Relative Age in School and Suicide among Young Individuals in Japan: A Regression Discontinuity Approach
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{"title"=>"Relative age in school and suicide among young individuals in Japan: A regression discontinuity approach", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Tetsuya", "last_name"=>"Matsubayashi", "scopus_author_id"=>"24466990200"}, {"first_name"=>"Michiko", "last_name"=>"Ueda", "scopus_author_id"=>"37050324400"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0135349", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84943196367", "pui"=>"606225702", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"26309241", "sgr"=>"84943196367", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"d9f8599d-8603-396d-baf2-4dea4b3cdb73", "abstract"=>"Objective Evidence collected in many parts of the world suggests that, compared to older students, students who are relatively younger at school entry tend to have worse academic performance and lower levels of income. This study examined how relative age in a grade affects suicide rates of adolescents and young adults between 15 and 25 years of age using data from Japan. Method We examined individual death records in the Vital Statistics of Japan from 1989 to 2010. In contrast to other countries, late entry to primary school is not allowed in Japan. We took advantage of the school entry cutoff date to implement a regression discontinuity (RD) design, assuming that the timing of births around the school entry cutoff date was randomly determined and therefore that individuals who were born just before and after the cutoff date have similar baseline characteristics. Results We found that those who were born right before the school cutoff day and thus youngest in their cohort have higher mortality rates by suicide, compared to their peers who were born right after the cutoff date and thus older. We also found that those with relative age disadvantage tend to follow a different career path than those with relative age advantage, which may explain their higher suicide mortality rates. Conclusion Relative age effects have broader consequences than was previously supposed. This study suggests that policy intervention that alleviates the relative age effect can be important.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/relative-age-school-suicide-among-young-individuals-japan-regression-discontinuity-approach", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Sports and Recreations"=>7, "Psychology"=>8, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>7}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>8}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228488"], "description"=>"<p>All estimates are based on linear regressions using data within ± 7-day, ± 14-day, ± 21-day, ± 28-day windows centered at the school entry cutoff date (April 2). The outcome variable is the rate of mortality by suicide. The mortality rate is calculated as the number of suicides divided by the number of total births by each subgroup on each date of birth, multiplied by 100. The data include individuals aged between 15 and 25 at the time of death that occurred between 1989 and 2010.</p><p>*** p <.01,</p><p>** p <.05,</p><p>* p <.10 (two-tailed tests).</p><p>Source: Birth records (1974–1985) and death records (1989–2010), the Vital Statistics of Japan.</p><p>The Estimated Effects of School Entry Cutoff Date on the Rate of Suicide by Subgroups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rd", "school cutoff day", "suicide mortality rates.ConclusionRelative age effects", "cutoff date", "Regression Discontinuity Approach ObjectiveEvidence", "school entry cutoff date"], "article_id"=>1523608, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tetsuya Matsubayashi", "Michiko Ueda"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135349.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Estimated_Effects_of_School_Entry_Cutoff_Date_on_the_Rate_of_Suicide_by_Subgroups_/1523608", "title"=>"The Estimated Effects of School Entry Cutoff Date on the Rate of Suicide by Subgroups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:06:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228489", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228490", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228491", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228492", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228493"], "description"=>"<div><p>Objective</p><p>Evidence collected in many parts of the world suggests that, compared to older students, students who are relatively younger at school entry tend to have worse academic performance and lower levels of income. This study examined how relative age in a grade affects suicide rates of adolescents and young adults between 15 and 25 years of age using data from Japan.</p><p>Method</p><p>We examined individual death records in the Vital Statistics of Japan from 1989 to 2010. In contrast to other countries, late entry to primary school is not allowed in Japan. We took advantage of the school entry cutoff date to implement a regression discontinuity (RD) design, assuming that the timing of births around the school entry cutoff date was randomly determined and therefore that individuals who were born just before and after the cutoff date have similar baseline characteristics.