Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles
Publication Date
July 22, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
David M. Greenberg, Simon Baron Cohen, David J. Stillwell, Michal Kosinski, et al
Volume
10
Issue
7
Pages
e0131151
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131151
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0131151
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200656
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4511638
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26200656
Web of Science
000358597100012
Scopus
84941773352
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/musical-preferences-linked-cognitive-styles
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Musical preferences are linked to cognitive styles", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"David M.", "last_name"=>"Greenberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"54397202300"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon", "last_name"=>"Baron-Cohen", "scopus_author_id"=>"56339089100"}, {"first_name"=>"David J.", "last_name"=>"Stillwell", "scopus_author_id"=>"35312763000"}, {"first_name"=>"Michal", "last_name"=>"Kosinski", "scopus_author_id"=>"54915667100"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter J.", "last_name"=>"Rentfrow", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602274526"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84941773352", "pui"=>"606006445", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0131151", "isbn"=>"1471216497", "sgr"=>"84941773352", "pmid"=>"23299419"}, "id"=>"90f09bc5-3d41-302e-ad15-8502dba0c53a", "abstract"=>"Why do we like the music we do? 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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2186413"], "description"=>"<p>For each brain type (Type E, Type B, and Type S), centered mean scores are presented for preferences for 25 psychological attributes. These attributes are categorized into Arousal (high arousal and low arousal), Affect (positive valence and negative valence) and Depth (emotional depth and cerebral depth).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["preference", "type S", "genre", "type E individuals", "sample"], "article_id"=>1491646, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["David M. Greenberg", "Simon Baron-Cohen", "David J. Stillwell", "Michal Kosinski", "Peter J. Rentfrow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131151.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_Preferences_for_Psychological_Attributes_by_Cognitive_8216_Brain_Type_8217_/1491646", "title"=>"Mean Preferences for Psychological Attributes by Cognitive ‘Brain Type’.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-22 02:58:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2186425", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2186426", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2186427", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2186428", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2186429", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2186430", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2186431", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2186432"], "description"=>"<div><p>Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (<i>Ns</i> = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (<i>Ns</i> = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (<i>N</i> = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., ‘brain types’). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["preference", "type S", "genre", "type E individuals", "sample"], "article_id"=>1491655, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["David M. Greenberg", "Simon Baron-Cohen", "David J. Stillwell", "Michal Kosinski", "Peter J. Rentfrow"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131151.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131151.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131151.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131151.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131151.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131151.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131151.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131151.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Musical_Preferences_are_Linked_to_Cognitive_Styles_/1491655", "title"=>"Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-07-22 02:58:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2186418"], "description"=>"<p>For each brain type (Type E, Type B, and Type S), centered mean scores are presented for preferences for 20 sonic attributes. These attributes are categorized into acoustic features and instrumental features.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["preference", "type S", "genre", "type E individuals", "sample"], "article_id"=>1491651, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["David M. Greenberg", "Simon Baron-Cohen", "David J. Stillwell", "Michal Kosinski", "Peter J. Rentfrow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131151.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_Preferences_for_Sonic_Attributes_by_Cognitive_8216_Brain_Type_8217_/1491651", "title"=>"Mean Preferences for Sonic Attributes by Cognitive ‘Brain Type’.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-22 02:58:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2186411"], "description"=>"<p>For each brain type (Type E, Type B, and Type S), centered mean scores are presented for preferences for each of the five MUSIC dimensions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["preference", "type S", "genre", "type E individuals", "sample"], "article_id"=>1491644, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["David M. Greenberg", "Simon Baron-Cohen", "David J. Stillwell", "Michal Kosinski", "Peter J. Rentfrow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131151.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_Preferences_for_the_MUSIC_Dimensions_by_Cognitive_8216_Brain_Type_8217_/1491644", "title"=>"Mean Preferences for the MUSIC Dimensions by Cognitive ‘Brain Type’.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-22 02:58:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2186420"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>: Cell entries are multiple <i>R</i>s derived from stepwise regressions in which the music-preference dimensions were regressed onto the Big Five personality dimensions and the Empathy Quotient (EQ) in each of the four samples in Study 1. <i>Ns</i> = 2,113 (S1), 855 (S2), 739 (S3), and 313 (S4).</p><p>*<i>p</i> < .05;</p><p>**<i>p</i> < .01.</p><p>Incremental Changes in Multiple Correlations of Music-Preference Dimensions with Personality and EQ as Simultaneous Predictors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["preference", "type S", "genre", "type E individuals", "sample"], "article_id"=>1491653, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["David M. Greenberg", "Simon Baron-Cohen", "David J. Stillwell", "Michal Kosinski", "Peter J. Rentfrow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131151.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Incremental_Changes_in_Multiple_Correlations_of_Music_Preference_Dimensions_with_Personality_and_EQ_as_Simultaneous_Predictors_/1491653", "title"=>"Incremental Changes in Multiple Correlations of Music-Preference Dimensions with Personality and EQ as Simultaneous Predictors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-22 02:58:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2186419"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. Cell entries are correlations between the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and the MUSIC music-preference dimensions. S1 = Sample 1, S2 = Sample 2, S3 = Sample 3, S4 = Sample 4. S1 and S2 provided preference ratings for mixed genre excerpts; S3 provided preferences ratings for only rock excerpts; and S4 provided preference ratings for only jazz excerpts. <i>Ns =</i> 2,178 (S1), 891 (S2), 747 (S3), 320 (S4).</p><p>*<i>p</i> < .05;</p><p>**<i>p</i> < .01.</p><p>Correlations Between the Empathy Quotient and Musical Preferences.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["preference", "type S", "genre", "type E individuals", "sample"], "article_id"=>1491652, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["David M. Greenberg", "Simon Baron-Cohen", "David J. Stillwell", "Michal Kosinski", "Peter J. Rentfrow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131151.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_Between_the_Empathy_Quotient_and_Musical_Preferences_/1491652", "title"=>"Correlations Between the Empathy Quotient and Musical Preferences.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-22 02:58:05"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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