Distributions of Irritative Zones Are Related to Individual Alterations of Resting-State Networks in Focal Epilepsy
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{"title"=>"Distributions of irritative zones are related to individual alterations of resting-state networks in focal epilepsy", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Yinchen", "last_name"=>"Song", "scopus_author_id"=>"55494221000"}, {"first_name"=>"Basavaraju G.", "last_name"=>"Sanganahalli", "scopus_author_id"=>"55969194900"}, {"first_name"=>"Fahmeed", "last_name"=>"Hyder", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005994225"}, {"first_name"=>"Wei Chiang", "last_name"=>"Lin", "scopus_author_id"=>"36067644100"}, {"first_name"=>"Jorge J.", "last_name"=>"Riera", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102505045"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84941966046", "sgr"=>"84941966046", "pui"=>"606057186", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"26226628", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0134352"}, "id"=>"adf6e961-7ec5-3896-a207-9945d5688a51", "abstract"=>"Alterations in the connectivity patterns of the fMRI-based resting-state networks (RSNs) have been reported in several types of epilepsies. Evidence pointed out these alterations might be associated with the genesis and propagation of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). IEDs also evoke blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) responses, which have been used to delineate irritative zones during preoperative work-up. Therefore, one may expect a relationship between the topology of the IED-evoked BOLD response network and the altered spatial patterns of the RSNs. In this study, we used EEG recordings and fMRI data obtained simultaneously from a chronic model of focal epilepsy in Wistar rats to verify our hypothesis. We found that IED-evoked BOLD response networks comprise both cortical and subcortical structures with a rat-dependent topology. In all rats, IEDs evoke both activation and deactivation types of BOLD responses. Using a Granger causality method, we found that in many cases areas with BOLD deactivation have directed influences on areas with activation (p<0.05). We were able to predict topological properties (i.e., focal/diffused, unilateral/bilateral) of the IED-evoked BOLD response network by performing hierarchical clustering analysis on major spatial features of the RSNs. All these results suggest that IEDs and disruptions in the RSNs found previously in humans may be different manifestations of the same transient events, probably reflecting altered consciousness. In our opinion, the shutdown of specific nodes of the default mode network may cause uncontrollable excitability in other functionally connected brain areas. We conclude that IED-evoked BOLD responses (i.e., activation and deactivation) and alterations of RSNs are intrinsically related, and speculate that an understanding of their interplay is necessary to discriminate focal epileptogenesis and network propagation phenomena across different brain modules via hub-based connectivity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/distributions-irritative-zones-related-individual-alterations-restingstate-networks-focal-epilepsy", "reader_count"=>27, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>5, "Unspecified"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Neuroscience"=>5, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Psychology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>5}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Cuba"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2196023"], "description"=>"<p>Frequency of Interictal Epileptiform Discharges (IEDs).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fMRI data", "Individual Alterations", "cases areas", "Irritative Zones", "BOLD responses", "interictal epileptiform discharges", "Focal Epilepsy Alterations", "EEG recordings", "brain areas", "connectivity patterns", "ied", "Wistar rats", "brain modules", "default mode network", "subcortical structures", "Granger causality method", "deactivation types", "network propagation phenomena", "BOLD deactivation", "rsn", "topological properties"], "article_id"=>1498759, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yinchen Song", "Basavaraju G. Sanganahalli", "Fahmeed Hyder", "Wei-Chiang Lin", "Jorge J. Riera"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_of_Interictal_Epileptiform_Discharges_IEDs_/1498759", "title"=>"Frequency of Interictal Epileptiform Discharges (IEDs).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:10:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2196000"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The locations of the three carbon electrodes implanted subcutaneously on top of the skull for EEG acquisition. (B) Representative EEG signals with artifacts removed and spike and sharp-wave marked. Color-coded sub-types of spikes (C) and sharp-waves (D). In both subplots, the black lines in different styles represent the averaged temporal profiles for each sub-type. EEG = electroencephalography.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fMRI data", "Individual Alterations", "cases areas", "Irritative Zones", "BOLD responses", "interictal epileptiform discharges", "Focal Epilepsy Alterations", "EEG recordings", "brain areas", "connectivity patterns", "ied", "Wistar rats", "brain modules", "default mode network", "subcortical structures", "Granger causality method", "deactivation types", "network propagation phenomena", "BOLD deactivation", "rsn", "topological properties"], "article_id"=>1498741, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yinchen Song", "Basavaraju G. Sanganahalli", "Fahmeed Hyder", "Wei-Chiang Lin", "Jorge J. Riera"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_EEG_acquisition_and_classification_/1498741", "title"=>"EEG acquisition and classification.