</p><p>Results</p><p>We found that those who were born right before the school cutoff day and thus youngest in their cohort have higher mortality rates by suicide, compared to their peers who were born right after the cutoff date and thus older. We also found that those with relative age disadvantage tend to follow a different career path than those with relative age advantage, which may explain their higher suicide mortality rates.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>Relative age effects have broader consequences than was previously supposed. This study suggests that policy intervention that alleviates the relative age effect can be important.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rd", "school cutoff day", "suicide mortality rates.ConclusionRelative age effects", "cutoff date", "Regression Discontinuity Approach ObjectiveEvidence", "school entry cutoff date"], "article_id"=>1523609, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tetsuya Matsubayashi", "Michiko Ueda"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135349.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135349.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135349.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135349.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135349.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_Age_in_School_and_Suicide_among_Young_Individuals_in_Japan_A_Regression_Discontinuity_Approach_/1523609", "title"=>"Relative Age in School and Suicide among Young Individuals in Japan: A Regression Discontinuity Approach", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:06:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228484"], "description"=>"<p>The rate of suicide is plotted against the date of birth. The red line denotes the school entry cutoff date (i.e., Aprils 2nd) in Japan. The gray thick line represents a locally weighted regression line fitted separately before and after the cutoff date. The data include individuals aged between 15 and 25 at the time of death that occurred between 1989 and 2010. Source: Birth records (1974–1985) and death records (1989–2010), the Vital Statistics of Japan.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rd", "school cutoff day", "suicide mortality rates.ConclusionRelative age effects", "cutoff date", "Regression Discontinuity Approach ObjectiveEvidence", "school entry cutoff date"], "article_id"=>1523604, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tetsuya Matsubayashi", "Michiko Ueda"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135349.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Rate_of_Suicide_by_the_Date_of_Birth_/1523604", "title"=>"The Rate of Suicide by the Date of Birth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:06:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228485"], "description"=>"<p>The sample includes individuals aged between 15 and 25 at the time of death that occurred between 1989 and 2010. The rate of suicide is calculated as the number of suicides divided by the number of total births for each date of birth, multiplied by 100. The number of observations is 365. Source: Birth records (1974–1985) and death records (1989–2010), the Vital Statistics of Japan.</p><p>Descriptive Statistics on the Rate of Mortality by Suicide.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rd", "school cutoff day", "suicide mortality rates.ConclusionRelative age effects", "cutoff date", "Regression Discontinuity Approach ObjectiveEvidence", "school entry cutoff date"], "article_id"=>1523605, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tetsuya Matsubayashi", "Michiko Ueda"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135349.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Descriptive_Statistics_on_the_Rate_of_Mortality_by_Suicide_/1523605", "title"=>"Descriptive Statistics on the Rate of Mortality by Suicide.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:06:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2228487"], "description"=>"<p>All estimates are based on linear regressions using data within ± 7-day, ± 14-day, ± 21-day, ± 28-day windows centered at the school entry cutoff date (April 2). The outcome variable is the rate of mortality by suicide. The mortality rate is calculated as the number of suicides divided by the number of total births on each date of birth, multiplied by 100. The data include individuals aged between 15 and 25 at the time of death that occurred between 1989 and 2010.</p><p>*** p <.01 (two-tailed tests).</p><p>Source: Birth records (1974–1985) and death records (1989–2010), the Vital Statistics of Japan.</p><p>The Estimated Effects of School Entry Cutoff Date on the Rate of Suicide.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rd", "school cutoff day", "suicide mortality rates.ConclusionRelative age effects", "cutoff date", "Regression Discontinuity Approach ObjectiveEvidence", "school entry cutoff date"], "article_id"=>1523607, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tetsuya Matsubayashi", "Michiko Ueda"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135349.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Estimated_Effects_of_School_Entry_Cutoff_Date_on_the_Rate_of_Suicide_/1523607", "title"=>"The Estimated Effects of School Entry Cutoff Date on the Rate of Suicide.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 04:06:34"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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