Neuronal Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Exosomes Derived from Differentiating Neuronal Cells
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{"title"=>"Neuronal differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells using exosomes derived from differentiating neuronal cells", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Yuji S.", "last_name"=>"Takeda", "scopus_author_id"=>"56660205700"}, {"first_name"=>"Qiaobing", "last_name"=>"Xu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403743791"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84941966187", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0135111", "pui"=>"606057338", "pmid"=>"26248331", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84941966187", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"2f687155-7339-372d-bdea-59f2b5e52d7e", "abstract"=>"Exosomes deliver functional proteins and genetic materials to neighboring cells, and have potential applications for tissue regeneration. One possible mechanism of exosome-promoted tissue regeneration is through the delivery of microRNA (miRNA). In this study, we hypothesized that exosomes derived from neuronal progenitor cells contain miRNAs that promote neuronal differentiation. We treated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) daily with exosomes derived from PC12 cells, a neuronal cell line, for 1 week. After the treatment with PC12-derived exosomes, MSCs developed neuron-like morphology, and gene and protein expressions of neuronal markers were upregulated. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of miR-125b, which is known to play a role in neuronal differentiation of stem cells, was much higher in PC12-derived exosomes than in exosomes from B16-F10 melanoma cells. These results suggest that the delivery of miRNAs contained in PC12-derived exosomes is a possible mechanism explaining the neuronal differentiation of MSC.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/neuronal-differentiation-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-using-exosomes-derived-differentiating-neurona-2", "reader_count"=>77, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Master"=>21, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Master"=>21, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>8, "Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>20, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Neuroscience"=>7, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Psychology"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>8}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>7}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>20}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Korea (South)"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Mexico"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2204467"], "description"=>"<div><p>Exosomes deliver functional proteins and genetic materials to neighboring cells, and have potential applications for tissue regeneration. One possible mechanism of exosome-promoted tissue regeneration is through the delivery of microRNA (miRNA). In this study, we hypothesized that exosomes derived from neuronal progenitor cells contain miRNAs that promote neuronal differentiation. We treated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) daily with exosomes derived from PC12 cells, a neuronal cell line, for 1 week. After the treatment with PC12-derived exosomes, MSCs developed neuron-like morphology, and gene and protein expressions of neuronal markers were upregulated. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of miR-125b, which is known to play a role in neuronal differentiation of stem cells, was much higher in PC12-derived exosomes than in exosomes from B16-F10 melanoma cells. These results suggest that the delivery of miRNAs contained in PC12-derived exosomes is a possible mechanism explaining the neuronal differentiation of MSC.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mirna", "Differentiating Neuronal Cells Exosomes", "cell line", "1 week", "differentiation", "tissue regeneration", "msc", "Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells", "exosome", "protein expressions", "Neuronal differentiation", "PC 12 cells", "progenitor cells", "Exosomes Derived", "microarray analysis"], "article_id"=>1505001, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yuji S. Takeda", "Qiaobing Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135111", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Neuronal_Differentiation_of_Human_Mesenchymal_Stem_Cells_Using_Exosomes_Derived_from_Differentiating_Neuronal_Cells_/1505001", "title"=>"Neuronal Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Exosomes Derived from Differentiating Neuronal Cells", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-06 04:10:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2204465"], "description"=>"<p>miRNAs enriched in PC12 exosomes and upregulated after NGF treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mirna", "Differentiating Neuronal Cells Exosomes", "cell line", "1 week", "differentiation", "tissue regeneration", "msc", "Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells", "exosome", "protein expressions", "Neuronal differentiation", "PC 12 cells", "progenitor cells", "Exosomes Derived", "microarray analysis"], "article_id"=>1504999, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yuji S. Takeda", "Qiaobing Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135111.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_miRNAs_enriched_in_PC12_exosomes_and_upregulated_after_NGF_treatment_/1504999", "title"=>"miRNAs enriched in PC12 exosomes and upregulated after NGF treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-06 04:10:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2204466"], "description"=>"<p>miRNAs enriched in PC12 exosomes but not upregulated after NGF treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mirna", "Differentiating Neuronal Cells Exosomes", "cell line", "1 week", "differentiation", "tissue regeneration", "msc", "Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells", "exosome", "protein expressions", "Neuronal differentiation", "PC 12 cells", "progenitor cells", "Exosomes Derived", "microarray analysis"], "article_id"=>1505000, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yuji S. Takeda", "Qiaobing Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135111.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_miRNAs_enriched_in_PC12_exosomes_but_not_upregulated_after_NGF_treatment_/1505000", "title"=>"miRNAs enriched in PC12 exosomes but not upregulated after NGF treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-06 04:10:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2204464"], "description"=>"<p>(A) 101 total probes common between rat and mouse species and detectable in at least 1 sample were used in analysis by hierarchical clustering. Intensities for the probes were log-2-transformed. (B, C) Comparison of miRNA expression between D9 and D0 exosome (B), and D9 and B16-F10 exosome (C).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mirna", "Differentiating Neuronal Cells Exosomes", "cell line", "1 week", "differentiation", "tissue regeneration", "msc", "Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells", "exosome", "protein expressions", "Neuronal differentiation", "PC 12 cells", "progenitor cells", "Exosomes Derived", "microarray analysis"], "article_id"=>1504998, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yuji S. Takeda", "Qiaobing Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135111.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_miRNA_expression_in_exosomes_/1504998", "title"=>"miRNA expression in exosomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-06 04:10:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2204461"], "description"=>"<p>hMSCs were treated for 1 week with exosomes derived from differentiating PC12 cells. MAP2, NSE, and 160 kDa neurofilament (NF160) were immunostained. As negative controls, non-treated hMSCs and hMSCs treated with exosomes derived from B16-F10 cells are shown. Blue: cell nuclei. Scale bar, 50 μm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mirna", "Differentiating Neuronal Cells Exosomes", "cell line", "1 week", "differentiation", "tissue regeneration", "msc", "Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells", "exosome", "protein expressions", "Neuronal differentiation", "PC 12 cells", "progenitor cells", "Exosomes Derived", "microarray analysis"], "article_id"=>1504995, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yuji S. Takeda", "Qiaobing Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135111.