Stable Isotopes and Zooarchaeology at Teotihuacan, Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence of Wild Carnivore Management in Mesoamerica
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{"title"=>"Stable isotopes and zooarchaeology at Teotihuacan, Mexico reveal earliest evidence of wild carnivore management in Mesoamerica", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nawa", "last_name"=>"Sugiyama", "scopus_author_id"=>"56731223100"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew D.", "last_name"=>"Somerville", "scopus_author_id"=>"35091526300"}, {"first_name"=>"Margaret J.", "last_name"=>"Schoeninger", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701622166"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"606945850", "sgr"=>"84947576804", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84947576804", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0135635"}, "id"=>"8a9e333d-3e17-3bdd-b5ce-32555a588fee", "abstract"=>"From Roman gladiatorial combat to Egyptian animal mummies, the capture and manipula- tion of carnivores was instrumental in helping to shape social hierarchies throughout the ancient world. This paper investigates the historical inflection point when humans began to control animals not only as alimental resources but as ritual symbols and social actors in the New World. At Teotihuacan (A.D. 1–550), one of the largest pre-Hispanic cities, animal remains were integral components of ritual caches expressing state ideology and militarism during the construction of the Moon and the Sun Pyramids. The caches contain the remains of nearly 200 carnivorous animals, human sacrificial victims and other symbolic artifacts. This paper argues the presence of skeletal pathologies of infectious disease and injuries manifest on the carnivore remains show direct evidence of captivity. Stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N) of bones and teeth confirms that some of these carnivores were consuming high levels of C4 foods, likely reflecting a maize-based anthropocentric food chain. These results push back the antiquity of keeping captive carnivores for ritualistic purposes nearly 1000 years before the Spanish conquistadors described Moctezuma’s zoo at the Aztec cap- ital. Mirroring these documents the results indicate a select group of carnivores at Teotihua- can may have been fed maize-eating omnivores, such as dogs and humans. Unlike historical records, the present study provides the earliest and direct archaeological evi- dence for this practice in Mesoamerica. It also represents the first systematic isotopic explo- ration of a population of archaeological eagles (n = 24) and felids (n = 29).", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/stable-isotopes-zooarchaeology-teotihuacan-mexico-reveal-earliest-evidence-wild-carnivore-management", "reader_count"=>26, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>8, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>8}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>8}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Mexico"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250566"], "description"=>"<p>(Human reconstruction drawn by G. Pereira, animals drawn by N. Sugiyama). A) Incomplete canid cranium, B) complete felid with a pathology on left forearm (fused radius and ulna), C) plan view drawing of entwined rattlesnake remains inside a basket (drawing by N. Sugiyama), D) eagle skeleton with pathology on left lower limb (tarsometatarsus).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["A.D", "New World", "carnivores", "Roman gladiatorial combat", "alimental resources", "Wild Carnivore Management", "Aztec capital", "Mesoamerica", "Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence", "Spanish conquistadors", "1000 years", "human", "Sun Pyramids", "state ideology", "inflection point", "ritual caches", "Teotihuacan", "ritual symbols", "Egyptian animal mummies", "ritualistic purposes", "evidence", "control animals", "integral components", "stable isotopes", "C 4 foods"], "article_id"=>1533556, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Nawa Sugiyama", "Andrew D. Somerville", "Margaret J. Schoeninger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135635.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>18, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plan_view_reconstruction_of_the_animal_color_and_human_grey_remains_from_Entierro_6_Moon_Pyramid_center_/1533556", "title"=>"Plan view reconstruction of the animal (color) and human (grey) remains from Entierro 6, Moon Pyramid (center).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-02 03:04:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250567"], "description"=>"<p>δ<sup>13</sup>C<sub>apatite</sub> values for A) complete and incomplete carnivores (excludes all leporidae) and B) animal type (Lep. = Leporidae). Collagen δ<sup>15</sup>N and δ<sup>13</sup>C<sub>collagen</sub> values for C) complete and incomplete animal skeletons (excludes leporidae), and D) modern and archaeological felids. Error bars represent two standard divations from average isotopic values of modern felids living in C<sub>3</sub> (yellow) and C<sub>4</sub> (red) environments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["A.D", "New World", "carnivores", "Roman gladiatorial combat", "alimental resources", "Wild Carnivore Management", "Aztec capital", "Mesoamerica", "Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence", "Spanish conquistadors", "1000 years", "human", "Sun Pyramids", "state ideology", "inflection point", "ritual caches", "Teotihuacan", "ritual symbols", "Egyptian animal mummies", "ritualistic purposes", "evidence", "control animals", "integral components", "stable isotopes", "C 4 foods"], "article_id"=>1533557, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Nawa Sugiyama", "Andrew D. Somerville", "Margaret J. Schoeninger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135635.