Do Payments Pay Off? Evidence from Participation in Costa Rica’s PES Program
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{"title"=>"Do payments pay off? Evidence from participation in Costa Rica's PES program", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"R. A.", "last_name"=>"Arriagada", "scopus_author_id"=>"35185906900"}, {"first_name"=>"E. O.", "last_name"=>"Sills", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005882526"}, {"first_name"=>"P. J.", "last_name"=>"Ferraro", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005745384"}, {"first_name"=>"S. K.", "last_name"=>"Pattanayak", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006596566"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"605952421", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0131544", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84941362146", "pmid"=>"26162000", "sgr"=>"84941362146"}, "id"=>"9226b741-5cb7-3cb2-8b68-051ed3a034a8", "abstract"=>"Payments for environmental services (PES) are often viewed as a way to simultaneously improve conservation outcomes and the wellbeing of rural households who receive the payments. However, evidence for such win-win outcomes has been elusive. We add to the growing literature on conservation program impacts by using primary household survey data to evaluate the socioeconomic impacts of participation in Costa Rica's PES program. Despite the substantial cash transfers to voluntary participants in this program, we do not detect any evidence of impacts on their wealth or self-reported well-being using a quasi-experimental design. These results are consistent with the common claim that voluntary PES do not harm participants, but they beg the question of why landowners participate if they do not benefit. Landowners in our sample voluntarily renewed their contracts after five years in the program and thus are unlikely to have underestimated their costs of participation. They apparently did not invest additional income from the program in farm inputs such as cattle or hired labor, since both decreased as a result of participation. Nor do we find evidence that participation encouraged moves off-farm. Instead, semi-structured interviews suggest that participants joined the program to secure their property rights and contribute to the public good of forest conservation. Thus, in order to understand the social impacts of PES, we need to look beyond simple economic rationales and material outcomes.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/payments-pay-evidence-participation-costa-ricas-pes-program", "reader_count"=>81, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Philosophy"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>14, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>25, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>11}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>25}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>14}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Mexico"=>2, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>13}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2171486"], "description"=>"<p>Landowners responses to PES.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evidence", "household survey data", "forest conservation", "conservation program impacts", "harm participants", "conservation outcomes", "participation", "material outcomes", "property rights", "pes", "farm inputs", "cash transfers"], "article_id"=>1479954, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["R. A. Arriagada", "E. O. Sills", "P. J. Ferraro", "S. K. Pattanayak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131544.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Landowners_responses_to_PES_/1479954", "title"=>"Landowners responses to PES.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-10 04:38:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2171487"], "description"=>"<p>Estimated impacts of PSA between 1996 and 2005 on assets and self-reported well being.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evidence", "household survey data", "forest conservation", "conservation program impacts", "harm participants", "conservation outcomes", "participation", "material outcomes", "property rights", "pes", "farm inputs", "cash transfers"], "article_id"=>1479955, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["R. A. Arriagada", "E. O. Sills", "P. J. Ferraro", "S. K. Pattanayak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131544.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_impacts_of_PSA_between_1996_and_2005_on_assets_and_self_reported_well_being_/1479955", "title"=>"Estimated impacts of PSA between 1996 and 2005 on assets and self-reported well being.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-10 04:38:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2171489"], "description"=>"<p>Estimated impacts of PSA between 1996 and 2005 on changes in farm investment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evidence", "household survey data", "forest conservation", "conservation program impacts", "harm participants", "conservation outcomes", "participation", "material outcomes", "property rights", "pes", "farm inputs", "cash transfers"], "article_id"=>1479957, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["R. A. Arriagada", "E. O. Sills", "P. J. Ferraro", "S. K. Pattanayak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131544.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_impacts_of_PSA_between_1996_and_2005_on_changes_in_farm_investment_/1479957", "title"=>"Estimated impacts of PSA between 1996 and 2005 on changes in farm investment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-10 04:38:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2171490"], "description"=>"<p><sup><i>a</i></sup> D indicates a “dummy” variable, coded as 1 = statement true for the respondent, and 0 = statement false for respondent; the mean for these variables is therefore the percentage of respondents for whom statement is true.