Mortality Attributable to Low Levels of Education in the United States
Publication Date
July 08, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Patrick M. Krueger, Melanie K. Tran, Robert A. Hummer & Virginia W. Chang
Volume
10
Issue
7
Pages
e0131809
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131809
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0131809
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26153885
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4496052
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26153885
Web of Science
000358159700080
Scopus
84941309261
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/mortality-attributable-low-levels-education-united-states-2
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{"title"=>"Mortality attributable to low levels of education in the United States", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Patrick M.", "last_name"=>"Krueger", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005132724"}, {"first_name"=>"Melanie K.", "last_name"=>"Tran", "scopus_author_id"=>"56830082800"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert A.", "last_name"=>"Hummer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004331759"}, {"first_name"=>"Virginia W.", "last_name"=>"Chang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101604339"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84941309261", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0131809", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"26153885", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84941309261", "pui"=>"605952173"}, "id"=>"1674ab99-02e7-39b8-9804-74149abd7fdc", "abstract"=>"Background Educational disparities in U.S. adult mortality are large and have widened across birth cohorts. We consider three policy relevant scenarios and estimate the mortality attributable to: (1) individuals having less than a high school degree rather than a high school degree, (2) individuals having some college rather than a baccalaureate degree, and (3) individuals having anything less than a baccalaureate degree rather than a baccalaureate degree, using educational disparities specific to the 1925, 1935, and 1945 cohorts. Methods We use the National Health Interview Survey data (1986–2004) linked to prospective mortality through 2006 (N=1,008,949), and discrete-time survival models, to estimate education- and cohort-specific mortality rates. We use those mortality rates and data on the 2010 U.S. population from the American Community Survey, to calculate annual attributable mortality estimates. Results If adults aged 25–85 in the 2010 U.S. population experienced the educational disparities in mortality observed in the 1945 cohort, 145,243 deaths could be attributed to individuals having less than a high school degree rather than a high school degree, 110,068 deaths could be attributed to individuals having some college rather than a baccalaureate degree, and 554,525 deaths could be attributed to individuals having anything less than a baccalaureate degree rather than a baccalaureate degree. Widening educational disparities between the 1925 and 1945 cohorts result in a doubling of attributable mortality. Mortality attributable to having less than a high school degree is proportionally similar among women and men and among non-Hispanic blacks and whites, and is greater for cardiovascular disease than for cancer. Conclusions Mortality attributable to low education is comparable in magnitude to mortality attributable to individuals being current rather than former smokers. Existing research suggests that a substantial part of the association between education and mortality is causal. Thus, policies that increase education could significantly reduce adult mortality.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mortality-attributable-low-levels-education-united-states-2", "reader_count"=>47, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Psychology"=>6, "Social Sciences"=>12, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>5, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>12}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>6}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2167667"], "description"=>"<p>Source: National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality File, 1986–2006.</p><p><sup>a</sup>P-values indicate whether the distributions of study variables are significantly different for those who survived and those who died over the follow-up period, by sex.</p><p>Means (Standard Deviations) and Percentages of Study Variables, By Sex and By Vital Status at the End of the Follow-Up Period, Non-Institutionalized U.S. Born Adults Aged 25 and Older.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disparity", "baccalaureate degree", "2010 U.S", "individual", "1945 cohorts result", "adult mortality", "American Community Survey", "1945 cohorts.MethodsWe use", "mortality estimates.ResultsIf adults", "United States BackgroundEducational disparities", "school degree"], "article_id"=>1477415, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Patrick M. Krueger", "Melanie K. Tran", "Robert A. Hummer", "Virginia W. Chang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131809.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Means_Standard_Deviations_and_Percentages_of_Study_Variables_By_Sex_and_By_Vital_Status_at_the_End_of_the_Follow_Up_Period_Non_Institutionalized_U_S_Born_Adults_Aged_25_and_Older_/1477415", "title"=>"Means (Standard Deviations) and Percentages of Study Variables, By Sex and By Vital Status at the End of the Follow-Up Period, Non-Institutionalized U.S. Born Adults Aged 25 and Older.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-08 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2167668"], "description"=>"<p>Source: National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality File, 1986–2006.</p><p>* p < .05;</p><p>** p < .01;</p><p>*** p < .001.</p><p>Hazard Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals from Survival Models for Overall Mortality, Non-Institutionalized U.S. Born Adults Aged 25 and Older.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disparity", "baccalaureate degree", "2010 U.S", "individual", "1945 cohorts result", "adult mortality", "American Community Survey", "1945 cohorts.MethodsWe use", "mortality estimates.ResultsIf adults", "United States BackgroundEducational disparities", "school degree"], "article_id"=>1477416, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Patrick M. Krueger", "Melanie K. Tran", "Robert A. Hummer", "Virginia W. Chang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131809.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hazard_Ratios_and_95_Confidence_Intervals_from_Survival_Models_for_Overall_Mortality_Non_Institutionalized_U_S_Born_Adults_Aged_25_and_Older_/1477416", "title"=>"Hazard Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals from Survival Models for Overall Mortality, Non-Institutionalized U.S. Born Adults Aged 25 and Older.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-08 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2167669"], "description"=>"<p>Source: National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality File, 1986–2006; American Community Survey 2009 to 2011.</p><p>Note: All estimates are adjusted for race/ethnicity.