Ovulation Prevalence in Women with Spontaneous Normal-Length Menstrual Cycles – A Population-Based Cohort from HUNT3, Norway
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{"title"=>"Ovulation prevalence in women with spontaneous normal-length menstrual cycles - A population-based cohort from HUNT3, Norway", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jerilynn C.", "last_name"=>"Prior", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103261739"}, {"first_name"=>"Marit", "last_name"=>"Naess", "scopus_author_id"=>"57119711700"}, {"first_name"=>"Arnulf", "last_name"=>"Langhammer", "scopus_author_id"=>"57200611024"}, {"first_name"=>"Siri", "last_name"=>"Forsmo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603393486"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"606195309", "pmid"=>"26291617", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0134473", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84942908533", "sgr"=>"84942908533"}, "id"=>"66c4186c-c105-3172-9e30-ad982e2fd6da", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Ovulatory menstrual cycles are essential for women's fertility and needed to prevent bone loss. There is a medical/cultural expectation that clinically normal menstrual cycles are inevitably ovulatory. Currently within the general population it is unknown the proportion of regular, normal-length menstrual cycles that are ovulatory. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the population point prevalence of ovulation in premenopausal, normally menstruating women. The null hypothesis was that such cycles are ovulatory. METHODS: This is a single-cycle, cross-sectional, population-based study-a sub-study of the HUNT3 health study in the semi-rural county (Nord Trondelag) in mid-Norway. Participants included >3,700 spontaneously (no hormonal contraception) menstruating women, primarily Caucasian, ages 20-49.9 from that county. Participation rate was 51.9%. All reported the date previous flow started. A single, random serum progesterone level was considered ovulatory if >/=9.54 nmol/L on cycle days 14 to -3 days before usual cycle length (CL). RESULTS: Ovulation was assessed in 3,168 women mean age 41.7 (interquartile range, [IQR] 36.8 to 45.5), cycle length 28 days (d) (IQR 28 to 28) and body mass index (BMI) 26.3 kg/m2 (95% CI 26.1 to 26.4). Parity was 95.6%, 30% smoked, 61.3% exercised regularly and 18% were obese. 1,545 women with a serum progesterone level on cycle days 14 to -3 were presumed to be in the luteal phase. Of these, 63.3% of women had an ovulatory cycle (n = 978) and 37% (n = 567) were anovulatory. Women with/ without ovulation did not differ in age, BMI, cycle day, menarche age, cigarette use, physical activity, % obesity or self-reported health. There were minimal differences in parity (96.7% vs. 94.5%, P = 0.04) and major differences in progesterone level (24.5 vs. 3.8 nmol/L, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Anovulation in a random population occurs in over a third of clinically normal menstrual cycles.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ovulation-prevalence-women-spontaneous-normallength-menstrual-cycles-populationbased-cohort-hunt3-no", "reader_count"=>27, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>6, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2218836"], "description"=>"<p>† Indicates women excluded due to pregnancy, childbirth within the last year, hysterectomy with or without single or bilateral ovariectomy, probable menopause, or missing data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["body mass index", "cl", "bmi", "population point prevalence", "cycle days 14", "ci", "serum progesterone level", "iqr", "menstruating women", "ovulatory", "HUNT 3 health study"], "article_id"=>1515506, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jerilynn C. Prior", "Marit Naess", "Arnulf Langhammer", "Siri Forsmo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134473.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>308, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Consort_like_flowchart_of_women_in_the_third_Nord_Tr_248_ndelag_Health_Study_HUNT3_Norway_population_based_cohort_for_assessment_of_the_ovulation_point_prevalence_/1515506", "title"=>"Consort-like flowchart of women in the third Nord Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3, Norway) population-based cohort for assessment of the ovulation point prevalence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-20 03:23:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2218837"], "description"=>"<p>Median serum progesterone levels in nmol/L across a studied menstrual cycle by cycle days in 3236 spontaneously menstruating premenopausal women aged 20–49.9 with regular cycles in HUNT3 (Norway) study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["body mass index", "cl", "bmi", "population point prevalence", "cycle days 14", "ci", "serum progesterone level", "iqr", "menstruating women", "ovulatory", "HUNT 3 health study"], "article_id"=>1515507, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jerilynn C. Prior", "Marit Naess", "Arnulf Langhammer", "Siri Forsmo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134473.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>159, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Median_serum_progesterone_levels_in_nmol_L_across_a_studied_menstrual_cycle_by_cycle_days_in_3236_spontaneously_menstruating_premenopausal_women_aged_20_8211_49_9_with_regular_cycles_in_HUNT3_Norway_study_/1515507", "title"=>"Median serum progesterone levels in nmol/L across a studied menstrual cycle by cycle days in 3236 spontaneously menstruating premenopausal women aged 20–49.9 with regular cycles in HUNT3 (Norway) study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-20 03:23:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2218838"], "description"=>"<p>Differences between ovulatory percentages in the two cohorts were significant for progesterone thresholds of ≥3.5, ≥8.0 and ≥9.54 nmol/L.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["body mass index", "cl", "bmi", "population point prevalence", "cycle days 14", "ci", "serum progesterone level", "iqr", "menstruating women", "ovulatory", "HUNT 3 health study"], "article_id"=>1515508, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jerilynn C. Prior", "Marit Naess", "Arnulf Langhammer", "Siri Forsmo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134473.