On Reminder Effects, Drop-Outs and Dominance: Evidence from an Online Experiment on Charitable Giving
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{"title"=>"On reminder effects, drop-outs and dominance: Evidence from an online experiment on charitable giving", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Axel", "last_name"=>"Sonntag", "scopus_author_id"=>"56556373200"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel John", "last_name"=>"Zizzo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602105782"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84941992248", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0134705", "sgr"=>"84941992248", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"606057490"}, "id"=>"56746ce5-43c2-3c6f-9d62-c1265d5edd6f", "abstract"=>"We present the results of an experiment that (a) shows the usefulness of screening out drop-outs and (b) tests whether different methods of payment and reminder intervals affect charitable giving. Following a lab session, participants could make online donations to charity for a total duration of three months. Our procedure justifying the exclusion of drop-outs consists in requiring participants to collect payments in person flexibly and as known in advance and as highlighted to them later. Our interpretation is that participants who failed to collect their positive payments under these circumstances are likely not to satisfy dominance. If we restrict the sample to subjects who did not drop out, but not otherwise, reminders significantly increase the overall amount of charitable giving. We also find that weekly reminders are no more effective than monthly reminders in increasing charitable giving, and that, in our three months duration experiment, standing orders do not increase giving relative to one-off donations. Copyright:", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/reminder-effects-dropouts-dominance-evidence-online-experiment-charitable-giving", "reader_count"=>13, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2205013"], "description"=>"<p>Every subject who collected his/her payment filled brief questionnaire in which they explained their main reasons why they did not donate (more). Subsequently these open answers were categorized by the experimenter into five categories (N = 195).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["months duration experiment", "participant", "Reminder Effects", "lab session", "donation", "Online Experiment", "reminder intervals", "person flexibly"], "article_id"=>1505408, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Axel Sonntag", "Daniel John Zizzo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134705.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reasons_stated_for_not_donating_/1505408", "title"=>"Reasons stated for not donating.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-07 02:50:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2205014"], "description"=>"<p>The left and the right part contain the observations of participants who collected and did not collect their payments, respectively (n = 195 and 38, respectively).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["months duration experiment", "participant", "Reminder Effects", "lab session", "donation", "Online Experiment", "reminder intervals", "person flexibly"], "article_id"=>1505409, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Axel Sonntag", "Daniel John Zizzo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134705.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Histograms_of_earned_payments_by_collectors_and_non_collectors_/1505409", "title"=>"Histograms of earned payments by collectors and non-collectors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-07 02:50:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2205015"], "description"=>"<p>Error bars represent standard errors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["months duration experiment", "participant", "Reminder Effects", "lab session", "donation", "Online Experiment", "reminder intervals", "person flexibly"], "article_id"=>1505410, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Axel Sonntag", "Daniel John Zizzo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134705.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Share_of_salary_donated_/1505410", "title"=>"Share of salary donated.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-07 02:50:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2205016"], "description"=>"<p>Experimental design and numbers of subjects per treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["months duration experiment", "participant", "Reminder Effects", "lab session", "donation", "Online Experiment", "reminder intervals", "person flexibly"], "article_id"=>1505411, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Axel Sonntag", "Daniel John Zizzo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134705.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_design_and_numbers_of_subjects_per_treatment_/1505411", "title"=>"Experimental design and numbers of subjects per treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-07 02:50:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2205017"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134705#pone.0134705.t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> contains coefficients (standard errors in parentheses) of a Tobit model on the share of the salary donated per participant (censoring at 0 and 1). Columns 1, 2 and 3 were estimated using all observations (n = 233) and columns 4, 5 and 6 were estimated with the restricted sample (n = 201). The variable names in single quotes represent encoded dummies that are mutually exclusively 1 if the stated main reason for not-donating matches the dummy’s name and 0 otherwise; ‘Other reasons’ were defined as the base-category. Organized/Busy person: self-perception measured with a 7-point Likert scale, Emails per day: number of emails subjects stated they received each day. Procrastination and Social Desirability were measured using standard psychological scales. Interaction terms of standing order and weekly/monthly reminders (results not included above) were never significant; Levels of significance</p><p>***p < 0.01</p><p>**p < 0.05</p><p>*p < 0.1.