Suboptimal Serum α-Tocopherol Concentrations Observed among Younger Adults and Those Depending Exclusively upon Food Sources, NHANES 2003-20061-3
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{"title"=>"Suboptimal serum A-tocopherol concentrations observed among younger adults and those depending exclusively upon food sources, NHANES 2003-2006<sup>1-3</sup>", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Michael I.", "last_name"=>"McBurney", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005942899"}, {"first_name"=>"Elaine A.", "last_name"=>"Yu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56878295400"}, {"first_name"=>"Eric D.", "last_name"=>"Ciappio", "scopus_author_id"=>"25228524900"}, {"first_name"=>"Julia K.", "last_name"=>"Bird", "scopus_author_id"=>"56443480900"}, {"first_name"=>"Manfred", "last_name"=>"Eggersdorfer", "scopus_author_id"=>"16042059300"}, {"first_name"=>"Saurabh", "last_name"=>"Mehta", "scopus_author_id"=>"56535820900"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84942627373", "pmid"=>"26287975", "pui"=>"606153848", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0135510", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84942627373", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0135510"}, "id"=>"15710ddf-7a2a-3e85-aa63-0c4e64e93604", "abstract"=>"Vitamin E is an essential nutrient for human health, with an established function as a lipid-soluble antioxidant that protects cell membranes from free radical damage. Low vitamin E status has been linked to multiple health outcomes, including total mortality. With vitamin E being identified as a 'shortfall nutrient' because >90% of American adults are not consuming recommended amounts of vitamin E, we aimed to determine the prevalence of both clinical vitamin E deficiency (serum α-tocopherol concentration < 12 μmol/L) and failure to meet a criterion of vitamin E adequacy, serum α-tocopherol concentration of 30 μmol/L, based on the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and lowest mortality rate in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene (ATBC) study. The most recent nationally-representative cross-sectional data (2003-2006) among non-institutionalized US citizens with available serum concentrations of α-tocopherol from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were analyzed. Serum α-tocopherol distributions were compared between those reporting consumption of food without supplement use (FOOD) and food and supplement use (FOOD+DS) by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Only 1% of the US population is clinically deficient. FOOD consumers have lower average α-tocopherol levels (24.9± 0.2 μmol/L) than FOOD+DS users (33.7 ± 0.3 μmol/L), even when adjusted for total cholesterol. Using a criterion of adequacy of 30 μmol/L, 87% of persons 20-30y and 43% of those 51+y had inadequate vitamin E status (p<0.01). A significant greater prevalence of FOOD compared to FOOD+DS users did not meet the criterion of adequacy which was based on the EAR and low ATBC mortality rate consistently across age, sex, and race/ethnic groups. The prevalence of inadequate vitamin E levels is significantly higher among non-users of dietary supplements. With declining usage of vitamin E supplements, the population should be monitored for changes in vitamin E status and related health outcomes.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/suboptimal-serum-atocopherol-concentrations-observed-among-younger-adults-those-depending-exclusivel", "reader_count"=>22, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2217168"], "description"=>"<div><p>Vitamin E is an essential nutrient for human health, with an established function as a lipid-soluble antioxidant that protects cell membranes from free radical damage. Low vitamin E status has been linked to multiple health outcomes, including total mortality. With vitamin E being identified as a ‘shortfall nutrient’ because >90% of American adults are not consuming recommended amounts of vitamin E, we aimed to determine the prevalence of both clinical vitamin E deficiency (serum α-tocopherol concentration < 12 μmol/L) and failure to meet a criterion of vitamin E adequacy, serum α-tocopherol concentration of 30 μmol/L, based on the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and lowest mortality rate in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene (ATBC) study. The most recent nationally-representative cross-sectional data (2003–2006) among non-institutionalized US citizens with available serum concentrations of α-tocopherol from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were analyzed. Serum α-tocopherol distributions were compared between those reporting consumption of food without supplement use (FOOD) and food and supplement use (FOOD+DS) by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Only 1% of the US population is clinically deficient. FOOD consumers have lower average α-tocopherol levels (24.9± 0.2 μmol/L) than FOOD+DS users (33.7 ± 0.3 μmol/L), even when adjusted for total cholesterol. Using a criterion of adequacy of 30 μmol/L, 87% of persons 20-30y and 43% of those 51+y had inadequate vitamin E status (p<0.01). A significant greater prevalence of FOOD compared to FOOD+DS users did not meet the criterion of adequacy which was based on the EAR and low ATBC mortality rate consistently across age, sex, and race/ethnic groups. The prevalence of inadequate vitamin E levels is significantly higher among non-users of dietary supplements. With declining usage of vitamin E supplements, the population should be monitored for changes in vitamin E status and related health outcomes.