Laboratory Diagnostics Market in East Africa: A Survey of Test Types, Test Availability, and Test Prices in Kampala, Uganda
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{"title"=>"Laboratory diagnostics market in East Africa: A survey of test types, test availability, and test prices in Kampala, Uganda", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Lee F.", "last_name"=>"Schroeder", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102059867"}, {"first_name"=>"Ali", "last_name"=>"Elbireer", "scopus_author_id"=>"36140132300"}, {"first_name"=>"J. Brooks", "last_name"=>"Jackson", "scopus_author_id"=>"35421119100"}, {"first_name"=>"Timothy K.", "last_name"=>"Amukele", "scopus_author_id"=>"35075699900"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84942337306", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0134578", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"26226183", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84942337306", "pui"=>"606057173"}, "id"=>"b7cfd852-57ec-3afb-8e4e-3dc9080bfd2a", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Diagnostic laboratory tests are routinely defined in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use. But the actual clinical impact of a diagnostic test also depends on its availability and price. This is especially true in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa. We present a first-of-its-kind report of diagnostic test types, availability, and prices in Kampala, Uganda.\\n\\nMETHODS: Test types (identity) and availability were based on menus and volumes obtained from clinical laboratories in late 2011 in Kampala using a standard questionnaire. As a measure of test availability, we used the Availability Index (AI). AI is the combined daily testing volumes of laboratories offering a given test, divided by the combined daily testing volumes of all laboratories in Kampala. Test prices were based on a sampling of prices collected in person and via telephone surveys in 2015.\\n\\nFINDINGS: Test volumes and menus were obtained for 95% (907/954) of laboratories in Kampala city. These 907 laboratories offered 100 different test types. The ten most commonly offered tests in decreasing order were Malaria, HCG, HIV serology, Syphilis, Typhoid, Urinalysis, Brucellosis, Stool Analysis, Glucose, and ABO/Rh. In terms of AI, the 100 tests clustered into three groups: high (12 tests), moderate (33 tests), and minimal (55 tests) availability. 50% and 36% of overall availability was provided through private and public laboratories, respectively. Point-of-care laboratories contributed 35% to the AI of high availability tests, but only 6% to the AI of the other tests. The mean price of the most commonly offered test types was $2.62 (range $1.83-$3.46).\\n\\nINTERPRETATION: One hundred different laboratory test types were in use in Kampala in late 2011. Both public and private laboratories were critical to test availability. The tests offered in point-of-care laboratories tended to be the most available tests. Prices of the most common tests ranged from $1.83-$3.46.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/laboratory-diagnostics-market-east-africa-survey-test-types-test-availability-test-prices-kampala-ug", "reader_count"=>29, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>11, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>11}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Switzerland"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2195896"], "description"=>"<p>* Prices adjusted by the Ugandan consumer price index to 2011 prices</p><p>** Prices converted at an exchange rate of 2,900 Ugandan Shillings to 1 US dollar</p><p>***Prices derived from CMS fee schedule (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578#sec006\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a>) and converted to 2011 prices</p><p>****Price is for malaria smear microscopy.</p><p>Ten most commonly offered tests in Kampala: Names, Number of laboratories, and Prices.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["laboratory Diagnostics Market", "hcg", "testing volumes", "laboratory test types", "test availability", "hiv", "2015. FindingsTest volumes", "Uganda BackgroundDiagnostic laboratory tests", "ai", "abo", "test types"], "article_id"=>1498673, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Lee F. Schroeder", "Ali Elbireer", "J. Brooks Jackson", "Timothy K. Amukele"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ten_most_commonly_offered_tests_in_Kampala_Names_Number_of_laboratories_and_Prices_/1498673", "title"=>"Ten most commonly offered tests in Kampala: Names, Number of laboratories, and Prices.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:03:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2195897"], "description"=>"<p>* Assumed population of Kampala of 1.72 million[<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578#pone.0134578.ref019\" target=\"_blank\">19</a>]</p><p>**Annual total health spending per person for Uganda taken from The World Bank, adjusted by the ratio of consumption expenditures in Kampala vs Uganda (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578#sec006\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a>)[<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578#pone.0134578.ref019\" target=\"_blank\">19</a>].</p><p>Per capita spending on Laboratory Testing in Kampala, Uganda.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["laboratory Diagnostics Market", "hcg", "testing volumes", "laboratory test types", "test availability", "hiv", "2015. FindingsTest volumes", "Uganda BackgroundDiagnostic laboratory tests", "ai", "abo", "test types"], "article_id"=>1498674, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Lee F. Schroeder", "Ali Elbireer", "J. Brooks Jackson", "Timothy K. Amukele"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Per_capita_spending_on_Laboratory_Testing_in_Kampala_Uganda_/1498674", "title"=>"Per capita spending on Laboratory Testing in Kampala, Uganda.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:03:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2195898", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2195899", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2195900", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2195901"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Diagnostic laboratory tests are routinely defined in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use. But the actual clinical impact of a diagnostic test also depends on its availability and price. This is especially true in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa. We present a first-of-its-kind report of diagnostic test types, availability, and prices in Kampala, Uganda.