Sex Differences in Dose Escalation and Overdose Death during Chronic Opioid Therapy: A Population-Based Cohort Study
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{"title"=>"Sex differences in dose escalation and overdose death during chronic opioid therapy: A population-based cohort study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Eric", "last_name"=>"Kaplovitch", "scopus_author_id"=>"56554203700"}, {"first_name"=>"Tara", "last_name"=>"Gomes", "scopus_author_id"=>"23088240100"}, {"first_name"=>"Ximena", "last_name"=>"Camacho", "scopus_author_id"=>"37116455300"}, {"first_name"=>"Irfan A.", "last_name"=>"Dhalla", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602572742"}, {"first_name"=>"Muhammad M.", "last_name"=>"Mamdani", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007185828"}, {"first_name"=>"David N.", "last_name"=>"Juurlink", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006139615"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"26291716", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0134550", "sgr"=>"84942843871", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84942843871", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"606195307"}, "id"=>"211cbca2-1b48-3f19-a89f-326388d818fd", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The use of opioids for noncancer pain is widespread, and more than 16,000 die of opioid-related causes in the United States annually. The patients at greatest risk of death are those receiving high doses of opioids. Whether sex influences the risk of dose escalation or opioid-related mortality is unknown.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort study using healthcare records of 32,499 individuals aged 15 to 64 who commenced chronic opioid therapy for noncancer pain between April 1, 1997 and December 31, 2010 in Ontario, Canada. Patients were followed from their first opioid prescription until discontinuation of therapy, death from any cause or the end of the study period. Among patients receiving chronic opioid therapy, 589 (1.8%) escalated to high dose therapy and n = 59 (0.2%) died of opioid-related causes while on treatment. After multivariable adjustment, men were more likely than women to escalate to high-dose opioid therapy (adjusted hazard ratio 1.44; 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 1.70) and twice as likely to die of opioid-related causes (adjusted hazard ratio 2.04; 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 3.53). These associations were maintained in a secondary analysis of 285,520 individuals receiving any opioid regardless of the duration of therapy.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Men are at higher risk than women for escalation to high-dose opioid therapy and death from opioid-related causes. Both outcomes were more common than anticipated.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sex-differences-dose-escalation-overdose-death-during-chronic-opioid-therapy-populationbased-cohort", "reader_count"=>60, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>8, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>32, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Design"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>32}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>8}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2218581"], "description"=>"<p>Kaplan-Meier curves of opioid-related mortality among men and women with at least 91 days of continuous opioid therapy. P values were determined by Cox proportional hazards regression.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dose", "opioid therapy", "noncancer pain", "Chronic Opioid Therapy"], "article_id"=>1515298, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eric Kaplovitch", "Tara Gomes", "Ximena Camacho", "Irfan A. Dhalla", "Muhammad M. Mamdani", "David N. Juurlink"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134550.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Opioid_related_death_among_men_and_women_/1515298", "title"=>"Opioid-related death among men and women.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-20 03:06:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2218582"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations; IQR, interquartile range; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; SNRI, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; CNS, central nervous system</p><p>Baseline characteristics of men and women receiving chronic opioid therapy.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dose", "opioid therapy", "noncancer pain", "Chronic Opioid Therapy"], "article_id"=>1515299, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eric Kaplovitch", "Tara Gomes", "Ximena Camacho", "Irfan A. Dhalla", "Muhammad M. Mamdani", "David N. Juurlink"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134550.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Baseline_characteristics_of_men_and_women_receiving_chronic_opioid_therapy_/1515299", "title"=>"Baseline characteristics of men and women receiving chronic opioid therapy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-20 03:06:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2218584"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup> Follow up censored at 2 years</p><p><sup>b</sup> Hazard ratios presented for men, with women as reference group</p><p><sup>c</sup> Adjusted for patient age, history of alcohol abuse or alcohol-related comorbidity, previous SSRI use, previous other antidepressant use, previous benzodiazepine use, previous antipsychotic use, previous use of other CNS depressants, and Charlson score</p><p><sup>d</sup> Adjusted for median number of distinct non-opioid drugs used in past 6 months</p><p>Escalation to high dose opioid therapy among men and women<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134550#t002fn001\" target=\"_blank\"><sup>a</sup></a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dose", "opioid therapy", "noncancer pain", "Chronic Opioid Therapy"], "article_id"=>1515301, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eric Kaplovitch", "Tara Gomes", "Ximena Camacho", "Irfan A. Dhalla", "Muhammad M. Mamdani", "David N. Juurlink"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134550.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Escalation_to_high_dose_opioid_therapy_among_men_and_women_a_/1515301", "title"=>"Escalation to high dose opioid therapy among men and women<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-20 03:06:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2218585"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup> Hazard ratios presented for men, with women as reference group</p><p><sup>b</sup> Adjusted for patient age, history of alcohol abuse or alcohol-related comorbidity, previous SSRI use, previous other antidepressant use, previous benzodiazepine use, previous antipsychotic use, previous use of other CNS depressants, and Charlson score</p><p><sup>c</sup> Adjusted for median number of distinct non-opioid drugs used in past 6 months</p><p>Opioid-related death during chronic opioid therapy in men and women.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dose", "opioid therapy", "noncancer pain", "Chronic Opioid Therapy"], "article_id"=>1515302, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eric Kaplovitch", "Tara Gomes", "Ximena Camacho", "Irfan A. Dhalla", "Muhammad M. Mamdani", "David N. Juurlink"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134550.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Opioid_related_death_during_chronic_opioid_therapy_in_men_and_women_/1515302", "title"=>"Opioid-related death during chronic opioid therapy in men and women.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-20 03:06:54"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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