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Vitamin E", "mol", "Nutrition Examination Survey", "supplement use", "vitamin E status", "nhanes", "vitamin E supplements", "tocopherol", "vitamin E deficiency", "ATBC mortality rate", "Low vitamin E status", "health outcomes", "vitamin E adequacy", "vitamin E levels"], "article_id"=>1514528, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael I. McBurney", "Elaine A. Yu", "Eric D. Ciappio", "Julia K. Bird", "Manfred Eggersdorfer", "Saurabh Mehta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135510", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Suboptimal_Serum_Tocopherol_Concentrations_Observed_among_Younger_Adults_and_Those_Depending_Exclusively_upon_Food_Sources_NHANES_2003_2006_1_3_/1514528", "title"=>"Suboptimal Serum α-Tocopherol Concentrations Observed among Younger Adults and Those Depending Exclusively upon Food Sources, NHANES 2003-2006<sup>1-3</sup>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-19 03:36:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2217162"], "description"=>"<p>Lines represent density (as a percentage) through non-parametric kernel density estimation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Vitamin E", "mol", "Nutrition Examination Survey", "supplement use", "vitamin E status", "nhanes", "vitamin E supplements", "tocopherol", "vitamin E deficiency", "ATBC mortality rate", "Low vitamin E status", "health outcomes", "vitamin E adequacy", "vitamin E levels"], "article_id"=>1514522, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael I. McBurney", "Elaine A. Yu", "Eric D. Ciappio", "Julia K. Bird", "Manfred Eggersdorfer", "Saurabh Mehta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135510.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_serum_945_tocopherol_concentrations_among_individuals_8805_20y_excluding_pregnant_or_lactating_women_stratified_by_supplement_use_/1514522", "title"=>"Distribution of serum α-tocopherol concentrations among individuals ≥20y, excluding pregnant or lactating women, stratified by supplement use.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-19 03:36:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2217163"], "description"=>"<p>Lines represent density (as a percentage) through non-parametric kernel density estimation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Vitamin E", "mol", "Nutrition Examination Survey", "supplement use", "vitamin E status", "nhanes", "vitamin E supplements", "tocopherol", "vitamin E deficiency", "ATBC mortality rate", "Low vitamin E status", "health outcomes", "vitamin E adequacy", "vitamin E levels"], "article_id"=>1514523, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael I. McBurney", "Elaine A. Yu", "Eric D. Ciappio", "Julia K. Bird", "Manfred Eggersdorfer", "Saurabh Mehta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135510.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_serum_945_tocopherol_total_cholesterol_concentrations_among_individuals_8805_20y_excluding_pregnant_or_lactating_women_stratified_by_supplement_use_/1514523", "title"=>"Distribution of serum α-tocopherol:total cholesterol concentrations among individuals ≥20y, excluding pregnant or lactating women, stratified by supplement use.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-19 03:36:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2217164"], "description"=>"<p>A. Males. B. Females. Lines represent density (as a percentage) through non-parametric kernel density estimation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Vitamin E", "mol", "Nutrition Examination Survey", "supplement use", "vitamin E status", "nhanes", "vitamin E supplements", "tocopherol", "vitamin E deficiency", "ATBC mortality rate", "Low vitamin E status", "health outcomes", "vitamin E adequacy", "vitamin E levels"], "article_id"=>1514524, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael I. McBurney", "Elaine A. Yu", "Eric D. Ciappio", "Julia K. Bird", "Manfred Eggersdorfer", "Saurabh Mehta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135510.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_serum_945_tocopherol_concentrations_among_individuals_8805_20y_excluding_pregnant_or_lactating_women_stratified_by_sex_and_supplement_use_/1514524", "title"=>"Distribution of serum α-tocopherol concentrations among individuals ≥20y, excluding pregnant or lactating women, stratified by sex and supplement use.