Managing Conflict between Bats and Humans: The Response of Soprano Pipistrelles (Pipistrellus pygmaeus) to Exclusion from Roosts in Houses
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{"title"=>"Managing conflict between bats and humans: The response of soprano pipistrelles (pipistrellus pygmaeus) to exclusion from roosts in houses", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Emma", "last_name"=>"Stone", "scopus_author_id"=>"26647183800"}, {"first_name"=>"Matt R.K.", "last_name"=>"Zeale", "scopus_author_id"=>"36338052600"}, {"first_name"=>"Stuart E.", "last_name"=>"Newson", "scopus_author_id"=>"8889109300"}, {"first_name"=>"William J.", "last_name"=>"Browne", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005983588"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen", "last_name"=>"Harris", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403485048"}, {"first_name"=>"Gareth", "last_name"=>"Jones", "scopus_author_id"=>"55215755200"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84942134946", "pmid"=>"26244667", "pui"=>"606056944", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84942134946", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0131825", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"ccb8b2d1-e54e-3a93-a31a-6b8b5eab385a", "abstract"=>"Conflict can arise when bats roost in human dwellings and householders are affected adversely by their presence. In the United Kingdom, the exclusion of bats from roosts can be licensed under exceptional circumstances to alleviate conflict, but the fate of excluded bats and the impact on their survival and reproduction is not well understood. Using radio-tracking, we investigated the effects of exclusion on the soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus, a species that commonly roosts in buildings in Europe. Exclusions were performed under licence at five roosts in England in spring, when females were in the early stages of pregnancy. Following exclusion, all bats found alternative roosts and colonies congregated in nearby known roosts that had been used by radio-tagged bats prior to exclusion. We found no difference in roosting behaviour before and after exclusion. Both the frequency of roost switching and the type of roosts used by bats remained unchanged. We also found no change in foraging behaviour. Bats foraged in the same areas, travelled similar distances to reach foraging areas and showed similar patterns of habitat selection before and after exclusion. Population modelling suggested that any reduction in survival following exclusion could have a negative impact on population growth, whereas a reduction in productivity would have less effect. While the number of soprano pipistrelle exclusions currently licensed each year is likely to have little effect on local populations, the cumulative impacts of licensing the destruction of large numbers of roosts may be of concern.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/managing-conflict-between-bats-humans-response-soprano-pipistrelles-pipistrellus-pygmaeus-exclusion", "reader_count"=>66, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>17, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>42, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>42}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>17}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Switzerland"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2201675"], "description"=>"<p>Spatial data collected from female <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i> at (a) Crakemarsh (<i>n</i> = 25 bats), (b) Bentham (<i>n</i> = 23 bats), (c) Shackleford (<i>n</i> = 20 bats) and (d) Studland (<i>n</i> = 25 bats). Locations of the original colony roost before exclusion (red point), the new colony roost after exclusion (blue point), and alternative roosts (black points) are shown, together with the colony home ranges (100% minimum convex polygon). 90% cluster core foraging areas are shown for bats with ≥30 radio-tracking fixes for both control (solid grey polygons) and exclusion (hollow black polygons) periods (<i>n</i> = four bats at Bentham, 14 bats at Crakemarsh, seven bats at Shackleford and 15 bats at Studland).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["foraging behaviour", "Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "alternative roosts", "population modelling", "bats foraged", "impact", "Population growth", "soprano pipistrelle exclusions", "Houses Conflict", "foraging areas", "Managing Conflict", "Soprano Pipistrelles", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1503010, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Emma Stone", "Matt R. K. Zeale", "Stuart E. Newson", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131825.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_organisation_of_Pipistrellus_pygmaeus_/1503010", "title"=>"Spatial organisation of <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-05 03:14:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2201677"], "description"=>"<p>Effects of changing age-specific annual survival rates (top) and the constituents of productivity (bottom) on population growth rate of female soprano pipistrelles; the vital rates used are shown in brackets. In the absence of perturbation, the mean stochastic growth rate λ<sub>s</sub> was 0.997 i.e. essentially stable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["foraging behaviour", "Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "alternative roosts", "population modelling", "bats foraged", "impact", "Population growth", "soprano pipistrelle exclusions", "Houses Conflict", "foraging areas", "Managing Conflict", "Soprano Pipistrelles", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1503012, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Emma Stone", "Matt R. K. Zeale", "Stuart E. Newson", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131825.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modelled_population_growth_rates_of_Pipistrellus_pygmaeus_/1503012", "title"=>"Modelled population growth rates of <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-05 03:14:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2201678"], "description"=>"<p>Description of broad habitat types used in analysis of bat habitat preferences.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["foraging behaviour", "Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "alternative roosts", "population modelling", "bats foraged", "impact", "Population growth", "soprano pipistrelle exclusions", "Houses Conflict", "foraging areas", "Managing Conflict", "Soprano Pipistrelles", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1503013, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Emma Stone", "Matt R. K. Zeale", "Stuart E. Newson", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131825.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Description_of_broad_habitat_types_used_in_analysis_of_bat_habitat_preferences_/1503013", "title"=>"Description of broad habitat types used in analysis of bat habitat preferences.