The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest
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{"title"=>"The impacts of wind speed trends and 30-year variability in relation to hydroelectric reservoir inflows on wind power in the Pacific Northwest", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Benjamin D.", "last_name"=>"Cross", "scopus_author_id"=>"56884064600"}, {"first_name"=>"Karen E.", "last_name"=>"Kohfeld", "scopus_author_id"=>"55964407600"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph", "last_name"=>"Bailey", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199422717"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew B.", "last_name"=>"Cooper", "scopus_author_id"=>"55510179900"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"26271035", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84942929633", "pui"=>"606195817", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0135730", "sgr"=>"84942929633"}, "id"=>"e5fe9359-28f7-3f0e-9bf6-6d44c96c774c", "abstract"=>"In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year) relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC) and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD) estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI) for BC (collected from BC Hydro) for 1979-2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55), whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25) along BC's North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/impacts-wind-speed-trends-30year-variability-relation-hydroelectric-reservoir-inflows-wind-power-pac", "reader_count"=>14, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Engineering"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2211110"], "description"=>"<p>Anomalies are presented as the regional average percent change in wind density for NARR grid locations with significant anomalies compared with the average wind density for 1979–2010. Numbers in parentheses represent the number of NARR grid locations with statistically significant anomalies in each region. All annual totals are based on the water year of October through September, referenced by the calendar year containing October to December.</p><p>Regionally averaged anomalies in annual near-surface (10m) wind density totals in the three and five lowest and highest CUI years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "reservoir inflow behavior", "wind farm site selection", "benefit", "WD anomalies", "Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows", "generation", "Pacific Northwest", "wind speed", "NARR grid locations", "Wind Speed Trends", "cui", "inflow years", "inflow winter months", "PNW", "North American Regional Reanalysis", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1509985, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Benjamin D. Cross", "Karen E. Kohfeld", "Joseph Bailey", "Andrew B. Cooper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135730.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regionally_averaged_anomalies_in_annual_near_surface_10m_wind_density_totals_in_the_three_and_five_lowest_and_highest_CUI_years_/1509985", "title"=>"Regionally averaged anomalies in annual near-surface (10m) wind density totals in the three and five lowest and highest CUI years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-13 02:47:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2211112"], "description"=>"<p>Anomalies are presented as the regional average percent change in wind density for NARR grid locations with significant anomalies compared to an average month. The number of NARR grid locations that exhibit significant anomalies in each case are shown in parentheses.</p><p>Regionally averaged anomalies in monthly near-surface (10m) wind density totals for the winter (Dec—March) and freshet (May—July) seasons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "reservoir inflow behavior", "wind farm site selection", "benefit", "WD anomalies", "Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows", "generation", "Pacific Northwest", "wind speed", "NARR grid locations", "Wind Speed Trends", "cui", "inflow years", "inflow winter months", "PNW", "North American Regional Reanalysis", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1509986, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Benjamin D. Cross", "Karen E. Kohfeld", "Joseph Bailey", "Andrew B. Cooper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135730.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regionally_averaged_anomalies_in_monthly_near_surface_10m_wind_density_totals_for_the_winter_Dec_8212_March_and_freshet_May_8212_July_seasons_/1509986", "title"=>"Regionally averaged anomalies in monthly near-surface (10m) wind density totals for the winter (Dec—March) and freshet (May—July) seasons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-13 02:47:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2211113"], "description"=>"<div><p>In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year) relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC) and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD) estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI) for BC (collected from BC Hydro) for 1979–2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55), whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25) along BC’s North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "reservoir inflow behavior", "wind farm site selection", "benefit", "WD anomalies", "Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows", "generation", "Pacific Northwest", "wind speed", "NARR grid locations", "Wind Speed Trends", "cui", "inflow years", "inflow winter months", "PNW", "North American Regional Reanalysis", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1509987, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Benjamin D. Cross", "Karen E. Kohfeld", "Joseph Bailey", "Andrew B. Cooper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135730", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Impacts_of_Wind_Speed_Trends_and_30_Year_Variability_in_Relation_to_Hydroelectric_Reservoir_Inflows_on_Wind_Power_in_the_Pacific_Northwest_/1509987", "title"=>"The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-13 02:47:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2211090"], "description"=>"<p>Results are shown are all NARR grid locations in the Pacific Northwest with significant (P < 0.1) trends.