Individuals Who Believe in the Paranormal Expose Themselves to Biased Information and Develop More Causal Illusions than Nonbelievers in the Laboratory
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{"title"=>"Individuals who believe in the paranormal expose themselves to biased information and develop more causal illusions than nonbelievers in the laboratory", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Fernando", "last_name"=>"Blanco", "scopus_author_id"=>"35777348200"}, {"first_name"=>"Itxaso", "last_name"=>"Barberia", "scopus_author_id"=>"24472859600"}, {"first_name"=>"Helena", "last_name"=>"Matute", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603794359"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"26177025", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84941341620", "sgr"=>"84941341620", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0131378", "pui"=>"605951904", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"1c0144be-ada4-3d5a-b538-169200f4f259", "abstract"=>"In the reasoning literature, paranormal beliefs have been proposed to be linked to two related phenomena: a biased perception of causality and a biased information-sampling strategy (believers tend to test fewer hypotheses and prefer confirmatory information). In parallel, recent contingency learning studies showed that, when two unrelated events coincide frequently, individuals interpret this ambiguous pattern as evidence of a causal relationship. Moreover, the latter studies indicate that sampling more cause-present cases than cause-absent cases strengthens the illusion. If paranormal believers actually exhibit a biased exposure to the available information, they should also show this bias in the contingency learning task: they would in fact expose themselves to more cause-present cases than cause-absent trials. Thus, by combining the two traditions, we predicted that believers in the paranormal would be more vulnerable to developing causal illusions in the laboratory than nonbelievers because there is a bias in the information they experience. In this study, we found that paranormal beliefs (measured using a questionnaire) correlated with causal illusions (assessed by using contingency judgments). As expected, this correlation was mediated entirely by the believers' tendency to expose themselves to more cause-present cases. The association between paranormal beliefs, biased exposure to information, and causal illusions was only observed for ambiguous materials (i.e., the noncontingent condition). In contrast, the participants' ability to detect causal relationships which did exist (i.e., the contingent condition) was unaffected by their susceptibility to believe in paranormal phenomena.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/individuals-believe-paranormal-expose-themselves-biased-information-develop-more-causal-illusions-no", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>15, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>15}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2178587"], "description"=>"<p>Standard deviations are provided between brackets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contingency judgments", "Biased Information", "Causal Illusions", "phenomena", "reasoning literature", "Paranormal Expose Themselves", "illusion", "relationship", "bias", "latter studies", "i.e", "noncontingent condition", "exposure", "believer", "confirmatory information"], "article_id"=>1485429, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Fernando Blanco", "Itxaso Barberia", "Helena Matute"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131378.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_frequencies_of_each_trial_type_to_which_the_participants_exposed_themselves_in_each_condition_/1485429", "title"=>"Mean frequencies of each trial type to which the participants exposed themselves in each condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-15 05:51:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2178586"], "description"=>"<p>A regression line was fitted to the P(Cause)-Judgments relationship (see main text).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contingency judgments", "Biased Information", "Causal Illusions", "phenomena", "reasoning literature", "Paranormal Expose Themselves", "illusion", "relationship", "bias", "latter studies", "i.e", "noncontingent condition", "exposure", "believer", "confirmatory information"], "article_id"=>1485428, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Fernando Blanco", "Itxaso Barberia", "Helena Matute"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131378.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bubble_chart_showing_the_positive_relationship_between_P_Cause_horizontal_axis_Judgments_vertical_axis_and_R_PBS_scores_circle_area_in_the_noncontingent_condition_/1485428", "title"=>"Bubble chart showing the positive relationship between P(Cause) (horizontal axis), Judgments (vertical axis) and R-PBS scores (circle area) in the noncontingent condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-15 05:51:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2178591"], "description"=>"<div><p>In the reasoning literature, paranormal beliefs have been proposed to be linked to two related phenomena: a biased perception of causality and a biased information-sampling strategy (believers tend to test fewer hypotheses and prefer confirmatory information). In parallel, recent contingency learning studies showed that, when two unrelated events coincide frequently, individuals interpret this ambiguous pattern as evidence of a causal relationship. Moreover, the latter studies indicate that sampling more cause-present cases than cause-absent cases strengthens the illusion. If paranormal believers actually exhibit a biased exposure to the available information, they should also show this bias in the contingency learning task: they would in fact expose themselves to more