</p><p>Share of salary donated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["months duration experiment", "participant", "Reminder Effects", "lab session", "donation", "Online Experiment", "reminder intervals", "person flexibly"], "article_id"=>1505412, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Axel Sonntag", "Daniel John Zizzo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134705.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Share_of_salary_donated_/1505412", "title"=>"Share of salary donated.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-07 02:50:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2205018"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134705#pone.0134705.t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a> marginal effects of a Probit regression on the probability of making a donation (1 if at least one donation was made, 0 otherwise). Columns 1, 2 and 3 were estimated using all observations (n = 233) and columns 4, 5 and 6 were estimated with the restricted sample (n = 201). Interaction terms of standing order and weekly/monthly reminders (results not included above) were never significant. Levels of significance</p><p>***p < 0.01</p><p>**p < 0.05</p><p>*p < 0.1.</p><p>Probability of making a donation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["months duration experiment", "participant", "Reminder Effects", "lab session", "donation", "Online Experiment", "reminder intervals", "person flexibly"], "article_id"=>1505413, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Axel Sonntag", "Daniel John Zizzo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134705.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Probability_of_making_a_donation_/1505413", "title"=>"Probability of making a donation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-07 02:50:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2205019"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0134705#pone.0134705.t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a> contains coefficients of a Tobit model on the number donation actions taken per participant (left-censoring at 0), respectively. Columns 1, 2 and 3 were estimated using all observations (n = 233) and columns 4, 5 and 6 were estimated with the restricted sample (n = 201). Interaction terms of standing order and weekly/monthly reminders (results not included above) were never significant. Levels of significance</p><p>***p < 0.01</p><p>**p < 0.05</p><p>*p < 0.1.</p><p>Number of donation actions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["months duration experiment", "participant", "Reminder Effects", "lab session", "donation", "Online Experiment", "reminder intervals", "person flexibly"], "article_id"=>1505414, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Axel Sonntag", "Daniel John Zizzo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134705.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_donation_actions_/1505414", "title"=>"Number of donation actions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-07 02:50:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2205020"], "description"=>"<div><p>We present the results of an experiment that (a) shows the usefulness of screening out drop-outs and (b) tests whether different methods of payment and reminder intervals affect charitable giving. Following a lab session, participants could make online donations to charity for a total duration of three months. Our procedure justifying the exclusion of drop-outs consists in requiring participants to collect payments in person flexibly and as known in advance and as highlighted to them later. Our interpretation is that participants who failed to collect their positive payments under these circumstances are likely not to satisfy dominance. If we restrict the sample to subjects who did not drop out, but not otherwise, reminders significantly increase the overall amount of charitable giving. We also find that weekly reminders are no more effective than monthly reminders in increasing charitable giving, and that, in our three months duration experiment, standing orders do not increase giving relative to one-off donations.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["months duration experiment", "participant", "Reminder Effects", "lab session", "donation", "Online Experiment", "reminder intervals", "person flexibly"], "article_id"=>1505415, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Axel Sonntag", "Daniel John Zizzo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134705", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_On_Reminder_Effects_Drop_Outs_and_Dominance_Evidence_from_an_Online_Experiment_on_Charitable_Giving_/1505415", "title"=>"On Reminder Effects, Drop-Outs and Dominance: Evidence from an Online Experiment on Charitable Giving", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-07 02:50:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2205012"], "description"=>"<p>Light blue (left) and dark blue (right) bars represent data from the whole sample and the restricted dataset, respectively. Error bars represent standard errors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["months duration experiment", "participant", "Reminder Effects", "lab session", "donation", "Online Experiment", "reminder intervals", "person flexibly"], "article_id"=>1505407, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Axel Sonntag", "Daniel John Zizzo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134705.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Balance_check_/1505407", "title"=>"Balance check.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-07 02:50:38"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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