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:10:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2196022"], "description"=>"<p>Two possible scenarios by means of which the resting-state network and the irritative zone network might be intrinsically related. A mechanistic explanation for the directed influences among elements from the irritative zone network are provided. NA = neuronal activity; BOLD = blood-oxygen-level dependent; IED = interictal epileptiform discharge; RSN = resting-state network.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fMRI data", "Individual Alterations", "cases areas", "Irritative Zones", "BOLD responses", "interictal epileptiform discharges", "Focal Epilepsy Alterations", "EEG recordings", "brain areas", "connectivity patterns", "ied", "Wistar rats", "brain modules", "default mode network", "subcortical structures", "Granger causality method", "deactivation types", "network propagation phenomena", "BOLD deactivation", "rsn", "topological properties"], "article_id"=>1498758, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yinchen Song", "Basavaraju G. Sanganahalli", "Fahmeed Hyder", "Wei-Chiang Lin", "Jorge J. Riera"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scenarios_/1498758", "title"=>"Scenarios.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:10:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2196014"], "description"=>"<p>The blue cluster tree is obtained using the data in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352#pone.0134352.t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> as the input for hierarchical clustering. The height of the cluster tree is the cophenetic distance between two different classes in an arbitrary unit. The horizontal axis is the rat number. All the labels on the top of the blue lines represent descriptions of the common feature of the irritative zone distribution within each class. The 3-D BOLD response maps of the distribution of irritative zones obtained from these six rats are displayed below the cluster tree. R = right; L = left; BOLD = blood-oxygen-level dependent.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fMRI data", "Individual Alterations", "cases areas", "Irritative Zones", "BOLD responses", "interictal epileptiform discharges", "Focal Epilepsy Alterations", "EEG recordings", "brain areas", "connectivity patterns", "ied", "Wistar rats", "brain modules", "default mode network", "subcortical structures", "Granger causality method", "deactivation types", "network propagation phenomena", "BOLD deactivation", "rsn", "topological properties"], "article_id"=>1498755, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yinchen Song", "Basavaraju G. Sanganahalli", "Fahmeed Hyder", "Wei-Chiang Lin", "Jorge J. Riera"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hierarchical_Clustering_/1498755", "title"=>"Hierarchical Clustering.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:10:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2196013"], "description"=>"<p>A) Example of bilateral connectivity (Rat 4). B) Example of unilateral connectivity (Rat 2). C) Example of diffused connectivity (Rat 6). R = right; L = left.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fMRI data", "Individual Alterations", "cases areas", "Irritative Zones", "BOLD responses", "interictal epileptiform discharges", "Focal Epilepsy Alterations", "EEG recordings", "brain areas", "connectivity patterns", "ied", "Wistar rats", "brain modules", "default mode network", "subcortical structures", "Granger causality method", "deactivation types", "network propagation phenomena", "BOLD deactivation", "rsn", "topological properties"], "article_id"=>1498754, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yinchen Song", "Basavaraju G. Sanganahalli", "Fahmeed Hyder", "Wei-Chiang Lin", "Jorge J. Riera"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Independent_component_analysis_ICA_based_resting_state_networks_/1498754", "title"=>"Independent component analysis (ICA)-based resting state networks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:10:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2196008"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Illustration of the causal relationship among BOLD response clusters evoked by all identified sub-types of genuine IEDs (n = 5) for Rat 2 (left). The actual locations and extensions for all BOLD response clusters are shown on the right (activations—red and deactivations—blue). The predominant relationship shown here was that BOLD deactivations have a directed influence on activations. (B) Summary of the Granger causality analysis for all six rats. The blue bars were from the results of the analysis including only clusters in the cortex. Most of these clusters showed no causal relationships (n = 22). The orange bars were from the analysis performed including clusters from both the cortical and subcortical regions. Both analyses depicted that predominantly areas with BOLD deactivations have directed influences on areas with activations. (C) Histogram of the distance between cortical areas with activation and deactivation. The mode of the distribution is 4.47 mm, marked by black solid line. (D) Histogram of the distance between activation and deactivation but, in this case, including areas from the entire brain, i.e. cortical and sub-cortical regions. The mode of the distribution is 5.52 mm, marked by the black solid line. R = right; L = left; BOLD = blood-oxygen-level dependent; IED = interictal epileptiform discharge.