Effects of p21 Gene Down-Regulation through RNAi on Antler Stem Cells In Vitro
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{"title"=>"Effects of p21 gene down-regulation through RNAi on antler stem cells in vitro", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Qianqian", "last_name"=>"Guo", "scopus_author_id"=>"56890145600"}, {"first_name"=>"Datao", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"47161788200"}, {"first_name"=>"Zhen", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56890132400"}, {"first_name"=>"Chunyi", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"35237479800"}, {"first_name"=>"Sue", "last_name"=>"Cotterill", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006021766"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84943328056", "pui"=>"606225885", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0134268", "pmid"=>"26308075", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84943328056", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"b65df139-0d5d-3dde-bfdd-20e861e9ace9", "abstract"=>"Cell cycle is an integral part of cell proliferation, and consists mainly of four phases, G1, S, G2 and M. The p21 protein, a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, plays a key role in regulating cell cyclevia G1 phase control. Cells capable of epimorphic regeneration have G2/M accumulation as their distinctive feature, whilst the majority of somatic cells rest at G1 phase. To investigate the role played byp21 in antler regeneration, we studied the cell cycle distribution of antler stem cells (ASCs), via down-regulation of p21 in vitro using RNAi. The results showed that ASCs had high levels of p21 mRNA expression and rested at G1 phase, which was comparable to the control somatic cells. Down-regulation of p21 did not result in ASC cell cycle re-distribution toward G2/M accumulation, but DNA damage and apoptosis of the ASCs significantly increased and the process of cell aging was slowed. These findings suggest that the ASCs may have evolved to use an alternative, p21-independent cell cycle regulation mechanism. Also a unique p21-dependent inhibitory effect may control DNA damage as a protective mechanism to ensure the fast proliferating ASCs do not become dysplastic/cancerous. Understanding of the mechanism underlying the role played by p21 in the ASCs could give insight into a mammalian system where epimorphic regeneration is initiated whilst the genome stability is effectively maintained.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-p21-gene-downregulation-through-rnai-antler-stem-cells-vitro", "reader_count"=>3, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228573"], "description"=>"<p>Exponentially growing ASCs and FPCs were harvested for the cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry. The data were analyzed with ModFit LT Software to estimate the percentages of cells at G1, S, and G2/M phases. A: Cell cycle distribution of the FPCs. B: Cell cycle distribution of the ASCs. No distinct G2/M accumulation was observed in either of the cell lines. C: Ratio of the cell numbers at G1 to G2 phase. Note that there was no significant difference in cell cycle distribution between these two cell types (P>0. 05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["G 1 phase", "epimorphic regeneration", "Vitro Cell cycle", "cell cyclevia G 1 phase control", "cell cycle distribution", "asc", "Antler Stem Cells", "DNA damage", "p 21 protein", "p 21", "p 21 mRNA expression"], "article_id"=>1523678, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Qianqian Guo", "Datao Wang", "Zhen Liu", "Chunyi Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134268.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cell_cyclein_the_ASCs_and_the_FPCs_/1523678", "title"=>"Cell cyclein the ASCs and the FPCs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:15:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228587"], "description"=>"<p>Observation of the cells containing DNA breaks (with long tails) under a fluorescent microscopy. A, Untreated ASCs. No obvious comet tails were observed. B, S1-iRNA ASCs. Almost every cell in the field had a long and obvious comet tail (arrow). C, Empty-vector-iRNA ASCs. Weak comet tails were observed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["G 1 phase", "epimorphic regeneration", "Vitro Cell cycle", "cell cyclevia G 1 phase control", "cell cycle distribution", "asc", "Antler Stem Cells", "DNA damage", "p 21 protein", "p 21", "p 21 mRNA expression"], "article_id"=>1523689, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Qianqian Guo", "Datao Wang", "Zhen Liu", "Chunyi Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134268.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_p21_knockdown_on_DNA_damage_in_the_ASCs_/1523689", "title"=>"Effects of p21 knockdown on DNA damage in the ASCs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:15:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228583"], "description"=>"<p>MTT assay of the S1-iRNA ASCs, the empty-vector-iRNA ASCs and the untreated ASCs. A, Growth curve of the ASCs at passage six. No significant difference was observed between these three groups. B, Growth curve of the ASCs at passage fifteen. Note that the proliferation rate of the S1-iRNA ASCs was significantly higher than those of the other two groups (P<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["G 1 phase", "epimorphic regeneration", "Vitro Cell cycle", "cell cyclevia G 1 phase control", "cell cycle distribution", "asc", "Antler Stem Cells", "DNA damage", "p 21 protein", "p 21", "p 21 mRNA expression"], "article_id"=>1523687, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Qianqian Guo", "Datao Wang", "Zhen Liu", "Chunyi Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134268.