The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods
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{"title"=>"The measurement of subjective value and its relation to contingent valuation and environmental public goods", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mel W.", "last_name"=>"Khaw", "scopus_author_id"=>"55588075700"}, {"first_name"=>"Denise A.", "last_name"=>"Grab", "scopus_author_id"=>"56850121900"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael A.", "last_name"=>"Livermore", "scopus_author_id"=>"14019625400"}, {"first_name"=>"Christian A.", "last_name"=>"Vossler", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602985643"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul W.", "last_name"=>"Glimcher", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603900600"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84941783124", "pui"=>"605996825", "pmid"=>"26221734", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0132842", "sgr"=>"84941783124"}, "id"=>"b5257dd6-d6a2-3a28-952a-a60c03809439", "abstract"=>"Environmental public goods--including national parks, clean air/water, and ecosystem services--provide substantial benefits on a global scale. These goods have unique characteristics in that they are typically \"nonmarket\" goods, with values from both use and passive use that accrue to a large number of individuals both in current and future generations. In this study, we test the hypothesis that neural signals in areas correlated with subjective valuations for essentially all other previously studied categories of goods (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) also correlate with environmental valuations. We use contingent valuation (CV) as our behavioral tool for measuring valuations of environmental public goods. CV is a standard stated preference approach that presents survey respondents with information on an issue and asks questions that help policymakers determine how much citizens are willing to pay for a public good or policy. We scanned human subjects while they viewed environmental proposals, along with three other classes of goods. The presentation of all four classes of goods yielded robust and similar patterns of temporally synchronized brain activation within attentional networks. The activations associated with the traditional classes of goods replicate previous correlations between neural activity in valuation areas and behavioral preferences. In contrast, CV-elicited values for environmental proposals did not correlate with brain activity at either the individual or population level. For a sub-population of participants, CV-elicited values were correlated with activity within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with cognitive control and shifting decision strategies. The results show that neural activity associated with the subjective valuation of environmental proposals differs profoundly from the neural activity associated with previously examined goods and preference measures.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/measurement-subjective-value-relation-contingent-valuation-environmental-public-goods", "reader_count"=>49, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Neuroscience"=>7, "Psychology"=>7, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>7}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2194194", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2194195"], "description"=>"<div><p>Environmental public goods—including national parks, clean air/water, and ecosystem services—provide substantial benefits on a global scale. These goods have unique characteristics in that they are typically “nonmarket” goods, with values from both use and passive use that accrue to a large number of individuals both in current and future generations. In this study, we test the hypothesis that neural signals in areas correlated with subjective valuations for essentially all other previously studied categories of goods (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) also correlate with environmental valuations. We use contingent valuation (CV) as our behavioral tool for measuring valuations of environmental public goods. CV is a standard stated preference approach that presents survey respondents with information on an issue and asks questions that help policymakers determine how much citizens are willing to pay for a public good or policy. We scanned human subjects while they viewed environmental proposals, along with three other classes of goods. The presentation of all four classes of goods yielded robust and similar patterns of temporally synchronized brain activation within <i>attentional </i>networks. The activations associated with the traditional classes of goods replicate previous correlations between neural activity in valuation areas and behavioral preferences. In contrast, CV-elicited values for environmental proposals did not correlate with brain activity at either the individual or population level. For a sub-population of participants, CV-elicited values were correlated with activity within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with cognitive control and shifting decision strategies. The results show that neural activity associated with the subjective valuation of environmental proposals differs profoundly from the neural activity associated with previously examined goods and preference measures.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["brain activation", "dorsomedial prefrontal cortex", "good", "decision strategies", "ventromedial prefrontal cortex", "Environmental Public Goods Environmental", "results show", "survey respondents", "future generations", "Subjective Value", "valuation areas", "population level", "preference measures", "cv", "ventral striatum", "brain activity", "Contingent Valuation", "preference approach", "attentional networks"], "article_id"=>1497411, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mel W. Khaw", "Denise A. Grab", "Michael A. Livermore", "Christian A. Vossler", "Paul W. Glimcher"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132842.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132842.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Measurement_of_Subjective_Value_and_Its_Relation_to_Contingent_Valuation_and_Environmental_Public_Goods_/1497411", "title"=>"The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-07-29 04:03:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2194173"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Sample page from 1 (out of 6) environmental proposals that were designed for the experiment. (b) Timeline of a trial inside the scanner, whereby subjects witnessed each good for 2 s, followed by a fixation point for 2 s. Subjects then either saw a question trial for alertness or a cross lasting for 2 s. A fixation point was then displayed for 6, 8, or 10 s chosen with uniform probability. (c) Different good types presented centered on the screen during the scanning session. Clockwise from top left: environmental proposals, consumer goods, daily activities, and snack items.