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-05 03:14:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2201680"], "description"=>"<p>* Source data for the common pipistrelle <i>P</i>. <i>pipistrellus</i>, a closely related cryptic species of the soprano pipistrelle <i>P</i>. <i>pygmaeus</i>.</p><p>Vital rates used in population matrix models for female <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["foraging behaviour", "Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "alternative roosts", "population modelling", "bats foraged", "impact", "Population growth", "soprano pipistrelle exclusions", "Houses Conflict", "foraging areas", "Managing Conflict", "Soprano Pipistrelles", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1503015, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Emma Stone", "Matt R. K. Zeale", "Stuart E. Newson", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131825.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vital_rates_used_in_population_matrix_models_for_female_Pipistrellus_pygmaeus_/1503015", "title"=>"Vital rates used in population matrix models for female <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-05 03:14:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2201681"], "description"=>"<p>** Estimated maximum number of bats using the original colony roost prior to exclusion.</p><p><sup>†</sup><i>n</i> roosts used by tagged bats; excludes roost data where bats were not located or where tags had failed.</p><p><sup>‡</sup> Parentheses = number of roosts that were used during both control and exclusion periods.</p><p>* Data accumulated over 4 to 7 day control and exclusion periods.</p><p>Radio-tracking data obtained from adult female <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i> before (control) and after (exclusion) being excluded from roosts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["foraging behaviour", "Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "alternative roosts", "population modelling", "bats foraged", "impact", "Population growth", "soprano pipistrelle exclusions", "Houses Conflict", "foraging areas", "Managing Conflict", "Soprano Pipistrelles", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1503016, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Emma Stone", "Matt R. K. Zeale", "Stuart E. Newson", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131825.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Radio_tracking_data_obtained_from_adult_female_Pipistrellus_pygmaeus_before_control_and_after_exclusion_being_excluded_from_roosts_/1503016", "title"=>"Radio-tracking data obtained from adult female <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i> before (control) and after (exclusion) being excluded from roosts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-05 03:14:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2201682"], "description"=>"<p>Shows the total number of day roost locations for bats at each site during exclusion experiments, the number of different roost types identified, and the proportional use (parentheses) of each roost type (calculated as the number of incidences that a bat was found roosting in a roost type divided by the total number of diurnal roost locations recorded for the site).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["foraging behaviour", "Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "alternative roosts", "population modelling", "bats foraged", "impact", "Population growth", "soprano pipistrelle exclusions", "Houses Conflict", "foraging areas", "Managing Conflict", "Soprano Pipistrelles", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1503017, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Emma Stone", "Matt R. K. Zeale", "Stuart E. Newson", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131825.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Roost_use_by_adult_female_Pipistrellus_pygmaeus_at_Bentham_n_23_Crakemarsh_n_25_Shackleford_n_20_Studland_n_25_and_Willaston_n_25_/1503017", "title"=>"Roost use by adult female <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i> at Bentham (<i>n</i> = 23), Crakemarsh (<i>n</i> = 25), Shackleford (<i>n</i> = 20), Studland (<i>n</i> = 25) and Willaston (<i>n</i> = 25).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-05 03:14:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2201683"], "description"=>"<p>* Mean ± SD, calculated as mean (<i>n</i> bats) of means (<i>n</i> bat-days).</p><p>Colony home range areas (100% MCPs), foraging areas (90% cluster cores) and range spans (mean maximum nightly distance from roost to centroid of 90% cluster core) for 40 adult female <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i> radio-tracked before (control) and after (exclusion) being excluded from roosts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["foraging behaviour", "Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "alternative roosts", "population modelling", "bats foraged", "impact", "Population growth", "soprano pipistrelle exclusions", "Houses Conflict", "foraging areas", "Managing Conflict", "Soprano Pipistrelles", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1503018, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Emma Stone", "Matt R. K. Zeale", "Stuart E. Newson", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131825.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Colony_home_range_areas_100_MCPs_foraging_areas_90_cluster_cores_and_range_spans_mean_maximum_nightly_distance_from_roost_to_centroid_of_90_cluster_core_for_40_adult_female_Pipistrellus_pygmaeus_radio_tracked_before_control_and_after_exclusion_being_excl/1503018", "title"=>"Colony home range areas (100% MCPs), foraging areas (90% cluster cores) and range spans (mean maximum nightly distance from roost to centroid of 90% cluster core) for 40 adult female <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i> radio-tracked before (control) and after (exclusion) being excluded from roosts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-05 03:14:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2201684"], "description"=>"<p>* <i>p</i>-values <0.05 show selection of habitat types is non-random.</p><p>Habitat categories to the left of > are selected over those to the right, with >>> showing a significant difference between adjacent habitat types.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["foraging behaviour", "Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "alternative roosts", "population modelling", "bats foraged", "impact", "Population growth", "soprano pipistrelle exclusions", "Houses Conflict", "foraging areas", "Managing Conflict", "Soprano Pipistrelles", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1503019, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Emma Stone", "Matt R. K. Zeale", "Stuart E. Newson", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131825.