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fMRI data", "Individual Alterations", "cases areas", "Irritative Zones", "BOLD responses", "interictal epileptiform discharges", "Focal Epilepsy Alterations", "EEG recordings", "brain areas", "connectivity patterns", "ied", "Wistar rats", "brain modules", "default mode network", "subcortical structures", "Granger causality method", "deactivation types", "network propagation phenomena", "BOLD deactivation", "rsn", "topological properties"], "article_id"=>1498749, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yinchen Song", "Basavaraju G. Sanganahalli", "Fahmeed Hyder", "Wei-Chiang Lin", "Jorge J. Riera"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Granger_causality_analysis_/1498749", "title"=>"Granger causality analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:10:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2196030", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2196031", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2196032", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2196033", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2196034"], "description"=>"<div><p>Alterations in the connectivity patterns of the fMRI-based resting-state networks (RSNs) have been reported in several types of epilepsies. Evidence pointed out these alterations might be associated with the genesis and propagation of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). IEDs also evoke blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) responses, which have been used to delineate irritative zones during preoperative work-up. Therefore, one may expect a relationship between the topology of the IED-evoked BOLD response network and the altered spatial patterns of the RSNs. In this study, we used EEG recordings and fMRI data obtained simultaneously from a chronic model of focal epilepsy in Wistar rats to verify our hypothesis. We found that IED-evoked BOLD response networks comprise both cortical and subcortical structures with a rat-dependent topology. In all rats, IEDs evoke both activation and deactivation types of BOLD responses. Using a Granger causality method, we found that in many cases areas with BOLD deactivation have directed influences on areas with activation (p<0.05). We were able to predict topological properties (i.e., focal/diffused, unilateral/bilateral) of the IED-evoked BOLD response network by performing hierarchical clustering analysis on major spatial features of the RSNs. All these results suggest that IEDs and disruptions in the RSNs found previously in humans may be different manifestations of the same transient events, probably reflecting altered consciousness. In our opinion, the shutdown of specific nodes of the default mode network may cause uncontrollable excitability in other functionally connected brain areas. We conclude that IED-evoked BOLD responses (i.e., activation and deactivation) and alterations of RSNs are intrinsically related, and speculate that an understanding of their interplay is necessary to discriminate focal epileptogenesis and network propagation phenomena across different brain modules via hub-based connectivity.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fMRI data", "Individual Alterations", "cases areas", "Irritative Zones", "BOLD responses", "interictal epileptiform discharges", "Focal Epilepsy Alterations", "EEG recordings", "brain areas", "connectivity patterns", "ied", "Wistar rats", "brain modules", "default mode network", "subcortical structures", "Granger causality method", "deactivation types", "network propagation phenomena", "BOLD deactivation", "rsn", "topological properties"], "article_id"=>1498766, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yinchen Song", "Basavaraju G. Sanganahalli", "Fahmeed Hyder", "Wei-Chiang Lin", "Jorge J. Riera"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distributions_of_Irritative_Zones_Are_Related_to_Individual_Alterations_of_Resting_State_Networks_in_Focal_Epilepsy_/1498766", "title"=>"Distributions of Irritative Zones Are Related to Individual Alterations of Resting-State Networks in Focal Epilepsy", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:10:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2196004"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Comparisons of the numbers of IED-evoked BOLD response clusters for five cortical regions. The numbers of clusters in the sensory areas were significantly larger than those in other cortical areas. (B) Comparisons of the volume reduction in the same five brain regions as depicted in (A). The dash line indicates zero-change. The volume reductions in sensory and other cortices in the parietal and the temporal regions were significant (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among cortical regions. (C) Coronal T2-weighted images of Rat 2 (in yellow) overlapped with the averaged brain templates (in grey) after registration (illustrated in MRIcroGL). Clear reduction in the cortical thickness was found in the anterior commissure. All compared to sensory cortex. *: p<0.05. **: p<0.01. ***: p<0.001. No asterisk means no significant difference. IED = interictal epileptiform discharge; BOLD = blood-oxygen-level dependent.