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stable_isotope_results_/1533557", "title"=>"Stable isotope results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-02 03:04:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250569"], "description"=>"<p>A) Back of the skull with large opening; B) left furculum with perforation; C) cut marks on left femur; D) pathology on inner calf of left tarsometatarsus; E) distribution of cut marks/perforations (red) and pathologies (blue), and isotope results.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["A.D", "New World", "carnivores", "Roman gladiatorial combat", "alimental resources", "Wild Carnivore Management", "Aztec capital", "Mesoamerica", "Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence", "Spanish conquistadors", "1000 years", "human", "Sun Pyramids", "state ideology", "inflection point", "ritual caches", "Teotihuacan", "ritual symbols", "Egyptian animal mummies", "ritualistic purposes", "evidence", "control animals", "integral components", "stable isotopes", "C 4 foods"], "article_id"=>1533559, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Nawa Sugiyama", "Andrew D. Somerville", "Margaret J. Schoeninger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135635.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Eagle_Element_2246_placed_post_mortem_secondarily_in_Entierro_6_with_surface_modifications_/1533559", "title"=>"Eagle (Element 2246) placed post-mortem (secondarily) in Entierro 6 with surface modifications.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-02 03:04:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250570"], "description"=>"<p>From the Tetitla apartment compound, Portico 13, Mural 3. Drawing by N. Sugiyama.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["A.D", "New World", "carnivores", "Roman gladiatorial combat", "alimental resources", "Wild Carnivore Management", "Aztec capital", "Mesoamerica", "Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence", "Spanish conquistadors", "1000 years", "human", "Sun Pyramids", "state ideology", "inflection point", "ritual caches", "Teotihuacan", "ritual symbols", "Egyptian animal mummies", "ritualistic purposes", "evidence", "control animals", "integral components", "stable isotopes", "C 4 foods"], "article_id"=>1533560, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Nawa Sugiyama", "Andrew D. Somerville", "Margaret J. Schoeninger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135635.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Line_drawing_of_puma_devouring_hearts_/1533560", "title"=>"Line drawing of puma devouring hearts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-02 03:04:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250571"], "description"=>"<p>Dedicatory contexts described in the text and their associated dates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["A.D", "New World", "carnivores", "Roman gladiatorial combat", "alimental resources", "Wild Carnivore Management", "Aztec capital", "Mesoamerica", "Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence", "Spanish conquistadors", "1000 years", "human", "Sun Pyramids", "state ideology", "inflection point", "ritual caches", "Teotihuacan", "ritual symbols", "Egyptian animal mummies", "ritualistic purposes", "evidence", "control animals", "integral components", "stable isotopes", "C 4 foods"], "article_id"=>1533561, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Nawa Sugiyama", "Andrew D. Somerville", "Margaret J. Schoeninger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135635.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dedicatory_contexts_described_in_the_text_and_their_associated_dates_/1533561", "title"=>"Dedicatory contexts described in the text and their associated dates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-02 03:04:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250572"], "description"=>"<p>Ent = Entierro, OF = Ofrenda, MNI = Minimum Number of Individuals, C = Complete, I = Incomplete.</p><p>Species distribution of zooarchaeological remains from the Moon Pyramid (Ent. 2, 6, 3 and 5) and Sun Pyramid (PPS OF2).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["A.D", "New World", "carnivores", "Roman gladiatorial combat", "alimental resources", "Wild Carnivore Management", "Aztec capital", "Mesoamerica", "Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence", "Spanish conquistadors", "1000 years", "human", "Sun Pyramids", "state ideology", "inflection point", "ritual caches", "Teotihuacan", "ritual symbols", "Egyptian animal mummies", "ritualistic purposes", "evidence", "control animals", "integral components", "stable isotopes", "C 4 foods"], "article_id"=>1533562, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Nawa Sugiyama", "Andrew D. Somerville", "Margaret J. Schoeninger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135635.