones and degraded with glycosaminoglycan-specific enzymes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 04:50:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148217"], "description"=>"<p>Archaeological human adult humerus slices (60 μm thick) were labeled for decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin or glypican, and developed using DAB (brown). The secondary control was prepared omitting the primary antibodies. Cortical bone is viewed on the left and trabecular bone on the right. Scale bar: 200 μm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["skeleton", "hplc", "whilst adolescent bones", "cspg", "Teeth Bone tissue", "Extracellular matrix proteins", "Archaeological Human Bones", "pg", "adult bones", "dna", "cs", "ha", "gag"], "article_id"=>1463185, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Yvette M. Coulson-Thomas", "Vivien J. Coulson-Thomas", "Andrew L. Norton", "Tarsis F. Gesteira", "Renan P. Cavalheiro", "Maria Cecília Z. Meneghetti", "João R. Martins", "Ronald A. Dixon", "Helena B. Nader"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131105.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Immunolocalization_of_proteoglycans_in_archaeological_human_adult_bone_slices_/1463185", "title"=>"Immunolocalization of proteoglycans in archaeological human adult bone slices.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 04:50:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148194"], "description"=>"<p>Archaeological human adult humerus or femur slices (60 μm thick) were labeled with anti-chondroitin-6-sulfate (following digestion with chondroitin AC lyase) and developed using DAB (brown). The secondary control was prepared omitting the primary antibody (archaeological human adult femur is shown). Cortical bone is viewed on the left and trabecular bone on the right. Scale bar: 200 μm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["skeleton", "hplc", "whilst adolescent bones", "cspg", "Teeth Bone tissue", "Extracellular matrix proteins", "Archaeological Human Bones", "pg", "adult bones", "dna", "cs", "ha", "gag"], "article_id"=>1463173, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Yvette M. Coulson-Thomas", "Vivien J. Coulson-Thomas", "Andrew L. Norton", "Tarsis F. Gesteira", "Renan P. Cavalheiro", "Maria Cecília Z. Meneghetti", "João R. Martins", "Ronald A. Dixon", "Helena B. Nader"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131105.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Immunolocalization_of_chondroitin_6_sulfate_in_archaeological_human_bone_slices_/1463173", "title"=>"Immunolocalization of chondroitin-6-sulfate in archaeological human bone slices.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 04:50:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2148179"], "description"=>"<p>(A) C6S standard profile; (B) C4S/C6S Standard profile; and (C) profile of CS extracted from archaeological human adolescent femur. (a) Peak representing the C6S disaccharide; and (b) peak representing the C4S disaccharide.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["skeleton", "hplc", "whilst adolescent bones", "cspg", "Teeth Bone tissue", "Extracellular matrix proteins", "Archaeological Human Bones", "pg", "adult bones", "dna", "cs", "ha", "gag"], "article_id"=>1463158, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Yvette M. Coulson-Thomas", "Vivien J. Coulson-Thomas", "Andrew L. Norton", "Tarsis F. Gesteira", "Renan P. Cavalheiro", "Maria Cecília Z. Meneghetti", "João R. Martins", "Ronald A. Dixon", "Helena B. Nader"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131105.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Disaccharide_content_of_the_CS_population_extracted_from_archaeological_human_adolescent_femur_was_characterized_by_strong_anion_exchange_liquid_chromatography_/1463158", "title"=>"Disaccharide content of the CS population extracted from archaeological human adolescent femur was characterized by strong anion exchange liquid chromatography.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-06-24 04:50:00"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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