</p><p><sup><i>b</i></sup> Steep slope indicates too steep to plant with crops.</p><p><sup><i>c</i></sup> Defined in footnote a of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0131544#pone.0131544.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p><p><sup><i>d</i></sup> Unmatched sample includes 50 PSA participants and 152 non-participants. Matched sample includes 43 PSA participants and 43 non-participants.</p><p><sup><i>e</i></sup> Weighted means for matched controls.</p><p><sup><b><i>f</i></b></sup> Mean (for categorical covariate) or median (for continuous covariate) difference in the empirical quantile-quantile plot of treatment and control groups on the scale in which the covariate is measured (values > 0 indicate deviations between the groups in some part of the empirical distribution).</p><p><sup><i>g</i></sup> Mean eCDF = mean differences in empirical cumulative distribution function (values > 0 indicate deviations between the groups in some part of the empirical distribution).</p><p>Note: The seventh and eighth columns present three measures of the differences in the covariate distributions between PSA and non-PSA farms. If matching is effective, all of these measures should move dramatically toward zero (Ho et al., 2007).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evidence", "household survey data", "forest conservation", "conservation program impacts", "harm participants", "conservation outcomes", "participation", "material outcomes", "property rights", "pes", "farm inputs", "cash transfers"], "article_id"=>1479958, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["R. A. Arriagada", "E. O. Sills", "P. J. Ferraro", "S. K. Pattanayak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131544.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Covariate_Balance_/1479958", "title"=>"Covariate Balance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-10 04:38:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2171491"], "description"=>"<p><sup><i>a</i></sup> Full sample, with N treated = 50 and N controls = 152.</p><p><sup><i>b</i></sup> Statistical significance evaluated with a two-sided <i>t</i>-test of the difference in means between treated and control sub-samples.</p><p><sup><i>c</i></sup> Calipers restrict matches to units within two standard deviations of each covariate, resulting in matched sample of N treated = 40 treatment and N controls = 40.</p><p><sup><i>d</i></sup> Ordinary least squares regression on change in consumer durables, with all variables used in matching as covariates.</p><p><sup><i>e</i></sup> Ordered logit regression on change in quality of life, with all variables used in matching as covariates.</p><p>Robust standard errors in parenthesis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evidence", "household survey data", "forest conservation", "conservation program impacts", "harm participants", "conservation outcomes", "participation", "material outcomes", "property rights", "pes", "farm inputs", "cash transfers"], "article_id"=>1479959, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["R. A. Arriagada", "E. O. Sills", "P. J. Ferraro", "S. K. Pattanayak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131544.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_impacts_of_PSA_on_changes_in_welfare_/1479959", "title"=>"Estimated impacts of PSA on changes in welfare.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-10 04:38:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2171492"], "description"=>"<div><p>Payments for environmental services (PES) are often viewed as a way to simultaneously improve conservation outcomes and the wellbeing of rural households who receive the payments. However, evidence for such win-win outcomes has been elusive. We add to the growing literature on conservation program impacts by using primary household survey data to evaluate the socioeconomic impacts of participation in Costa Rica’s PES program. Despite the substantial cash transfers to voluntary participants in this program, we do not detect any evidence of impacts on their wealth or self-reported well-being using a quasi-experimental design. These results are consistent with the common claim that voluntary PES do not harm participants, but they beg the question of why landowners participate if they do not benefit. Landowners in our sample voluntarily renewed their contracts after five years in the program and thus are unlikely to have underestimated their costs of participation. They apparently did not invest additional income from the program in farm inputs such as cattle or hired labor, since both decreased as a result of participation. Nor do we find evidence that participation encouraged moves off-farm. Instead, semi-structured interviews suggest that participants joined the program to secure their property rights and contribute to the public good of forest conservation. Thus, in order to understand the social impacts of PES, we need to look beyond simple economic rationales and material outcomes.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evidence", "household survey data", "forest conservation", "conservation program impacts", "harm participants", "conservation outcomes", "participation", "material outcomes", "property rights", "pes", "farm inputs", "cash transfers"], "article_id"=>1479960, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["R. A. Arriagada", "E. O. Sills", "P. J. Ferraro", "S. K. Pattanayak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131544", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Do_Payments_Pay_Off_Evidence_from_Participation_in_Costa_Rica_8217_s_PES_Program_/1479960", "title"=>"Do Payments Pay Off? Evidence from Participation in Costa Rica’s PES Program", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-10 04:38:12"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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