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cell_morphology_of_hMSC_after_treatment_with_exosomes_from_neuronal_cells_/1504995", "title"=>"Cell morphology of hMSC after treatment with exosomes from neuronal cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-06 04:10:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2204463"], "description"=>"<p>(A) MSCs were treated with exosomes for 1 week. (B) PC12 exosomes and B16-F10 cells treated with PC12 exosomes. Cell lysate from differentiated PC12 cells, treated with NGF for 1 week, was used as a positive control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mirna", "Differentiating Neuronal Cells Exosomes", "cell line", "1 week", "differentiation", "tissue regeneration", "msc", "Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells", "exosome", "protein expressions", "Neuronal differentiation", "PC 12 cells", "progenitor cells", "Exosomes Derived", "microarray analysis"], "article_id"=>1504997, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yuji S. Takeda", "Qiaobing Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135111.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Western_blot_of_neuronal_marker_proteins_NSE_MAP2_and_GAPDH_/1504997", "title"=>"Western blot of neuronal marker proteins (NSE, MAP2, and GAPDH).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-06 04:10:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2204462"], "description"=>"<p>(A) MAP2, (B) NSE. **: <i>p</i> < 0.01, ***: <i>p</i> < 0.001. Ratio compared with non-treated sample. All error bars represent standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mirna", "Differentiating Neuronal Cells Exosomes", "cell line", "1 week", "differentiation", "tissue regeneration", "msc", "Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells", "exosome", "protein expressions", "Neuronal differentiation", "PC 12 cells", "progenitor cells", "Exosomes Derived", "microarray analysis"], "article_id"=>1504996, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yuji S. Takeda", "Qiaobing Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135111.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_mRNA_expression_of_hMSC_treated_with_exosome_samples_for_1_week_/1504996", "title"=>"mRNA expression of hMSC treated with exosome samples for 1 week.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-06 04:10:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2204459"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Typical size distribution for an exosome sample derived from PC12 cells, measured with dynamic light scattering (DLS). (B) DLS analysis of exosome samples. <i>n</i> = 9. All error bars represent standard deviation. (C) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of a typical exosome sample derived from B16-F10 cells. Scale bar, 100 nm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mirna", "Differentiating Neuronal Cells Exosomes", "cell line", "1 week", "differentiation", "tissue regeneration", "msc", "Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells", "exosome", "protein expressions", "Neuronal differentiation", "PC 12 cells", "progenitor cells", "Exosomes Derived", "microarray analysis"], "article_id"=>1504993, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yuji S. Takeda", "Qiaobing Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135111.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Size_and_morphology_of_exosomes_/1504993", "title"=>"Size and morphology of exosomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-06 04:10:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2204457"], "description"=>"<p>Exosomes were collected from the conditioned media of PC12 cells differentiating into neuron-like cells. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) were dosed with the exosomes, and then evaluated for differentiation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mirna", "Differentiating Neuronal Cells Exosomes", "cell line", "1 week", "differentiation", "tissue regeneration", "msc", "Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells", "exosome", "protein expressions", "Neuronal differentiation", "PC 12 cells", "progenitor cells", "Exosomes Derived", "microarray analysis"], "article_id"=>1504991, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yuji S. Takeda", "Qiaobing Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135111.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_this_study_/1504991", "title"=>"Schematic representation of this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-06 04:10:18"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"118", "full-text"=>"97", "pdf"=>"56", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"50", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"81", "full-text"=>"76", "pdf"=>"46", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"34", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"34", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"67", "full-text"=>"70", "pdf"=>"40", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"44", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"61", "pdf"=>"40", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"43", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"69", "full-text"=>"72", "pdf"=>"27", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"27", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"58", "full-text"=>"68", "pdf"=>"29", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"67", "full-text"=>"66", "pdf"=>"37", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"54", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"67", "full-text"=>"79", "pdf"=>"32", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"70", "full-text"=>"75", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"66", "full-text"=>"68", "pdf"=>"28", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"80", "full-text"=>"87", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"81", "full-text"=>"90", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"32", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"54", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"87", "full-text"=>"93", "pdf"=>"27", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"58", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"25", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"74", "full-text"=>"104", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"24", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"63", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"21", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"73", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"70", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"61", "full-text"=>"66", "pdf"=>"26", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"62", "full-text"=>"70", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"83", "full-text"=>"86", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"90", "full-text"=>"97", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"77", "full-text"=>"83", "pdf"=>"25", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"73", "full-text"=>"80", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"65", "full-text"=>"70", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"95", "full-text"=>"111", "pdf"=>"29", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"54", "full-text"=>"67", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"80", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"70", "pdf"=>"15", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"84", "full-text"=>"99", "pdf"=>"17", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"83", "full-text"=>"102", "pdf"=>"22", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"67", "full-text"=>"76", "pdf"=>"19", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"79", "pdf"=>"14", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"88", "full-text"=>"95", "pdf"=>"19", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"65", "full-text"=>"83", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"83", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"77", "full-text"=>"92", "pdf"=>"16", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"81", "full-text"=>"96", "pdf"=>"24", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"77", "full-text"=>"100", "pdf"=>"16", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"59", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"80", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"76", "full-text"=>"87", "pdf"=>"14", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"65", "full-text"=>"71", "pdf"=>"22", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"61", "full-text"=>"68", "pdf"=>"24", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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