Attempted Training of Alcohol Approach and Drinking Identity Associations in US Undergraduate Drinkers: Null Results from Two Studies
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{"title"=>"Attempted training of alcohol approach and drinking identity associations in us undergraduate drinkers: Null results from two studies", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kristen P.", "last_name"=>"Lindgren", "scopus_author_id"=>"14420049600"}, {"first_name"=>"Reinout W.", "last_name"=>"Wiers", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701516741"}, {"first_name"=>"Bethany A.", "last_name"=>"Teachman", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602263693"}, {"first_name"=>"Melissa L.", "last_name"=>"Gasser", "scopus_author_id"=>"55989466000"}, {"first_name"=>"Erin C.", "last_name"=>"Westgate", "scopus_author_id"=>"55176762900"}, {"first_name"=>"Janna", "last_name"=>"Cousijn", "scopus_author_id"=>"42461253100"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew C.", "last_name"=>"Enkema", "scopus_author_id"=>"55830766100"}, {"first_name"=>"Clayton", "last_name"=>"Neighbors", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003981689"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84941992071", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0134642", "pui"=>"606057611", "pmid"=>"26241316", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84941992071", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"bde0fa35-777f-3393-aca8-9b79cdf680c2", "abstract"=>"There is preliminary evidence that approach avoid training can shift implicit alcohol associations and improve treatment outcomes. We sought to replicate and extend those findings in US undergraduate social drinkers (Study 1) and at-risk drinkers (Study 2). Three adaptations of the approach avoid task (AAT) were tested. The first adaptation - the approach avoid training - was a replication and targeted implicit alcohol approach associations. The remaining two adaptations - the general identity and personalized identity trainings - targeted implicit drinking identity associations, which are robust predictors of hazardous drinking in US undergraduates. Study 1 included 300 undergraduate social drinkers. They were randomly assigned to real or sham training conditions for one of the three training adaptations, and completed two training sessions, spaced one week apart. Study 2 included 288 undergraduates at risk for alcohol use disorders. The same training procedures were used, but the two training sessions occurred within a single week. Results were not as expected. Across both studies, the approach avoid training yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes. The general identity training also yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes with one exception; individuals who completed real training demonstrated no changes in drinking refusal self-efficacy whereas individuals who completed sham training had reductions in self-efficacy. Finally, across both studies, the personalized identity training yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes. Despite having relatively large samples and using a well-validated training task, study results indicated all three training adaptations were ineffective at this dose in US undergraduates. These findings are important because training studies are costly and labor-intensive. Future research may benefit from focusing on more severe populations, pairing training with other interventions, increasing training dose, and increasing gamification of training tasks.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/attempted-training-alcohol-approach-drinking-identity-associations-undergraduate-drinkers-null-resul", "reader_count"=>59, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Computer Science"=>4, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>27, "Social Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>27}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Finland"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2199941"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. AUDIT score = score on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, higher scores = higher risk of alcohol use disorders. Cohen’s <i>d</i> = 2<i>t</i> /(<i>df</i> ^5)</p><p>Study 1 Baseline Drinking Variables as a Function of Training Type and Group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alcohol approach associations", "identity training", "training effects", "sham training conditions", "alcohol outcomes", "training sessions", "training adaptations", "alcohol associations", "drinking identity associations", "aat", "alcohol use disorders"], "article_id"=>1501740, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Kristen P. Lindgren", "Reinout W. Wiers", "Bethany A. Teachman", "Melissa L. Gasser", "Erin C. Westgate", "Janna Cousijn", "Matthew C. Enkema", "Clayton Neighbors"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134642.