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Test types (identity) and availability were based on menus and volumes obtained from clinical laboratories in late 2011 in Kampala using a standard questionnaire. As a measure of test availability, we used the <i>Availability Index (AI)</i>. AI is the combined daily testing volumes of laboratories offering a given test, divided by the combined daily testing volumes of all laboratories in Kampala. Test prices were based on a sampling of prices collected in person and via telephone surveys in 2015.</p><p>Findings</p><p>Test volumes and menus were obtained for 95% (907/954) of laboratories in Kampala city. These 907 laboratories offered 100 different test types. The ten most commonly offered tests in decreasing order were Malaria, HCG, HIV serology, Syphilis, Typhoid, Urinalysis, Brucellosis, Stool Analysis, Glucose, and ABO/Rh. In terms of AI, the 100 tests clustered into three groups: high (12 tests), moderate (33 tests), and minimal (55 tests) availability. 50% and 36% of overall availability was provided through private and public laboratories, respectively. Point-of-care laboratories contributed 35% to the AI of high availability tests, but only 6% to the AI of the other tests. The mean price of the most commonly offered test types was $2.62 (range $1.83–$3.46).</p><p>Interpretation</p><p>One hundred different laboratory test types were in use in Kampala in late 2011. Both public and private laboratories were critical to test availability. The tests offered in point-of-care laboratories tended to be the most available tests. Prices of the most common tests ranged from $1.83-$3.46.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["laboratory Diagnostics Market", "hcg", "testing volumes", "laboratory test types", "test availability", "hiv", "2015. FindingsTest volumes", "Uganda BackgroundDiagnostic laboratory tests", "ai", "abo", "test types"], "article_id"=>1498675, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Lee F. Schroeder", "Ali Elbireer", "J. Brooks Jackson", "Timothy K. Amukele"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Laboratory_Diagnostics_Market_in_East_Africa_A_Survey_of_Test_Types_Test_Availability_and_Test_Prices_in_Kampala_Uganda_/1498675", "title"=>"Laboratory Diagnostics Market in East Africa: A Survey of Test Types, Test Availability, and Test Prices in Kampala, Uganda", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:03:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2195888"], "description"=>"<p>The numbers in parentheses refer to position of the test in Figs <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578#pone.0134578.g002\" target=\"_blank\">2</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578#pone.0134578.g003\" target=\"_blank\">3</a>. The Availability Index takes into account the size of the laboratories offering the test. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578#sec006\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a> for the calculation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["laboratory Diagnostics Market", "hcg", "testing volumes", "laboratory test types", "test availability", "hiv", "2015. FindingsTest volumes", "Uganda BackgroundDiagnostic laboratory tests", "ai", "abo", "test types"], "article_id"=>1498665, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Lee F. Schroeder", "Ali Elbireer", "J. Brooks Jackson", "Timothy K. Amukele"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Full_list_of_tests_offered_in_Kampala_grouped_by_Availability_Index_/1498665", "title"=>"Full list of tests offered in Kampala, grouped by Availability Index.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:03:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2195890"], "description"=>"<p>Bar graph depicting the contribution of different sectors in the laboratory market to availability of tests in Kampala, Uganda. Each number on the Y axis corresponds to a different test (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578#pone.0134578.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a> or <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578#pone.0134578.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Table</a> for identification of tests).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["laboratory Diagnostics Market", "hcg", "testing volumes", "laboratory test types", "test availability", "hiv", "2015. FindingsTest volumes", "Uganda BackgroundDiagnostic laboratory tests", "ai", "abo", "test types"], "article_id"=>1498667, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Lee F. Schroeder", "Ali Elbireer", "J. Brooks Jackson", "Timothy K. Amukele"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bar_graph_of_tests_offered_in_Kampala_ranked_by_Availability_Index_and_sub_categorized_by_laboratory_affiliation_/1498667", "title"=>"Bar graph of tests offered in Kampala, ranked by Availability Index* and sub-categorized by laboratory affiliation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:03:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2195894"], "description"=>"<p>Bar graph depicting the contribution of complex versus POC laboratories to availability of tests in Kampala, Uganda. Each number on the Y axis corresponds to a different test (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578#pone.0134578.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a> or <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578#pone.0134578.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Table</a> for identification of tests).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["laboratory Diagnostics Market", "hcg", "testing volumes", "laboratory test types", "test availability", "hiv", "2015. FindingsTest volumes", "Uganda BackgroundDiagnostic laboratory tests", "ai", "abo", "test types"], "article_id"=>1498671, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Lee F. Schroeder", "Ali Elbireer", "J. Brooks Jackson", "Timothy K. Amukele"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134578.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bar_graph_of_tests_offered_in_Kampala_ranked_by_Availability_Index_and_sub_categorized_by_laboratory_complexity_/1498671", "title"=>"Bar graph of tests offered in Kampala, ranked by Availability Index* and sub-categorized by laboratory complexity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-30 04:03:55"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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