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-19 03:36:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2217165"], "description"=>"<p>A. Non-Hispanic White. B. Non-Hispanic Black. C. Mexican American. D. Other. Lines represent density (as a percentage) through non-parametric kernel density estimation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Vitamin E", "mol", "Nutrition Examination Survey", "supplement use", "vitamin E status", "nhanes", "vitamin E supplements", "tocopherol", "vitamin E deficiency", "ATBC mortality rate", "Low vitamin E status", "health outcomes", "vitamin E adequacy", "vitamin E levels"], "article_id"=>1514525, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael I. McBurney", "Elaine A. Yu", "Eric D. Ciappio", "Julia K. Bird", "Manfred Eggersdorfer", "Saurabh Mehta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135510.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_serum_945_tocopherol_concentrations_among_individuals_8805_20y_excluding_pregnant_or_lactating_women_stratified_by_race_ethicity_and_supplement_/1514525", "title"=>"Distribution of serum α-tocopherol concentrations among individuals ≥20y, excluding pregnant or lactating women, stratified by race-ethicity and supplement.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-19 03:36:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2217166"], "description"=>"<p>The dotted horizontal line represents a criterion of adequacy set at 30 μmol/L.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Vitamin E", "mol", "Nutrition Examination Survey", "supplement use", "vitamin E status", "nhanes", "vitamin E supplements", "tocopherol", "vitamin E deficiency", "ATBC mortality rate", "Low vitamin E status", "health outcomes", "vitamin E adequacy", "vitamin E levels"], "article_id"=>1514526, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael I. McBurney", "Elaine A. Yu", "Eric D. Ciappio", "Julia K. Bird", "Manfred Eggersdorfer", "Saurabh Mehta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135510.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_of_adults_8805_20y_at_or_below_the_serum_945_tocopherol_concentration_shown_on_the_Y_axis_excluding_pregnant_or_lactating_women_for_the_total_population_and_by_supplement_use_/1514526", "title"=>"Proportion (%) of adults ≥20y at or below the serum α-tocopherol concentration shown on the Y-axis, excluding pregnant or lactating women, for the total population and by supplement use.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-19 03:36:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2217167"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup> Serum α-tocopherol (μmol/L) divided by total cholesterol (mmol/L). Cut-off value (5.8 μmol/mmol) based on American Heart Association recommendation of desirable total cholesterol level (<200 mg/dL).</p><p><sup>b</sup> Sample size (n = 7,920) excludes individuals: <20 years; who were pregnant or lactating; with α-tocopherol concentrations >99 percentile; or unavailable data for α-tocopherol concentration, age, sex, race/ethnicity, total cholesterol. To account for complex survey design, SAS survey procedures (surveymeans) as well as cluster, strata, and sampling weights (proportionally scaled to included sample) were used.</p><p><sup>c</sup> Includes multi-racial and any other Hispanic individuals</p><p><sup>d</sup> Based on Rao-Scott chi-square p-value</p><p>Prevalences of cholesterol-adjusted serum α-tocopherol concentrations below cut-off (5.8 μmol/mmoL) among individuals in the United States (NHANES 2003–2006) (TOTAL), stratified by reported food use (FOOD), food and supplement use (FOOD+DS) and demographic characteristics (%).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Vitamin E", "mol", "Nutrition Examination Survey", "supplement use", "vitamin E status", "nhanes", "vitamin E supplements", "tocopherol", "vitamin E deficiency", "ATBC mortality rate", "Low vitamin E status", "health outcomes", "vitamin E adequacy", "vitamin E levels"], "article_id"=>1514527, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael I. McBurney", "Elaine A. Yu", "Eric D. Ciappio", "Julia K. Bird", "Manfred Eggersdorfer", "Saurabh Mehta"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135510.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prevalences_of_cholesterol_adjusted_serum_945_tocopherol_concentrations_below_cut_off_5_8_956_mol_mmoL_among_individuals_in_the_United_States_NHANES_2003_8211_2006_TOTAL_stratified_by_reported_food_use_FOOD_food_and_supplement_use_FOOD_DS_and_demographic/1514527", "title"=>"Prevalences of cholesterol-adjusted serum α-tocopherol concentrations below cut-off (5.8 μmol/mmoL) among individuals in the United States (NHANES 2003–2006) (TOTAL), stratified by reported food use (FOOD), food and supplement use (FOOD+DS) and demographic characteristics (%).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-19 03:36:07"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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