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "reservoir inflow behavior", "wind farm site selection", "benefit", "WD anomalies", "Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows", "generation", "Pacific Northwest", "wind speed", "NARR grid locations", "Wind Speed Trends", "cui", "inflow years", "inflow winter months", "PNW", "North American Regional Reanalysis", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1509964, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Benjamin D. Cross", "Karen E. Kohfeld", "Joseph Bailey", "Andrew B. Cooper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135730.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linear_trends_m_s_1_10_yr_1_in_average_monthly_near_surface_10m_wind_speeds_from_1979_to_2010_/1509964", "title"=>"Linear trends [m s<sup>-1</sup> (10 yr)<sup>-1</sup>] in average monthly near-surface (10m) wind speeds from 1979 to 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-13 02:47:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2211092"], "description"=>"<p>Results are shown are all NARR grid locations in the Pacific Northwest with significant (P < 0.1) trends.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "reservoir inflow behavior", "wind farm site selection", "benefit", "WD anomalies", "Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows", "generation", "Pacific Northwest", "wind speed", "NARR grid locations", "Wind Speed Trends", "cui", "inflow years", "inflow winter months", "PNW", "North American Regional Reanalysis", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1509966, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Benjamin D. Cross", "Karen E. Kohfeld", "Joseph Bailey", "Andrew B. Cooper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135730.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linear_trends_10_yr_1_in_total_monthly_near_surface_10m_wind_density_from_1979_to_2010_/1509966", "title"=>"Linear trends [% (10 yr)<sup>-1</sup>] in total monthly near-surface (10m) wind density from 1979 to 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-13 02:47:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2211094"], "description"=>"<p>All annual totals are based on the water year of October through September, referenced by the calendar year containing October to December. Results are shown for each NARR grid location in the Pacific Northwest.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "reservoir inflow behavior", "wind farm site selection", "benefit", "WD anomalies", "Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows", "generation", "Pacific Northwest", "wind speed", "NARR grid locations", "Wind Speed Trends", "cui", "inflow years", "inflow winter months", "PNW", "North American Regional Reanalysis", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1509968, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Benjamin D. Cross", "Karen E. Kohfeld", "Joseph Bailey", "Andrew B. Cooper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135730.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_between_British_Columbia_8217_s_annual_CUI_and_surface_10_m_wind_density_totals_from_1979_to_2010_/1509968", "title"=>"Correlations between British Columbia’s annual CUI and surface (10 m) wind density totals from 1979 to 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-13 02:47:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2211096"], "description"=>"<p>Colour indicates significant positive (orange) or negative (blue) correlations, and dot size indicates relative wind density totals over the entire NARR data record. All annual totals are based on the water year of October through September, referenced by the calendar year containing October to December. Only locations that show statistically significant (P < 0.1) differences from annual wind density totals over the entire NARR data record (1979–2010) are shown. The five lowest CUI years in ascending order are 2009, 1979, 2008, 1992, and 1984.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "reservoir inflow behavior", "wind farm site selection", "benefit", "WD anomalies", "Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows", "generation", "Pacific Northwest", "wind speed", "NARR grid locations", "Wind Speed Trends", "cui", "inflow years", "inflow winter months", "PNW", "North American Regional Reanalysis", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1509970, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Benjamin D. Cross", "Karen E. Kohfeld", "Joseph Bailey", "Andrew B. Cooper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135730.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_anomalies_in_annual_near_surface_10m_wind_density_totals_in_the_three_and_five_lowest_CUI_years_from_1979_to_2010_/1509970", "title"=>"Average anomalies in annual near-surface (10m) wind density totals in the three and five lowest CUI years from 1979 to 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-13 02:47:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2211102"], "description"=>"<p>Colour indicates significant negative correlations, and dot size indicates relative wind density totals over the entire NARR data record. All annual totals are based on the water year of October through September, referenced by the calendar year containing October to December. Only locations that show statistically significant (P < 0.1) differences from annual wind density totals over the entire NARR data record (1979–2010) are shown. The five highest CUI years in descending order are 1996, 1995, 2006, 1998, and 2010.