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_1_Baseline_Drinking_Variables_as_a_Function_of_Training_Type_and_Group_/1501740", "title"=>"Study 1 Baseline Drinking Variables as a Function of Training Type and Group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-04 03:02:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2199942"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. Training effect refers to the results of the ANOVAs used to test for possible training effects (i.e., the results of the condition x time interactions for all variables other than cravings, alcohol and non-alcohol image preferences; for those variables, the results refer to condition main effect). Analyses for approach avoid training include AUDIT scores as a covariate. Partial η<sup>2</sup> = SS <sub>effect</sub> / (SS <sub>effect</sub> + SS <sub>error</sub>). Scores for the AAT and IAT are D scores with higher scores indicating greater bias. Intentions = future drinking intentions or number of drinks participants expect to drink over the next week. Alcohol and Non-alc IP = alcohol and non-alcohol image preferences or the ratings of the images used in the AAT, higher scores = image being more appealing.</p><p>Means, Standard Deviations, and Tests for Training Effects for Experimental and Control Groups in Study 1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alcohol approach associations", "identity training", "training effects", "sham training conditions", "alcohol outcomes", "training sessions", "training adaptations", "alcohol associations", "drinking identity associations", "aat", "alcohol use disorders"], "article_id"=>1501741, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Kristen P. Lindgren", "Reinout W. Wiers", "Bethany A. Teachman", "Melissa L. Gasser", "Erin C. Westgate", "Janna Cousijn", "Matthew C. Enkema", "Clayton Neighbors"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134642.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Means_Standard_Deviations_and_Tests_for_Training_Effects_for_Experimental_and_Control_Groups_in_Study_1_/1501741", "title"=>"Means, Standard Deviations, and Tests for Training Effects for Experimental and Control Groups in Study 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-04 03:02:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2199943"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. AUDIT score = score on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, higher scores = higher risk of alcohol use disorders. Cohen’s <i>d</i> = 2<i>t</i> /(<i>df</i> ^5).</p><p>Study 2 Baseline Drinking Variables as a Function of Training Type and Group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alcohol approach associations", "identity training", "training effects", "sham training conditions", "alcohol outcomes", "training sessions", "training adaptations", "alcohol associations", "drinking identity associations", "aat", "alcohol use disorders"], "article_id"=>1501742, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Kristen P. Lindgren", "Reinout W. Wiers", "Bethany A. Teachman", "Melissa L. Gasser", "Erin C. Westgate", "Janna Cousijn", "Matthew C. Enkema", "Clayton Neighbors"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134642.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_2_Baseline_Drinking_Variables_as_a_Function_of_Training_Type_and_Group_/1501742", "title"=>"Study 2 Baseline Drinking Variables as a Function of Training Type and Group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-04 03:02:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2199944"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. Training effect refers to the results of the ANOVAs used to test for possible training effects (i.e., the results of the condition x time interactions for all variables other than cravings, alcohol and non-alcohol image preferences; for those variables, the results refer to condition main effect). Analyses for approach avoid training include AUDIT scores as a covariate; analyses for personalized identity include drinks per week as a covariate. Partial η<sup>2</sup> = SS <sub>effect</sub> / (SS <sub>effect</sub> + SS <sub>error</sub>). Scores for the AAT and IAT are D scores with higher scores indicating greater bias. The AAT bias scores presented here are the baseline bias scores and the bias scores immediately following the second training session. Intentions = future drinking intentions or number of drinks participants expect to drink over the next week. Social Pressure, Opportunistic, Emotional Relief = drinking-related self-efficacy factors with higher scores indicating greater self-efficacy. Alcohol and Non-alc IP = alcohol and non-alcohol image preferences or the ratings of the images used in the AAT, higher scores = image being more appealing.</p><p>Means, Standard Deviations, and Tests for Training Effects for Experimental and Control Groups in Study 2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alcohol approach associations", "identity training", "training effects", "sham training conditions", "alcohol outcomes", "training sessions", "training adaptations", "alcohol associations", "drinking identity associations", "aat", "alcohol use disorders"], "article_id"=>1501743, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Kristen P. Lindgren", "Reinout W. Wiers", "Bethany A. Teachman", "Melissa L. Gasser", "Erin C. Westgate", "Janna Cousijn", "Matthew C. Enkema", "Clayton Neighbors"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134642.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Means_Standard_Deviations_and_Tests_for_Training_Effects_for_Experimental_and_Control_Groups_in_Study_2_/1501743", "title"=>"Means, Standard Deviations, and Tests for Training Effects for Experimental and Control Groups in Study 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-04 03:02:08"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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