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_p21_knockdown_on_ASC_growth_/1523687", "title"=>"Effects of p21 knockdown on ASC growth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:15:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228582"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were infected at the third passage and harvested at the sixth, tenth and fifteenth passages, and analyzed by flow cytometry. The data were analyzed with ModFit LT Software to estimate the percentages of cells at G1, S, and G2/M. A and B: Cell cycle distribution of the ASCs. A, S1-iRNA ASCs. B, Untreated ASCs. Note that there was no distinct G2 accumulation in either of the groups. C: Bar graph depicts percentage of the cells at G1, S and G2 phases. Percentage of the S1-iRNA ASCs at G2 phase was similar to that of the untreated ASCs. There was no significant difference in cell-cycle distribution between the two groups (P>0. 05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["G 1 phase", "epimorphic regeneration", "Vitro Cell cycle", "cell cyclevia G 1 phase control", "cell cycle distribution", "asc", "Antler Stem Cells", "DNA damage", "p 21 protein", "p 21", "p 21 mRNA expression"], "article_id"=>1523686, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Qianqian Guo", "Datao Wang", "Zhen Liu", "Chunyi Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134268.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_p21_knockdown_on_ASC_cell_cycle_distribution_/1523686", "title"=>"Effects of p21 knockdown on ASC cell-cycle distribution.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:15:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228578"], "description"=>"<p>GFP expression was monitored under a fluorescent microscope 48h after lentiviral infection. A and B, the p21-shRNA-infected ASCs. C and D, the empty-vector-infected ASCs. Fluorescence was clearly observable in both the p21-shRNA-infected ASCs (3A) and the empty-vector-infected ASCs (3C). Cells from both groups were healthy. E: RT-qPCR of the p21 expression. Note that both of the target sequences (S1 and S2) significantly down-regulated p21 mRNA expression in the ASCs (P<0.05). No significant difference was found between the empty-vector-iRNA ASCs and the untreated ASCs (P>0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["G 1 phase", "epimorphic regeneration", "Vitro Cell cycle", "cell cyclevia G 1 phase control", "cell cycle distribution", "asc", "Antler Stem Cells", "DNA damage", "p 21 protein", "p 21", "p 21 mRNA expression"], "article_id"=>1523682, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Qianqian Guo", "Datao Wang", "Zhen Liu", "Chunyi Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134268.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_RNAi_on_the_p21_expression_in_the_ASCs_/1523682", "title"=>"Effects of RNAi on the p21 expression in the ASCs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:15:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228593"], "description"=>"<p>Primers used for qPCR.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["G 1 phase", "epimorphic regeneration", "Vitro Cell cycle", "cell cyclevia G 1 phase control", "cell cycle distribution", "asc", "Antler Stem Cells", "DNA damage", "p 21 protein", "p 21", "p 21 mRNA expression"], "article_id"=>1523695, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Qianqian Guo", "Datao Wang", "Zhen Liu", "Chunyi Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134268.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primers_used_for_qPCR_/1523695", "title"=>"Primers used for qPCR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:15:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228594"], "description"=>"<p>Interfering sequences of siRNA targeting for p21 gene.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["G 1 phase", "epimorphic regeneration", "Vitro Cell cycle", "cell cyclevia G 1 phase control", "cell cycle distribution", "asc", "Antler Stem Cells", "DNA damage", "p 21 protein", "p 21", "p 21 mRNA expression"], "article_id"=>1523696, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Qianqian Guo", "Datao Wang", "Zhen Liu", "Chunyi Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134268.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Interfering_sequences_of_siRNA_targeting_for_p21_gene_/1523696", "title"=>"Interfering sequences of siRNA targeting for p21 gene.