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "reservoir inflow behavior", "wind farm site selection", "benefit", "WD anomalies", "Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows", "generation", "Pacific Northwest", "wind speed", "NARR grid locations", "Wind Speed Trends", "cui", "inflow years", "inflow winter months", "PNW", "North American Regional Reanalysis", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1509976, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Benjamin D. Cross", "Karen E. Kohfeld", "Joseph Bailey", "Andrew B. Cooper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135730.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_anomalies_in_annual_near_surface_10m_wind_density_totals_in_the_three_and_five_highest_CUI_years_/1509976", "title"=>"Average anomalies in annual near-surface (10m) wind density totals in the three and five highest CUI years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-13 02:47:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2211105"], "description"=>"<p>Colour indicates significant negative correlations, and dot size indicates relative wind density totals over the entire NARR data record. Only locations that show statistically significant (P < 0.1) differences from monthly wind density totals over the entire NARR data record (1979–2010) are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "reservoir inflow behavior", "wind farm site selection", "benefit", "WD anomalies", "Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows", "generation", "Pacific Northwest", "wind speed", "NARR grid locations", "Wind Speed Trends", "cui", "inflow years", "inflow winter months", "PNW", "North American Regional Reanalysis", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1509979, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Benjamin D. Cross", "Karen E. Kohfeld", "Joseph Bailey", "Andrew B. Cooper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135730.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_anomalies_in_monthly_near_surface_10m_wind_density_totals_in_the_winter_Dec_8211_March_and_freshet_May_8211_July_seasons_/1509979", "title"=>"Average anomalies in monthly near-surface (10m) wind density totals in the winter (Dec–March) and freshet (May–July) seasons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-13 02:47:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2211106"], "description"=>"<p>Statistics for British Columbia’s annual cumulative usable inflows (CUI).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "reservoir inflow behavior", "wind farm site selection", "benefit", "WD anomalies", "Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows", "generation", "Pacific Northwest", "wind speed", "NARR grid locations", "Wind Speed Trends", "cui", "inflow years", "inflow winter months", "PNW", "North American Regional Reanalysis", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1509980, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Benjamin D. Cross", "Karen E. Kohfeld", "Joseph Bailey", "Andrew B. Cooper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135730.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistics_for_British_Columbia_8217_s_annual_cumulative_usable_inflows_CUI_/1509980", "title"=>"Statistics for British Columbia’s annual cumulative usable inflows (CUI).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-13 02:47:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2211107"], "description"=>"<p>Table includes inverse variance weighted averages of near-surface (10m) mean monthly wind speeds and wind density totals, and inverse variance weighted correlations between total annual wind density and CUI. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0135730#pone.0135730.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a> for region definitions.</p><p>Summary of regional results for the Pacific Northwest.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "reservoir inflow behavior", "wind farm site selection", "benefit", "WD anomalies", "Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows", "generation", "Pacific Northwest", "wind speed", "NARR grid locations", "Wind Speed Trends", "cui", "inflow years", "inflow winter months", "PNW", "North American Regional Reanalysis", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1509981, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Benjamin D. Cross", "Karen E. Kohfeld", "Joseph Bailey", "Andrew B. Cooper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135730.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_regional_results_for_the_Pacific_Northwest_/1509981", "title"=>"Summary of regional results for the Pacific Northwest.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-13 02:47:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2211109"], "description"=>"<p>Table includes inverse variance weighted averages of near-surface (10m) mean monthly wind speeds and wind density totals, and inverse variance weighted correlations between total annual wind density and CUI. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0135730#pone.0135730.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a> for region definitions.</p><p>Summary of regionally averaged results for all potential and existing wind farm sites in British Columbia.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "reservoir inflow behavior", "wind farm site selection", "benefit", "WD anomalies", "Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows", "generation", "Pacific Northwest", "wind speed", "NARR grid locations", "Wind Speed Trends", "cui", "inflow years", "inflow winter months", "PNW", "North American Regional Reanalysis", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1509983, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Benjamin D. Cross", "Karen E. Kohfeld", "Joseph Bailey", "Andrew B. Cooper"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135730.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_regionally_averaged_results_for_all_potential_and_existing_wind_farm_sites_in_British_Columbia_/1509983", "title"=>"Summary of regionally averaged results for all potential and existing wind farm sites in British Columbia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-13 02:47:22"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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