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Habitat_preferences_of_adult_female_Pipistrellus_pygmaeus_Crakemarsh_n_14_bats_Shackleford_n_7_bats_Studland_n_15_bats_during_control_and_exclusion_periods_/1503019", "title"=>"Habitat preferences of adult female <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i> (Crakemarsh <i>n</i> = 14 bats; Shackleford <i>n</i> = 7 bats; Studland <i>n</i> = 15 bats) during control and exclusion periods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-05 03:14:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2201686"], "description"=>"<p>Elasticities and sensitivities of matrix cells derived from the population projection matrices for female <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["foraging behaviour", "Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "alternative roosts", "population modelling", "bats foraged", "impact", "Population growth", "soprano pipistrelle exclusions", "Houses Conflict", "foraging areas", "Managing Conflict", "Soprano Pipistrelles", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1503021, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Emma Stone", "Matt R. K. Zeale", "Stuart E. Newson", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131825.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Elasticities_and_sensitivities_of_matrix_cells_derived_from_the_population_projection_matrices_for_female_Pipistrellus_pygmaeus_/1503021", "title"=>"Elasticities and sensitivities of matrix cells derived from the population projection matrices for female <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-05 03:14:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2201687"], "description"=>"<p>Elasticities and sensitivities for the constituents of productivity derived from the population projection matrices for female <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["foraging behaviour", "Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "alternative roosts", "population modelling", "bats foraged", "impact", "Population growth", "soprano pipistrelle exclusions", "Houses Conflict", "foraging areas", "Managing Conflict", "Soprano Pipistrelles", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1503022, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Emma Stone", "Matt R. K. Zeale", "Stuart E. Newson", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131825.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Elasticities_and_sensitivities_for_the_constituents_of_productivity_derived_from_the_population_projection_matrices_for_female_Pipistrellus_pygmaeus_/1503022", "title"=>"Elasticities and sensitivities for the constituents of productivity derived from the population projection matrices for female <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-05 03:14:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2201688"], "description"=>"<p>Critical threshold of population parameters for female <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i>, below which a population of 100 females is likely to become extinct within an arbitrary 500 years; figures in brackets show the vital rates used in the population models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["foraging behaviour", "Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "alternative roosts", "population modelling", "bats foraged", "impact", "Population growth", "soprano pipistrelle exclusions", "Houses Conflict", "foraging areas", "Managing Conflict", "Soprano Pipistrelles", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1503023, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Emma Stone", "Matt R. K. Zeale", "Stuart E. Newson", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131825.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Critical_threshold_of_population_parameters_for_female_Pipistrellus_pygmaeus_below_which_a_population_of_100_females_is_likely_to_become_extinct_within_an_arbitrary_500_years_figures_in_brackets_show_the_vital_rates_used_in_the_population_models_/1503023", "title"=>"Critical threshold of population parameters for female <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i>, below which a population of 100 females is likely to become extinct within an arbitrary 500 years; figures in brackets show the vital rates used in the population models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-05 03:14:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2201691", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2201692"], "description"=>"<div><p>Conflict can arise when bats roost in human dwellings and householders are affected adversely by their presence. In the United Kingdom, the exclusion of bats from roosts can be licensed under exceptional circumstances to alleviate conflict, but the fate of excluded bats and the impact on their survival and reproduction is not well understood. Using radio-tracking, we investigated the effects of exclusion on the soprano pipistrelle <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i>, a species that commonly roosts in buildings in Europe. Exclusions were performed under licence at five roosts in England in spring, when females were in the early stages of pregnancy. Following exclusion, all bats found alternative roosts and colonies congregated in nearby known roosts that had been used by radio-tagged bats prior to exclusion. We found no difference in roosting behaviour before and after exclusion. Both the frequency of roost switching and the type of roosts used by bats remained unchanged. We also found no change in foraging behaviour. Bats foraged in the same areas, travelled similar distances to reach foraging areas and showed similar patterns of habitat selection before and after exclusion. Population modelling suggested that any reduction in survival following exclusion could have a negative impact on population growth, whereas a reduction in productivity would have less effect. While the number of soprano pipistrelle exclusions currently licensed each year is likely to have little effect on local populations, the cumulative impacts of licensing the destruction of large numbers of roosts may be of concern.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["foraging behaviour", "Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus", "alternative roosts", "population modelling", "bats foraged", "impact", "Population growth", "soprano pipistrelle exclusions", "Houses Conflict", "foraging areas", "Managing Conflict", "Soprano Pipistrelles", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1503026, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Emma Stone", "Matt R. K. Zeale", "Stuart E. Newson", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131825.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131825.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Managing_Conflict_between_Bats_and_Humans_The_Response_of_Soprano_Pipistrelles_Pipistrellus_pygmaeus_to_Exclusion_from_Roosts_in_Houses/1503026", "title"=>"Managing Conflict between Bats and Humans: The Response of Soprano Pipistrelles (<i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i>) to Exclusion from Roosts in Houses", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-08-05 03:14:30"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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