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Species_distribution_of_zooarchaeological_remains_from_the_Moon_Pyramid_Ent_2_6_3_and_5_and_Sun_Pyramid_PPS_OF2_/1533562", "title"=>"Species distribution of zooarchaeological remains from the Moon Pyramid (Ent. 2, 6, 3 and 5) and Sun Pyramid (PPS OF2).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-02 03:04:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250573"], "description"=>"<p>Descriptive statistics of the δ<sup>13</sup>C<sub>apatite</sub>, δ<sup>13</sup>C<sub>collagen</sub>, and δ<sup>15</sup>N values for complete and incomplete samples (excludes all leporidae, which are rabbits and hares that were found as stomach contents).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["A.D", "New World", "carnivores", "Roman gladiatorial combat", "alimental resources", "Wild Carnivore Management", "Aztec capital", "Mesoamerica", "Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence", "Spanish conquistadors", "1000 years", "human", "Sun Pyramids", "state ideology", "inflection point", "ritual caches", "Teotihuacan", "ritual symbols", "Egyptian animal mummies", "ritualistic purposes", "evidence", "control animals", "integral components", "stable isotopes", "C 4 foods"], "article_id"=>1533563, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Nawa Sugiyama", "Andrew D. Somerville", "Margaret J. Schoeninger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135635.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Descriptive_statistics_of_the_13_C_apatite_948_13_C_collagen_and_948_15_N_values_for_complete_and_incomplete_samples_excludes_all_leporidae_which_are_rabbits_and_hares_that_were_found_as_stomach_contents_/1533563", "title"=>"Descriptive statistics of the δ<sup>13</sup>C<sub>apatite</sub>, δ<sup>13</sup>C<sub>collagen</sub>, and δ<sup>15</sup>N values for complete and incomplete samples (excludes all leporidae, which are rabbits and hares that were found as stomach contents).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-02 03:04:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250575", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250576", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250577"], "description"=>"<div><p>From Roman gladiatorial combat to Egyptian animal mummies, the capture and manipulation of carnivores was instrumental in helping to shape social hierarchies throughout the ancient world. This paper investigates the historical inflection point when humans began to control animals not only as alimental resources but as ritual symbols and social actors in the New World. At Teotihuacan (A.D. 1–550), one of the largest pre-Hispanic cities, animal remains were integral components of ritual caches expressing state ideology and militarism during the construction of the Moon and the Sun Pyramids. The caches contain the remains of nearly 200 carnivorous animals, human sacrificial victims and other symbolic artifacts. This paper argues the presence of skeletal pathologies of infectious disease and injuries manifest on the carnivore remains show direct evidence of captivity. Stable isotope analysis (δ<sup>13</sup>C and δ<sup>15</sup>N) of bones and teeth confirms that some of these carnivores were consuming high levels of C<sub>4</sub> foods, likely reflecting a maize-based anthropocentric food chain. These results push back the antiquity of keeping captive carnivores for ritualistic purposes nearly 1000 years before the Spanish conquistadors described Moctezuma’s zoo at the Aztec capital. Mirroring these documents the results indicate a select group of carnivores at Teotihuacan may have been fed maize-eating omnivores, such as dogs and humans. Unlike historical records, the present study provides the earliest and direct archaeological evidence for this practice in Mesoamerica. It also represents the first systematic isotopic exploration of a population of archaeological eagles (n = 24) and felids (n = 29).</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["A.D", "New World", "carnivores", "Roman gladiatorial combat", "alimental resources", "Wild Carnivore Management", "Aztec capital", "Mesoamerica", "Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence", "Spanish conquistadors", "1000 years", "human", "Sun Pyramids", "state ideology", "inflection point", "ritual caches", "Teotihuacan", "ritual symbols", "Egyptian animal mummies", "ritualistic purposes", "evidence", "control animals", "integral components", "stable isotopes", "C 4 foods"], "article_id"=>1533565, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Nawa Sugiyama", "Andrew D. Somerville", "Margaret J. Schoeninger"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135635.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135635.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135635.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stable_Isotopes_and_Zooarchaeology_at_Teotihuacan_Mexico_Reveal_Earliest_Evidence_of_Wild_Carnivore_Management_in_Mesoamerica_/1533565", "title"=>"Stable Isotopes and Zooarchaeology at Teotihuacan, Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence of Wild Carnivore Management in Mesoamerica", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-09-02 03:04:08"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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