</p><p>Annual Mortality Attributable to Low Education, Numbers and Percentages of Deaths, by Sex and Birth Cohort, Non-Institutionalized U.S. Born Adults Aged 25 to 85 in the 2010 Population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disparity", "baccalaureate degree", "2010 U.S", "individual", "1945 cohorts result", "adult mortality", "American Community Survey", "1945 cohorts.MethodsWe use", "mortality estimates.ResultsIf adults", "United States BackgroundEducational disparities", "school degree"], "article_id"=>1477417, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Patrick M. Krueger", "Melanie K. Tran", "Robert A. Hummer", "Virginia W. Chang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131809.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Annual_Mortality_Attributable_to_Low_Education_Numbers_and_Percentages_of_Deaths_by_Sex_and_Birth_Cohort_Non_Institutionalized_U_S_Born_Adults_Aged_25_to_85_in_the_2010_Population_/1477417", "title"=>"Annual Mortality Attributable to Low Education, Numbers and Percentages of Deaths, by Sex and Birth Cohort, Non-Institutionalized U.S. Born Adults Aged 25 to 85 in the 2010 Population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-08 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2167670"], "description"=>"<p>Source: National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality File, 1986–2006; American Community Survey 2009 to 2011.</p><p>Note: All estimates are adjusted for race/ethnicity.</p><p>Annual Cause Specific Mortality Attributable to Low Education, Numbers and Percentages of Deaths, by Sex and Birth Cohort, Non-Institutionalized U.S. Born Adults Aged 25 to 85 in the 2010 Population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disparity", "baccalaureate degree", "2010 U.S", "individual", "1945 cohorts result", "adult mortality", "American Community Survey", "1945 cohorts.MethodsWe use", "mortality estimates.ResultsIf adults", "United States BackgroundEducational disparities", "school degree"], "article_id"=>1477418, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Patrick M. Krueger", "Melanie K. Tran", "Robert A. Hummer", "Virginia W. Chang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131809.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Annual_Cause_Specific_Mortality_Attributable_to_Low_Education_Numbers_and_Percentages_of_Deaths_by_Sex_and_Birth_Cohort_Non_Institutionalized_U_S_Born_Adults_Aged_25_to_85_in_the_2010_Population_/1477418", "title"=>"Annual Cause Specific Mortality Attributable to Low Education, Numbers and Percentages of Deaths, by Sex and Birth Cohort, Non-Institutionalized U.S. Born Adults Aged 25 to 85 in the 2010 Population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-08 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2167671"], "description"=>"<p>Source: National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality File, 1986–2006; American Community Survey 2009 to 2011.</p><p>Note: All estimates are adjusted for race/ethnicity.</p><p>Annual Race-Specific Mortality Attributable to Low Education, Numbers and Percentages of Deaths, by Sex and Birth Cohort, Non-Institutionalized U.S. Born Adults Aged 25 to 85 in the 2010 Population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disparity", "baccalaureate degree", "2010 U.S", "individual", "1945 cohorts result", "adult mortality", "American Community Survey", "1945 cohorts.MethodsWe use", "mortality estimates.ResultsIf adults", "United States BackgroundEducational disparities", "school degree"], "article_id"=>1477419, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Patrick M. Krueger", "Melanie K. Tran", "Robert A. Hummer", "Virginia W. Chang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131809.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Annual_Race_Specific_Mortality_Attributable_to_Low_Education_Numbers_and_Percentages_of_Deaths_by_Sex_and_Birth_Cohort_Non_Institutionalized_U_S_Born_Adults_Aged_25_to_85_in_the_2010_Population_/1477419", "title"=>"Annual Race-Specific Mortality Attributable to Low Education, Numbers and Percentages of Deaths, by Sex and Birth Cohort, Non-Institutionalized U.S. Born Adults Aged 25 to 85 in the 2010 Population.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-08 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2167673"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Educational disparities in U.S. adult mortality are large and have widened across birth cohorts. We consider three policy relevant scenarios and estimate the mortality attributable to: (1) individuals having less than a high school degree rather than a high school degree, (2) individuals having some college rather than a baccalaureate degree, and (3) individuals having anything less than a baccalaureate degree rather than a baccalaureate degree, using educational disparities specific to the 1925, 1935, and 1945 cohorts.</p><p>Methods</p><p>We use the National Health Interview Survey data (1986–2004) linked to prospective mortality through 2006 (N=1,008,949), and discrete-time survival models, to estimate education- and cohort-specific mortality rates. We use those mortality rates and data on the 2010 U.S. population from the American Community Survey, to calculate annual attributable mortality estimates.</p><p>Results</p><p>If adults aged 25–85 in the 2010 U.S. population experienced the educational disparities in mortality observed in the 1945 cohort, 145,243 deaths could be attributed to individuals having less than a high school degree rather than a high school degree, 110,068 deaths could be attributed to individuals having some college rather than a baccalaureate degree, and 554,525 deaths could be attributed to individuals having anything less than a baccalaureate degree rather than a baccalaureate degree. Widening educational disparities between the 1925 and 1945 cohorts result in a doubling of attributable mortality. Mortality attributable to having less than a high school degree is proportionally similar among women and men and among non-Hispanic blacks and whites, and is greater for cardiovascular disease than for cancer.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Mortality attributable to low education is comparable in magnitude to mortality attributable to individuals being current rather than former smokers. Existing research suggests that a substantial part of the association between education and mortality is causal. Thus, policies that increase education could significantly reduce adult mortality.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disparity", "baccalaureate degree", "2010 U.S", "individual", "1945 cohorts result", "adult mortality", "American Community Survey", "1945 cohorts.MethodsWe use", "mortality estimates.ResultsIf adults", "United States BackgroundEducational disparities", "school degree"], "article_id"=>1477421, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Patrick M. Krueger", "Melanie K. Tran", "Robert A. Hummer", "Virginia W. Chang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131809", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mortality_Attributable_to_Low_Levels_of_Education_in_the_United_States_/1477421", "title"=>"Mortality Attributable to Low Levels of Education in the United States", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-08 03:24:33"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"15", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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