Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia
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{"title"=>"Ancient humans influenced the current spatial genetic structure of common walnut populations in Asia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Paola", "last_name"=>"Pollegioni", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505698827"}, {"first_name"=>"Keith E.", "last_name"=>"Woeste", "scopus_author_id"=>"55920501100"}, {"first_name"=>"Francesca", "last_name"=>"Chiocchini", "scopus_author_id"=>"55315350500"}, {"first_name"=>"Stefano", "last_name"=>"Del Lungo", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193512465"}, {"first_name"=>"Irene", "last_name"=>"Olimpieri", "scopus_author_id"=>"19337595700"}, {"first_name"=>"Virginia", "last_name"=>"Tortolano", "scopus_author_id"=>"56183558000"}, {"first_name"=>"Jo", "last_name"=>"Clark", "scopus_author_id"=>"7407829123"}, {"first_name"=>"Gabriel E.", "last_name"=>"Hemery", "scopus_author_id"=>"8979456600"}, {"first_name"=>"Sergio", "last_name"=>"Mapelli", "scopus_author_id"=>"36882085000"}, {"first_name"=>"Maria Emilia", "last_name"=>"Malvolti", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506505259"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"606945728", "sgr"=>"84947726830", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84947726830", "pmid"=>"26332919", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0135980"}, "id"=>"ea7df635-73a4-3cb5-a6f2-797793b47ac7", "abstract"=>"Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan), where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ancient-humans-influenced-current-spatial-genetic-structure-common-walnut-populations-asia", "reader_count"=>27, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250415", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250416", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250417", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250418", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250419", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250420"], "description"=>"<div><p>Common walnut (<i>Juglans regia</i> L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that <i>J</i>. <i>regia</i> survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, <i>J</i>. <i>regia</i> evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of <i>J</i>. <i>regia</i> from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan), where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["walnut gene flow", "Juglans regia L", "tree species", "anthropogenic dispersal", "trade routes", "genetic structure", "language phyla", "last glacial maximum", "alternative approach", "Common Walnut Populations", "Northern Silk Road", "Central Asia", "Asia Common walnut", "Genetic analysis", "walnut populations", "autochthonous walnut populations", "Persian Royal Road", "Eastern China", "study delineates", "Silk Road", "Ancient commerce", "Ancient Humans Influenced"], "article_id"=>1533459, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Paola Pollegioni", "Keith E. Woeste", "Francesca Chiocchini", "Stefano Del Lungo", "Irene Olimpieri", "Virginia Tortolano", "Jo Clark", "Gabriel E. Hemery", "Sergio Mapelli", "Maria Emilia Malvolti"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ancient_Humans_Influenced_the_Current_Spatial_Genetic_Structure_of_Common_Walnut_Populations_in_Asia_/1533459", "title"=>"Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-09-02 02:53:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250400"], "description"=>"<p>Synthetic map of IDW interpolations of the estimated mean population membership values (<i>Qi</i>) in the K = 4 clusters inferred by STRUCTURE [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980#pone.0135980.ref024\" target=\"_blank\">24</a>] for 39 common walnut populations (red dots) in the species’ Asian range. The Silk Road (solid red line) and other trade routes (dotted red line) across the Asian continent were reported as proposed by Francis et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980#pone.0135980.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>]. Details concerning common walnut populations are listed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980#pone.0135980.s005\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Table</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["walnut gene flow", "Juglans regia L", "tree species", "anthropogenic dispersal", "trade routes", "genetic structure", "language phyla", "last glacial maximum", "alternative approach", "Common Walnut Populations", "Northern Silk Road", "Central Asia", "Asia Common walnut", "Genetic analysis", "walnut populations", "autochthonous walnut populations", "Persian Royal Road", "Eastern China", "study delineates", "Silk Road", "Ancient commerce", "Ancient Humans Influenced"], "article_id"=>1533450, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Paola Pollegioni", "Keith E. Woeste", "Francesca Chiocchini", "Stefano Del Lungo", "Irene Olimpieri", "Virginia Tortolano", "Jo Clark", "Gabriel E. Hemery", "Sergio Mapelli", "Maria Emilia Malvolti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_genetic_structure_of_walnut_populations_and_trade_routes_across_Asia_/1533450", "title"=>"Spatial genetic structure of walnut populations and trade routes across Asia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-02 02:53:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250401"], "description"=>"<p>Synthetic map of IDW interpolations of the estimated mean population membership values (<i>Qi</i>) in the K = 4’ sub-clusters of cluster 2 inferred by STRUCTURE [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980#pone.0135980.ref024\" target=\"_blank\">24</a>] (19-Karankul, 28-Gongliu-2, 32-Dash, 33-Gilgit, 34-Hunza, 35-Shouli, 36-Karaj, 37-Anatolia, 38-Lagodekhi, 39-Skra). The Silk Road (solid red line) and other trade routes (dotted red line) across the Asian continent were reported as proposed by Francis et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980#pone.0135980.