cause-present cases than cause-absent trials. Thus, by combining the two traditions, we predicted that believers in the paranormal would be more vulnerable to developing causal illusions in the laboratory than nonbelievers because there is a bias in the information they experience. In this study, we found that paranormal beliefs (measured using a questionnaire) correlated with causal illusions (assessed by using contingency judgments). As expected, this correlation was mediated entirely by the believers' tendency to expose themselves to more cause-present cases. The association between paranormal beliefs, biased exposure to information, and causal illusions was only observed for ambiguous materials (i.e., the noncontingent condition). In contrast, the participants' ability to detect causal relationships which did exist (i.e., the contingent condition) was unaffected by their susceptibility to believe in paranormal phenomena.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contingency judgments", "Biased Information", "Causal Illusions", "phenomena", "reasoning literature", "Paranormal Expose Themselves", "illusion", "relationship", "bias", "latter studies", "i.e", "noncontingent condition", "exposure", "believer", "confirmatory information"], "article_id"=>1485433, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Fernando Blanco", "Itxaso Barberia", "Helena Matute"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131378", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Individuals_Who_Believe_in_the_Paranormal_Expose_Themselves_to_Biased_Information_and_Develop_More_Causal_Illusions_than_Nonbelievers_in_the_Laboratory_/1485433", "title"=>"Individuals Who Believe in the Paranormal Expose Themselves to Biased Information and Develop More Causal Illusions than Nonbelievers in the Laboratory", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-15 05:51:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2178589"], "description"=>"<p>The top number in each cell corresponds to the Pearson's coefficient. Exact p-values are provided between brackets.</p><p>* <i>p</i> < 0.05;</p><p>** <i>p</i> < 0.01.</p><p>Observed correlations between the variables assessed in the two contingency learning problems (columns) and the three exploratory questionnaires (rows).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contingency judgments", "Biased Information", "Causal Illusions", "phenomena", "reasoning literature", "Paranormal Expose Themselves", "illusion", "relationship", "bias", "latter studies", "i.e", "noncontingent condition", "exposure", "believer", "confirmatory information"], "article_id"=>1485431, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Fernando Blanco", "Itxaso Barberia", "Helena Matute"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131378.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Observed_correlations_between_the_variables_assessed_in_the_two_contingency_learning_problems_columns_and_the_three_exploratory_questionnaires_rows_/1485431", "title"=>"Observed correlations between the variables assessed in the two contingency learning problems (columns) and the three exploratory questionnaires (rows).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-15 05:51:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2178588"], "description"=>"<p>The top number in each cell corresponds to the Pearson's coefficient. Exact p-values are provided between brackets.</p><p>* <i>p</i> < 0.05;</p><p>** <i>p</i> < 0.01.</p><p>Observed correlations between the variables assessed in the two contingency learning problems (columns) and the paranormal belief scores (rows).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contingency judgments", "Biased Information", "Causal Illusions", "phenomena", "reasoning literature", "Paranormal Expose Themselves", "illusion", "relationship", "bias", "latter studies", "i.e", "noncontingent condition", "exposure", "believer", "confirmatory information"], "article_id"=>1485430, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Fernando Blanco", "Itxaso Barberia", "Helena Matute"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131378.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Observed_correlations_between_the_variables_assessed_in_the_two_contingency_learning_problems_columns_and_the_paranormal_belief_scores_rows_/1485430", "title"=>"Observed correlations between the variables assessed in the two contingency learning problems (columns) and the paranormal belief scores (rows).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-15 05:51:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2178584"], "description"=>"<p>The total effect of the paranormal belief (R-PBS) scores on judgments (depicted as pathway c) was partitioned into one indirect effect via P(Cause) (pathways a and b), and one direct effect (pathway c'), which is the result of discounting the indirect effect. The results of this study suggest that prior paranormal beliefs increased the tendency to develop new causal illusions via the mediation of a biased exposure to cause-present information.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contingency judgments", "Biased Information", "Causal Illusions", "phenomena", "reasoning literature", "Paranormal Expose Themselves", "illusion", "relationship", "bias", "latter studies", "i.e", "noncontingent condition", "exposure", "believer", "confirmatory information"], "article_id"=>1485426, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Fernando Blanco", "Itxaso Barberia", "Helena Matute"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131378.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mediational_structure_tested_in_the_noncontingent_condition_/1485426", "title"=>"Mediational structure tested in the noncontingent condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-15 05:51:10"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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