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["brain activation", "dorsomedial prefrontal cortex", "good", "decision strategies", "ventromedial prefrontal cortex", "Environmental Public Goods Environmental", "results show", "survey respondents", "future generations", "Subjective Value", "valuation areas", "population level", "preference measures", "cv", "ventral striatum", "brain activity", "Contingent Valuation", "preference approach", "attentional networks"], "article_id"=>1497390, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mel W. Khaw", "Denise A. Grab", "Michael A. Livermore", "Christian A. Vossler", "Paul W. Glimcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132842.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Measurement_of_Subjective_Value_and_Its_Relation_to_Contingent_Valuation_and_Environmental_Public_Goods_Fig_1_/1497390", "title"=>"The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods - Fig 1", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-29 04:03:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2194175"], "description"=>"<p>From top to bottom: auction bidding with snack foods, visual analog scale with daily activities, choices between consumer goods, and payment card response screen for environmental proposals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["brain activation", "dorsomedial prefrontal cortex", "good", "decision strategies", "ventromedial prefrontal cortex", "Environmental Public Goods Environmental", "results show", "survey respondents", "future generations", "Subjective Value", "valuation areas", "population level", "preference measures", "cv", "ventral striatum", "brain activity", "Contingent Valuation", "preference approach", "attentional networks"], "article_id"=>1497392, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mel W. Khaw", "Denise A. Grab", "Michael A. Livermore", "Christian A. Vossler", "Paul W. Glimcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132842.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_screens_of_behavioral_value_elicitation_procedures_/1497392", "title"=>"Example screens of behavioral value-elicitation procedures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-29 04:03:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2194177"], "description"=>"<p>A nonparametric regression for each trial type in contrast to inter-trial intervals reveals identical activations (p < 0.001, FDR corrected) within dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), ventral striatum, visual cortical areas, and superior frontal sulcus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["brain activation", "dorsomedial prefrontal cortex", "good", "decision strategies", "ventromedial prefrontal cortex", "Environmental Public Goods Environmental", "results show", "survey respondents", "future generations", "Subjective Value", "valuation areas", "population level", "preference measures", "cv", "ventral striatum", "brain activity", "Contingent Valuation", "preference approach", "attentional networks"], "article_id"=>1497394, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mel W. Khaw", "Denise A. Grab", "Michael A. Livermore", "Christian A. Vossler", "Paul W. Glimcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132842.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_nonparametric_regression_for_each_trial_type_in_contrast_to_inter_trial_intervals_reveals_identical_activations_p_lt_0_001_FDR_corrected_within_dorsomedial_prefrontal_cortex_dmPFC_posterior_cingulate_cortex_PCC_ventral_striatum_visual_cortical_areas_an/1497394", "title"=>"A nonparametric regression for each trial type in contrast to inter-trial intervals reveals identical activations (p < 0.001, FDR corrected) within dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), ventral striatum, visual cortical areas, and superior frontal sulcus.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-29 04:03:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2194179"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Choice probabilities of subjects for each payment card range did not vary significantly across any and all repetitions that were randomly interleaved across the behavioral session. (b) Correlations between alternative measures of environmental preferences. An extended sample (N = 15) submitted bids and choices in addition to the payment card with the exact same environmental proposals as a measure of consistency. Left: Correlation between mean WTP willingness-to-pay and mean BDM bid for each proposal (<i>r</i> = 0.55, p < 0.01). Right: Correlation between mean willingness-to-pay for each proposal and choices observed (<i>r</i> = 0.39, p < 0.01) between environmental proposals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["brain activation", "dorsomedial prefrontal cortex", "good", "decision strategies", "ventromedial prefrontal cortex", "Environmental Public Goods Environmental", "results show", "survey respondents", "future generations", "Subjective Value", "valuation areas", "population level", "preference measures", "cv", "ventral striatum", "brain activity", "Contingent Valuation", "preference approach", "attentional networks"], "article_id"=>1497396, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mel W. Khaw", "Denise A. Grab", "Michael A. Livermore", "Christian A. Vossler", "Paul W. Glimcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132842.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Measurement_of_Subjective_Value_and_Its_Relation_to_Contingent_Valuation_and_Environmental_Public_Goods_Fig_4_/1497396", "title"=>"The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods - Fig 4", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-29 04:03:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2194181"], "description"=>"<p>Clockwise from top left: Inclusive of all preferences, leaving out contingent valuations, leaving out activity ratings, leaving out snack food bids, and leaving out consumer good choices. Threshold for each map was set to p < 0.01, FDR corrected.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["brain activation", "dorsomedial prefrontal cortex", "good", "decision strategies", "ventromedial prefrontal cortex", "Environmental Public Goods Environmental", "results show", "survey respondents", "future generations", "Subjective Value", "valuation areas", "population level", "preference measures", "cv", "ventral striatum", "brain activity", "Contingent Valuation", "preference approach", "attentional networks"], "article_id"=>1497398, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mel W. Khaw", "Denise A. Grab", "Michael A. Livermore", "Christian A. Vossler", "Paul W. Glimcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132842.