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fMRI data", "Individual Alterations", "cases areas", "Irritative Zones", "BOLD responses", "interictal epileptiform discharges", "Focal Epilepsy Alterations", "EEG recordings", "brain areas", "connectivity patterns", "ied", "Wistar rats", "brain modules", "default mode network", "subcortical structures", "Granger causality method", "deactivation types", "network propagation phenomena", "BOLD deactivation", "rsn", "topological properties"], "article_id"=>1498745, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yinchen Song", "Basavaraju G. Sanganahalli", "Fahmeed Hyder", "Wei-Chiang Lin", "Jorge J. Riera"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distributions_of_irritative_zones_and_morphological_changes_/1498745", "title"=>"Distributions of irritative zones and morphological changes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:10:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2196002"], "description"=>"<p>(A) A representative collection of a particular spike sub-type (10 events, Rat 6). The black dashed line represents the average of all events. (B) 3-D display of brain regions with either positive (red) or negative (blue) BOLD responses evoked by the spike sub-type shown in (A). In this case, the distance between the BOLD responses is 2.08 mm. (C) Hemodynamic response functions (HRFs) extracted from the regions with a positive and a negative BOLD responses shown in (B). (D) A representative collection of a particular sharp-wave sub-type (9 events, Rat 1). The black dashed line represents the average of all events. (E) 3-D display of the regions showing either a positive (red) or a negative BOLD response evoked by the spike sub-type shown in (D). The distances between the region with a negative BOLD response and those two with a positive BOLD response are 6.92 mm (right hemisphere) and 5.91 mm (left hemisphere). (F) HRFs extracted from the regions with either a positive or a negative BOLD response shown in (E). (G) Numbers of the positive (red) and the negative (blue) BOLD regions versus the IED sub-type. For example, among all the studied rats, there are thirteen sub-types of IEDs that induce BOLD activation in a single brain area. R = right; L = left; BOLD = blood-oxygen-level dependent; IED = interictal epileptiform discharge.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fMRI data", "Individual Alterations", "cases areas", "Irritative Zones", "BOLD responses", "interictal epileptiform discharges", "Focal Epilepsy Alterations", "EEG recordings", "brain areas", "connectivity patterns", "ied", "Wistar rats", "brain modules", "default mode network", "subcortical structures", "Granger causality method", "deactivation types", "network propagation phenomena", "BOLD deactivation", "rsn", "topological properties"], "article_id"=>1498743, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yinchen Song", "Basavaraju G. Sanganahalli", "Fahmeed Hyder", "Wei-Chiang Lin", "Jorge J. Riera"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_IED_evoked_BOLD_activations_and_deactivations_/1498743", "title"=>"IED-evoked BOLD activations and deactivations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:10:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2196021"], "description"=>"<p>(A) and (B) show two different axial and coronal slices with IED-evoked BOLD responses overlapped with RSN. RSN’s symmetry was disturbed in (A) due to the existence of two IED-evoked BOLD responses (black dash circles). Overlap between RSNs and IED-evoked BOLD responses exists preferentially on the left hemisphere. (B) Distant IED-evoked BOLD responses are connected by RSN (black arrow). IED = interictal epileptiform discharge; BOLD = blood-oxygen-level dependent; RSN = resting-state network; R = right; L = left; A = anterior; P = posterior.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fMRI data", "Individual Alterations", "cases areas", "Irritative Zones", "BOLD responses", "interictal epileptiform discharges", "Focal Epilepsy Alterations", "EEG recordings", "brain areas", "connectivity patterns", "ied", "Wistar rats", "brain modules", "default mode network", "subcortical structures", "Granger causality method", "deactivation types", "network propagation phenomena", "BOLD deactivation", "rsn", "topological properties"], "article_id"=>1498757, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yinchen Song", "Basavaraju G. Sanganahalli", "Fahmeed Hyder", "Wei-Chiang Lin", "Jorge J. Riera"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Representative_relationship_between_the_IED_evoked_BOLD_responses_and_RSN_from_Rat_2_/1498757", "title"=>"Representative relationship between the IED-evoked BOLD responses and RSN from Rat 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:10:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2196012"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers 1–48 represent cortical regions on the right hemisphere and numbers 49–96 represent cortical regions on the left hemisphere. The abbreviations of the cortical regions are defined by Paxions et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352#pone.0134352.ref045\" target=\"_blank\">45</a>]. Areas not covered by the echo planar imaging acquisitions are left blank. The color-bar represents the RPCC value; dark red indicates strong correlation (r>0.8) and deep blue strong anti-correlation (r<-0.8).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fMRI data", "Individual Alterations", "cases areas", "Irritative Zones", "BOLD responses", "interictal epileptiform discharges", "Focal Epilepsy Alterations", "EEG recordings", "brain areas", "connectivity patterns", "ied", "Wistar rats", "brain modules", "default mode network", "subcortical structures", "Granger causality method", "deactivation types", "network propagation phenomena", "BOLD deactivation", "rsn", "topological properties"], "article_id"=>1498753, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yinchen Song", "Basavaraju G. Sanganahalli", "Fahmeed Hyder", "Wei-Chiang Lin", "Jorge J. Riera"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134352.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_of_the_regional_pairwise_correlation_coefficient_RPCC_map_of_the_averaged_resting_state_time_series_in_the_cortical_regions_of_Rat_2_/1498753", "title"=>"Example of the regional pairwise correlation coefficient (RPCC) map of the averaged resting-state time series in the cortical regions of Rat 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:10:19"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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