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:15:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228592"], "description"=>"<p>A and B: β-Galactosidase staining. A, S1-iRNA ASCs. Note these cells were barely stained, changes in cell volume were not detectable. B, Empty-vector-iRNA ASCs. Note most of these cells were stained in deep blue (senescent cells), with an increase in cell volume. C, Comparisons between the S1-iRNA ASCs, the empty-vector-iRNA ASCs and the untreated ASCs in the percentage of the senescence positive ratio of the cells. Note that senescent rate of the cells infected by S1-siRNA was significantly lower than those of the other two groups (P<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["G 1 phase", "epimorphic regeneration", "Vitro Cell cycle", "cell cyclevia G 1 phase control", "cell cycle distribution", "asc", "Antler Stem Cells", "DNA damage", "p 21 protein", "p 21", "p 21 mRNA expression"], "article_id"=>1523694, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Qianqian Guo", "Datao Wang", "Zhen Liu", "Chunyi Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134268.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_p21_knockdown_on_senescence_in_the_ASCs_/1523694", "title"=>"Effects of p21 knockdown on senescence in the ASCs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:15:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228588"], "description"=>"<p>Detection of cell apoptosis by Annexin V-PE/7-AAD staining. A-C: Annexin V-PE was read in FL2 and plotted on the x-axis. 7-AAD was read in FL3 and plotted on the y-axis. Living cells were located in the lower left quarter (both annexin and 7AAD negative), apoptotic cells were in the lower right quarter (annexin positive, 7AAD negative) and the dead cells (and late apoptosis) were in the top right quarter (both annexin and 7AAD positive). A, Untreated ASCs. B, S1-iRNA ASCs. C, Empty-vector-iRNA ASCs. D, Comparisons of the apoptotic rate between the S1-iRNA ASCs, the empty-vector-iRNA ASCs and the untreated ASCs. Note that the rate of apoptosis in the S1-iRNA ASCs was significantly increased compared to the untreated ASCs and the empty-vector-iRNA ASCs (P<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["G 1 phase", "epimorphic regeneration", "Vitro Cell cycle", "cell cyclevia G 1 phase control", "cell cycle distribution", "asc", "Antler Stem Cells", "DNA damage", "p 21 protein", "p 21", "p 21 mRNA expression"], "article_id"=>1523690, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Qianqian Guo", "Datao Wang", "Zhen Liu", "Chunyi Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134268.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_p21_knockdown_on_apoptosis_of_the_ASCs_/1523690", "title"=>"Effects of p21 knockdown on apoptosis of the ASCs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:15:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228597"], "description"=>"<p>UN: The untreated ASCs; S1-iRNA: The S1-iRNA ASCs; Em-iRNA: The empty-vector-iRNA ASCs.</p><p>** p<0.01</p><p>* p<0.05</p><p>Effects of p21 knockdown on the ASCs DNA damage.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["G 1 phase", "epimorphic regeneration", "Vitro Cell cycle", "cell cyclevia G 1 phase control", "cell cycle distribution", "asc", "Antler Stem Cells", "DNA damage", "p 21 protein", "p 21", "p 21 mRNA expression"], "article_id"=>1523699, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Qianqian Guo", "Datao Wang", "Zhen Liu", "Chunyi Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134268.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_p21_knockdown_on_the_ASCs_DNA_damage_/1523699", "title"=>"Effects of p21 knockdown on the ASCs DNA damage.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:15:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228596"], "description"=>"<p>Cell cycle distribution of the FPCs and the ASCs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["G 1 phase", "epimorphic regeneration", "Vitro Cell cycle", "cell cyclevia G 1 phase control", "cell cycle distribution", "asc", "Antler Stem Cells", "DNA damage", "p 21 protein", "p 21", "p 21 mRNA expression"], "article_id"=>1523698, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Qianqian Guo", "Datao Wang", "Zhen Liu", "Chunyi Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134268.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cell_cycle_distribution_of_the_FPCs_and_the_ASCs_/1523698", "title"=>"Cell cycle distribution of the FPCs and the ASCs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:15:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228574"], "description"=>"<p>Total RNA was isolated from the ASCs or the FPCs at the third passage, RT-qPCR was performed for each cell type. Note that mRNA level for p21 in the FPCs accounted for only half of that in the ASCs. Expression level of the p21 mRNA in the ASCs was significantly higher than that in the FPCs (P<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["G 1 phase", "epimorphic regeneration", "Vitro Cell cycle", "cell cyclevia G 1 phase control", "cell cycle distribution", "asc", "Antler Stem Cells", "DNA damage", "p 21 protein", "p 21", "p 21 mRNA expression"], "article_id"=>1523679, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Qianqian Guo", "Datao Wang", "Zhen Liu", "Chunyi Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134268.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_levels_of_p21_mRNA_in_the_ASCs_and_the_FPCs_/1523679", "title"=>"Expression levels of p21 mRNA in the ASCs and the FPCs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:15:40"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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