The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp
Publication Date
August 26, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Jason Sawler, Jake M. Stout, Kyle M. Gardner, Darryl Hudson, et al
Volume
10
Issue
8
Pages
e0133292
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133292
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0133292
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308334
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4550350
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26308334
Web of Science
000360069400009
Scopus
84942267284
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/genetic-structure-marijuana-hemp
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228068", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228069", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228070", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228071", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228072", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228073"], "description"=>"<div><p>Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus <i>Cannabis</i> has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of <i>Cannabis</i> (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid <b>Δ</b><sup>9</sup>-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (<i>C</i>. <i>sativa</i> and <i>C</i>. <i>indica</i>) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated <i>Cannabis</i> plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported <i>C</i>. <i>sativa</i> and <i>C</i>. <i>indica</i> ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to <i>C</i>. <i>indica</i> type marijuana than to <i>C</i>. <i>sativa</i> strains.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["81 marijuana", "marijuana strains", "marijuana strain names", "Hemp types", "drug types", "43 hemp samples", "Cannabis plants", "indica type marijuana", "taxonomic organization", "genus Cannabis", "gene pools", "THC production", "genetic structure", "indica ancestry", "sativa strains", "snp"], "article_id"=>1523281, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jason Sawler", "Jake M. Stout", "Kyle M. Gardner", "Darryl Hudson", "John Vidmar", "Laura Butler", "Jonathan E. Page", "Sean Myles"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133292.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133292.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133292.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133292.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133292.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133292.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>54, "page_views"=>72, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Genetic_Structure_of_Marijuana_and_Hemp_/1523281", "title"=>"The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 03:40:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228061"], "description"=>"<p>(a) PCA of 43 hemp and 81 marijuana samples using 14,031 SNPs. Hemp samples are colored green and marijuana samples are colored according to their reported <i>C</i>. <i>sativa</i> ancestry. The proportion of the variance explained by each PC is shown in parentheses along each axis. The two samples labeled with their IDs are discussed in the text. (b) Boxplots showing significantly lower heterozygosity in marijuana than in hemp. (c) Population structure of hemp and marijuana estimated using the fastSTRUCTURE admixture model at K = 2. Each sample is represented by a thin vertical line, which is partitioned into two colored segments that represent the sample’s estimated membership in each of the two inferred clusters. Hemp and marijuana samples are labeled below the plot.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["81 marijuana", "marijuana strains", "marijuana strain names", "Hemp types", "drug types", "43 hemp samples", "Cannabis plants", "indica type marijuana", "taxonomic organization", "genus Cannabis", "gene pools", "THC production", "genetic structure", "indica ancestry", "sativa strains", "snp"], "article_id"=>1523278, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jason Sawler", "Jake M. Stout", "Kyle M. Gardner", "Darryl Hudson", "John Vidmar", "Laura Butler", "Jonathan E. Page", "Sean Myles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133292.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetic_structure_of_marijuana_and_hemp_/1523278", "title"=>"Genetic structure of marijuana and hemp.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 03:40:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228063"], "description"=>"<p>(a) PCA of 81 marijuana samples using 9,776 SNPs. Samples are colored according to their reported <i>C</i>. <i>sativa</i> ancestry. The proportion of the variance explained by each PC is shown in parentheses along each axis. (b) Population structure of marijuana calculated using the fastSTRUCTURE admixture model at K = 2. Each sample is represented by a horizontal bar, which is partitioned into two colored segments that represent the sample’s estimated membership in each of the two inferred clusters. Adjacent to each bar is the sample’s name and reported % <i>C</i>. <i>sativa</i> ancestry. (c) The correlation between the principal axis of genetic structure (PC1) in marijuana and reported <i>C</i>. <i>sativa</i> ancestry.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["81 marijuana", "marijuana strains", "marijuana strain names", "Hemp types", "drug types", "43 hemp samples", "Cannabis plants", "indica type marijuana", "taxonomic organization", "genus Cannabis", "gene pools", "THC production", "genetic structure", "indica ancestry", "sativa strains", "snp"], "article_id"=>1523279, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jason Sawler", "Jake M. Stout", "Kyle M. Gardner", "Darryl Hudson", "John Vidmar", "Laura Butler", "Jonathan E. Page", "Sean Myles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133292.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetic_structure_of_marijuana_/1523279", "title"=>"Genetic structure of marijuana.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 03:40:57"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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