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistical_parameter_maps_for_parametric_regression_including_all_behaviorally_measured_preferences_as_regressors_and_all_possible_8220_leave_one_out_8221_combinations_replicating_neural_correlates_identified_in_previous_studies_and_meta_studies_of_subj/1497398", "title"=>"Statistical parameter maps for parametric regression including all behaviorally measured preferences as regressors and all possible “leave-one-out” combinations, replicating neural correlates identified in previous studies and meta-studies of subjective valuations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-29 04:03:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2194184"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Statistical parameter maps revealing regions associated with subjective value of different categories of goods (p < 0.05, uncorrected). (b) Average time course following the onset of each trial type for spherical ROIs centered on the ventral striatum (top) and vmPFC (bottom). (c) Average time course averaged according to good rank from the vmPFC (left) and ventral striatum (right). (d) Differential activity within vmPFC region of interest (inset) for highest and lowest ranked goods (error bars indicates ± s.e. of the mean). Inset: spherical vmPFC ROI used to compute average change BOLD activity between time points 5–8 after stimuli onset.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["brain activation", "dorsomedial prefrontal cortex", "good", "decision strategies", "ventromedial prefrontal cortex", "Environmental Public Goods Environmental", "results show", "survey respondents", "future generations", "Subjective Value", "valuation areas", "population level", "preference measures", "cv", "ventral striatum", "brain activity", "Contingent Valuation", "preference approach", "attentional networks"], "article_id"=>1497401, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mel W. Khaw", "Denise A. Grab", "Michael A. Livermore", "Christian A. Vossler", "Paul W. Glimcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132842.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Measurement_of_Subjective_Value_and_Its_Relation_to_Contingent_Valuation_and_Environmental_Public_Goods_Fig_6_/1497401", "title"=>"The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods - Fig 6", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-29 04:03:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2194186"], "description"=>"<p>Group averages were computed from differences in vmPFC BOLD activation between most and least preferred goods (i.e., differences in average percent BOLD change within time points 3, 4, and 5 or, alternatively, 6–10 s after stimulus onset) for each subject within each good category. A one-way ANOVA performed across the groups suggests that the between-group means to be significantly different (F = 11.58, p < 0.05). Excluding the environmental proposals eliminates this effect (F = 3.41, p > 0.1), suggesting that the remaining three group means are not significantly different from each other.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["brain activation", "dorsomedial prefrontal cortex", "good", "decision strategies", "ventromedial prefrontal cortex", "Environmental Public Goods Environmental", "results show", "survey respondents", "future generations", "Subjective Value", "valuation areas", "population level", "preference measures", "cv", "ventral striatum", "brain activity", "Contingent Valuation", "preference approach", "attentional networks"], "article_id"=>1497403, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mel W. Khaw", "Denise A. Grab", "Michael A. Livermore", "Christian A. Vossler", "Paul W. Glimcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132842.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Boxplot_of_average_differences_in_activation_between_most_and_least_preferred_goods_across_all_four_categories_of_goods_/1497403", "title"=>"Boxplot of average differences in activation between most and least preferred goods across all four categories of goods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-29 04:03:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2194187"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Average willingness-to-pay computed from behavioral responses in BDM auction for consumer goods and payment card responses for environmental proposals (error bars indicates ± s.e. of the mean). (b) Average change in percent BOLD response following the presentation of consumer goods or environmental proposals. (c) The correlation for BDM-consumer goods pairs is significant (r = 0.88, p < 0.05), in contrast to the neural correlation for CV of the environmental proposals (r = 0.34, p = 0.51).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["brain activation", "dorsomedial prefrontal cortex", "good", "decision strategies", "ventromedial prefrontal cortex", "Environmental Public Goods Environmental", "results show", "survey respondents", "future generations", "Subjective Value", "valuation areas", "population level", "preference measures", "cv", "ventral striatum", "brain activity", "Contingent Valuation", "preference approach", "attentional networks"], "article_id"=>1497404, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mel W. Khaw", "Denise A. Grab", "Michael A. Livermore", "Christian A. Vossler", "Paul W. Glimcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132842.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Measurement_of_Subjective_Value_and_Its_Relation_to_Contingent_Valuation_and_Environmental_Public_Goods_Fig_8_/1497404", "title"=>"The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods - Fig 8", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-29 04:03:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2194189"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Regions correlated with environmental preferences (p < 0.05, uncorrected) for exploratory sub-population (orange) relative to a priori vmPFC region of interest (green). (b) Selection of exploratory sub-population based on average whole-brain regression coefficient for environmental proposals. (c) Differential activity within exploratory sub-population’s vmPFC region for favored vs. nonfavored proposals. (d) Reaction time differences between exploratory sub-population and remaining subjects.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["brain activation", "dorsomedial prefrontal cortex", "good", "decision strategies", "ventromedial prefrontal cortex", "Environmental Public Goods Environmental", "results show", "survey respondents", "future generations", "Subjective Value", "valuation areas", "population level", "preference measures", "cv", "ventral striatum", "brain activity", "Contingent Valuation", "preference approach", "attentional networks"], "article_id"=>1497406, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mel W. Khaw", "Denise A. Grab", "Michael A. Livermore", "Christian A. Vossler", "Paul W. Glimcher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132842.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Measurement_of_Subjective_Value_and_Its_Relation_to_Contingent_Valuation_and_Environmental_Public_Goods_Fig_9_/1497406", "title"=>"The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods - Fig 9", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-29 04:03:54"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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