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>105, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bar_graph_of_the_1545_women_from_the_HUNT3_Norway_ovulation_study_with_progesterone_levels_during_cycle_days_in_the_presumed_luteal_phase_cycle_days_14_to_3_before_usual_cycle_length_showing_the_percentage_of_women_that_were_ovulatory_using_different_thr/1515508", "title"=>"Bar graph of the 1545 women from the HUNT3 (Norway) ovulation study with progesterone levels during cycle days in the presumed luteal phase (cycle days 14 to -3 before usual cycle length) showing the percentage of women that were ovulatory using different threshold serum progesterone levels and by whether they reported the prescreening date menstrual flow started (LMP, cross-hatched bars, n = 1412) or were in a sub-cohort reporting both the LMP and post-screening menstrual flow dates (NMP, open bars, n = 133).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-20 03:23:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2218839"], "description"=>"<p>*Spontaneously menstruating means that they were not currently using hormone contraception.</p><p>Characteristics of 3,709 spontaneously menstruating<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134473#t001fn001\" target=\"_blank\">*</a></sup> women ages 20–49.9 in the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3), Norway reporting regular or irregular menstrual cycles in the last 12 months.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["body mass index", "cl", "bmi", "population point prevalence", "cycle days 14", "ci", "serum progesterone level", "iqr", "menstruating women", "ovulatory", "HUNT 3 health study"], "article_id"=>1515509, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jerilynn C. Prior", "Marit Naess", "Arnulf Langhammer", "Siri Forsmo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134473.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_3_709_spontaneously_menstruating_women_ages_20_49_9_in_the_third_Nord_Tr_ndelag_Health_Study_HUNT3_Norway_reporting_regular_or_irregular_menstrual_cycles_in_the_last_12_months_/1515509", "title"=>"Characteristics of 3,709 spontaneously menstruating<sup>*</sup> women ages 20–49.9 in the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3), Norway reporting regular or irregular menstrual cycles in the last 12 months.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-20 03:23:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2218840"], "description"=>"<p>*Spontaneously menstruating means that they were not currently using hormonal contraception.</p><p>Characteristics of 1545 spontaneously<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134473#t002fn001\" target=\"_blank\">*</a></sup> normally menstruating premenopausal women who, by cycle days and usual cycle length (CL) were in the presumed luteal phase in HUNT3 (Norway) comparing those ovulatory by a serum progesterone threshold of ≥9.54 nmol/L with those without apparent ovulation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["body mass index", "cl", "bmi", "population point prevalence", "cycle days 14", "ci", "serum progesterone level", "iqr", "menstruating women", "ovulatory", "HUNT 3 health study"], "article_id"=>1515510, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jerilynn C. Prior", "Marit Naess", "Arnulf Langhammer", "Siri Forsmo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134473.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_1545_spontaneously_normally_menstruating_premenopausal_women_who_by_cycle_days_and_usual_cycle_length_CL_were_in_the_presumed_luteal_phase_in_HUNT3_Norway_comparing_those_ovulatory_by_a_serum_progesterone_threshold_of_9_54_nmol_L_with_/1515510", "title"=>"Characteristics of 1545 spontaneously<sup>*</sup> normally menstruating premenopausal women who, by cycle days and usual cycle length (CL) were in the presumed luteal phase in HUNT3 (Norway) comparing those ovulatory by a serum progesterone threshold of ≥9.54 nmol/L with those without apparent ovulation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-20 03:23:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2218841", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2218842"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Ovulatory menstrual cycles are essential for women’s fertility and needed to prevent bone loss. There is a medical/cultural expectation that clinically normal menstrual cycles are <i>inevitably ovulatory</i>. Currently within the general population it is unknown the proportion of regular, normal-length menstrual cycles that are ovulatory. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the population point prevalence of ovulation in premenopausal, normally menstruating women. The null hypothesis was that such cycles are ovulatory.</p><p>Methods</p><p>This is a single-cycle, cross-sectional, population-based study—a sub-study of the HUNT3 health study in the semi-rural county (Nord Trøndelag) in mid-Norway. Participants included >3,700 spontaneously (no hormonal contraception) menstruating women, primarily Caucasian, ages 20–49.9 from that county. Participation rate was 51.9%. All reported the date previous flow started. A single, random serum progesterone level was considered ovulatory if ≥9.54 nmol/L on cycle days 14 to -3 days before usual cycle length (CL).</p><p>Results</p><p>Ovulation was assessed in 3,168 women mean age 41.7 (interquartile range, [IQR] 36.8 to 45.5), cycle length 28 days (d) (IQR 28 to 28) and body mass index (BMI) 26.3 kg/m2 (95% CI 26.1 to 26.4). Parity was 95.6%, 30% smoked, 61.3% exercised regularly and 18% were obese. 1,545 women with a serum progesterone level on cycle days 14 to -3 were presumed to be in the luteal phase. Of these, 63.3% of women had an ovulatory cycle (n = 978) and 37% (n = 567) were anovulatory. Women with/ without ovulation did not differ in age, BMI, cycle day, menarche age, cigarette use, physical activity, % obesity or self-reported health. There were minimal differences in parity (96.7% vs. 94.5%, P = 0.04) and major differences in progesterone level (24.5 vs. 3.8 nmol/L, P = 0.001).</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>Anovulation in a random population occurs in over a third of clinically normal menstrual cycles.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["body mass index", "cl", "bmi", "population point prevalence", "cycle days 14", "ci", "serum progesterone level", "iqr", "menstruating women", "ovulatory", "HUNT 3 health study"], "article_id"=>1515511, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jerilynn C. Prior", "Marit Naess", "Arnulf Langhammer", "Siri Forsmo"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134473.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134473.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ovulation_Prevalence_in_Women_with_Spontaneous_Normal_Length_Menstrual_Cycles_8211_A_Population_Based_Cohort_from_HUNT3_Norway_/1515511", "title"=>"Ovulation Prevalence in Women with Spontaneous Normal-Length Menstrual Cycles – A Population-Based Cohort from HUNT3, Norway", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-08-20 03:23:33"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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