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["walnut gene flow", "Juglans regia L", "tree species", "anthropogenic dispersal", "trade routes", "genetic structure", "language phyla", "last glacial maximum", "alternative approach", "Common Walnut Populations", "Northern Silk Road", "Central Asia", "Asia Common walnut", "Genetic analysis", "walnut populations", "autochthonous walnut populations", "Persian Royal Road", "Eastern China", "study delineates", "Silk Road", "Ancient commerce", "Ancient Humans Influenced"], "article_id"=>1533451, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Paola Pollegioni", "Keith E. Woeste", "Francesca Chiocchini", "Stefano Del Lungo", "Irene Olimpieri", "Virginia Tortolano", "Jo Clark", "Gabriel E. Hemery", "Sergio Mapelli", "Maria Emilia Malvolti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_genetic_sub_structure_of_walnut_cluster_2_and_trade_routes_across_Asia_/1533451", "title"=>"Spatial genetic sub-structure of walnut cluster 2 and trade routes across Asia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-02 02:53:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250402"], "description"=>"<p>Nodes represent geographic sites with diameter proportional to within-site heterozygosity and length of edges connecting nodes equivalent to genetic differentiation among the sites calculated using 14 SSR markers. The color of each node represents the language phylum spoken by human communities living in the geographic sampling sites.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["walnut gene flow", "Juglans regia L", "tree species", "anthropogenic dispersal", "trade routes", "genetic structure", "language phyla", "last glacial maximum", "alternative approach", "Common Walnut Populations", "Northern Silk Road", "Central Asia", "Asia Common walnut", "Genetic analysis", "walnut populations", "autochthonous walnut populations", "Persian Royal Road", "Eastern China", "study delineates", "Silk Road", "Ancient commerce", "Ancient Humans Influenced"], "article_id"=>1533452, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Paola Pollegioni", "Keith E. Woeste", "Francesca Chiocchini", "Stefano Del Lungo", "Irene Olimpieri", "Virginia Tortolano", "Jo Clark", "Gabriel E. Hemery", "Sergio Mapelli", "Maria Emilia Malvolti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Common_walnut_population_graph_for_39_study_sites_in_the_Asian_range_/1533452", "title"=>"Common walnut population graph for 39 study sites in the Asian range.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-02 02:53:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250403"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup> Measures of genetic differentiation calculated among 39 common walnut populations using either F<sub>ST</sub> [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980#pone.0135980.ref027\" target=\"_blank\">27</a>] and D<sub><i>est</i></sub> [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980#pone.0135980.ref028\" target=\"_blank\">28</a>].</p><p><sup>b</sup> (A) Simple and Partial Mantel tests [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980#pone.0135980.ref029\" target=\"_blank\">29</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980#pone.0135980.ref030\" target=\"_blank\">30</a>] and (B) Multiple Regression Model analysis [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980#pone.0135980.ref031\" target=\"_blank\">31</a>] of genetic (D<sub>GEN</sub>) on geographic (D<sub>GEO</sub>) and linguistic (D<sub>LAN</sub>) matrices.</p><p><sup>c</sup> Partial correlation coefficient.</p><p><sup>d</sup> Significance of <i>r</i> values was tested using 5000 permutations as implemented in ZT software [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980#pone.0135980.ref059\" target=\"_blank\">59</a>]: * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01 and *** P < 0.001.</p><p><sup>e</sup><i>P</i> values are based on 5000 permutations as implemented in R Ecodist package [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980#pone.0135980.ref061\" target=\"_blank\">61</a>]: * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01 and *** P < 0.001.</p><p>Correlation between genetic distances among walnut populations and human linguistic distances.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["walnut gene flow", "Juglans regia L", "tree species", "anthropogenic dispersal", "trade routes", "genetic structure", "language phyla", "last glacial maximum", "alternative approach", "Common Walnut Populations", "Northern Silk Road", "Central Asia", "Asia Common walnut", "Genetic analysis", "walnut populations", "autochthonous walnut populations", "Persian Royal Road", "Eastern China", "study delineates", "Silk Road", "Ancient commerce", "Ancient Humans Influenced"], "article_id"=>1533453, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Paola Pollegioni", "Keith E. Woeste", "Francesca Chiocchini", "Stefano Del Lungo", "Irene Olimpieri", "Virginia Tortolano", "Jo Clark", "Gabriel E. Hemery", "Sergio Mapelli", "Maria Emilia Malvolti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_between_genetic_distances_among_walnut_populations_and_human_linguistic_distances_/1533453", "title"=>"Correlation between genetic distances among walnut populations and human linguistic distances.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-02 02:53:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2250404"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup> Statistically significant genetic barriers were calculated using the Monmonier’s maximum difference algorithm as implemented in BARRIER software 2.2 [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980#pone.0135980.ref062\" target=\"_blank\">62</a>].</p><p>Delaunay connections associated with linguistic distance (D<sub>LAN</sub>) and crossed by a statistically significant genetic barrier.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["walnut gene flow", "Juglans regia L", "tree species", "anthropogenic dispersal", "trade routes", "genetic structure", "language phyla", "last glacial maximum", "alternative approach", "Common Walnut Populations", "Northern Silk Road", "Central Asia", "Asia Common walnut", "Genetic analysis", "walnut populations", "autochthonous walnut populations", "Persian Royal Road", "Eastern China", "study delineates", "Silk Road", "Ancient commerce", "Ancient Humans Influenced"], "article_id"=>1533454, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Paola Pollegioni", "Keith E. Woeste", "Francesca Chiocchini", "Stefano Del Lungo", "Irene Olimpieri", "Virginia Tortolano", "Jo Clark", "Gabriel E. Hemery", "Sergio Mapelli", "Maria Emilia Malvolti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135980.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Delaunay_connections_associated_with_linguistic_distance_D_LAN_and_crossed_by_a_statistically_significant_genetic_barrier_/1533454", "title"=>"Delaunay connections associated with linguistic distance (D<sub>LAN</sub>) and crossed by a statistically significant genetic barrier.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-02 02:53:32"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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