Possible Further Evidence of Low Genetic Diversity in the El Sidrón (Asturias, Spain) Neandertal Group: Congenital Clefts of the Atlas
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{"title"=>"Possible further evidence of low genetic diversity in the El Sidrón (Asturias, Spain) neandertal group: Congenital clefts of the atlas", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Luis", "last_name"=>"Ríos", "scopus_author_id"=>"24076680100"}, {"first_name"=>"Antonio", "last_name"=>"Rosas", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005126537"}, {"first_name"=>"Almudena", "last_name"=>"Estalrrich", "scopus_author_id"=>"35091186700"}, {"first_name"=>"Antonio", "last_name"=>"García-Tabernero", "scopus_author_id"=>"14069988700"}, {"first_name"=>"Markus", "last_name"=>"Bastir", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603088960"}, {"first_name"=>"Rosa", "last_name"=>"Huguet", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004123299"}, {"first_name"=>"Francisco", "last_name"=>"Pastor", "scopus_author_id"=>"57189405655"}, {"first_name"=>"Juan Alberto", "last_name"=>"Sanchís-Gimeno", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003900010"}, {"first_name"=>"Marcode", "last_name"=>"La Rasilla", "scopus_author_id"=>"56974529000"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"607000890", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0136550", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84947968492", "sgr"=>"84947968492", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"26418427"}, "id"=>"f692d9fa-63d1-3ce8-93d7-3780ed6a4e49", "abstract"=>"We present here the first cases in Neandertals of congenital clefts of the arch of the atlas. Two atlases from El Sidrón, northern Spain, present respectively a defect of the posterior (frequency in extant modern human populations ranging from 0.73% to 3.84%), and anterior (frequency in extant modern human populations ranging from 0.087% to 0.1%) arch, a condition in most cases not associated with any clinical manifestation. The fact that two out of three observable atlases present a low frequency congenital condition, together with previously reported evidence of retained deciduous mandibular canine in two out of ten dentitions from El Sidrón, supports the previous observation based on genetic evidence that these Neandertals constituted a group with close genetic relations. Some have proposed for humans and other species that the presence of skeletal congenital conditions, although without clinical significance, could be used as a signal of endogamy or inbreeding. In the present case this interpretation would fit the general scenario of high incidence of rare conditions among Pleistocene humans and the specific scenariothat emerges from Neandertal paleogenetics, which points to long-term small and decreasing population size with reduced and isolated groups. Adverse environmental factors affecting early pregnancies would constitute an alternative, non-exclusive, explanation for a high incidence of congenital conditions. Further support or rejection of these interpretations will come from new genetic and skeletal evidence from Neandertal remains.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/possible-further-evidence-low-genetic-diversity-el-sidr%C3%B3n-asturias-spain-neandertal-group-congenital", "reader_count"=>21, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>6, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Italy"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292921"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Superior view of SD-1643, bar represents 1 cm. (B) Left transverse foramen completely closed, bar represents 1 cm. (C) Visible epiphyseal surface on the tip of the left transverse process. (D) Medial view of the tip of the left lamina, where no bone breakage and a smooth continuity of the cortical bone can be observed. (E) ESEM image, detail of the tip, with continuous cortical bone. (F) ESEM image, detail of another area of the tip with continuity of the cortical bone along its edge.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interpretation", "evidence", "frequency", "atlase", "Pleistocene humans", "Neandertal paleogenetics", "deciduous mandibular", "Neandertal Group", "Congenital Clefts", "Sidr", "incidence", "Population size", "el", "Low Genetic Diversity"], "article_id"=>1559712, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Luis Rios", "Antonio Rosas", "Almudena Estalrrich", "Antonio Garcia-Tabernero", "Markus Bastir", "Rosa Huguet", "Francisco Pastor", "Juan Alberto Sanchís-Gimeno", "Marco de la Rasilla"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136550.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Atlas_SD_1643_/1559712", "title"=>"Atlas SD-1643.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 03:33:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292930"], "description"=>"<p>(A)The PS of the atlas of a 3 year old skeleton from the anatomical collection curated at University of Valladolid. Cartilage was left in place in this preparation and it can be observed bridging both tips of the posterior arches. Numbers are located in an area of the synchondrosis where a small portion of the cartilage has been lost. Numbers indicate: 1, cortical bone; 2, synchondrosis surface; 3, cartilage. (B) ESEM image with detail of the aforementioned area. Smooth surface of the cortical bone can be observed on the left (1). The surface of the synchondrosis presents a uniform porous aspect formed by numerous and small pore-like structures (2). The cartilage presents a uniform opaque surface (3). (C) ESEM image with further detail of the image presented in B. The porous-like surface of the synchondrosis (2) can be clearly observed, associated to the anchorage of the cartilage. (D, E, F, G, H)The PS (left posterior arch) of non-fused atlases from modern human subadult skeletons. The limit between the cortical bone and the synchondrosis surface is very diverse as can be observed in this small sample, but the differentiation between both surfaces is clear.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interpretation", "evidence", "frequency", "atlase", "Pleistocene humans", "Neandertal paleogenetics", "deciduous mandibular", "Neandertal Group", "Congenital Clefts", "Sidr", "incidence", "Population size", "el", "Low Genetic Diversity"], "article_id"=>1559721, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Luis Rios", "Antonio Rosas", "Almudena Estalrrich", "Antonio Garcia-Tabernero", "Markus Bastir", "Rosa Huguet", "Francisco Pastor", "Juan Alberto Sanchís-Gimeno", "Marco de la Rasilla"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136550.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Non_fused_posterior_synchondrosis_of_the_atlas_/1559721", "title"=>"Non-fused posterior synchondrosis of the atlas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 03:33:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292928"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Superior view of SD-1605/1595, bar represents 1 cm. (B) Radiography of SD-1605/1595.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interpretation", "evidence", "frequency", "atlase", "Pleistocene humans", "Neandertal paleogenetics", "deciduous mandibular", "Neandertal Group", "Congenital Clefts", "Sidr", "incidence", "Population size", "el", "Low Genetic Diversity"], "article_id"=>1559719, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Luis Rios", "Antonio Rosas", "Almudena Estalrrich", "Antonio Garcia-Tabernero", "Markus Bastir", "Rosa Huguet", "Francisco Pastor", "Juan Alberto Sanchís-Gimeno", "Marco de la Rasilla"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136550.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Atlas_SD_1605_1595_/1559719", "title"=>"Atlas SD-1605/1595.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 03:33:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292929"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> Radiography of SD-1643, with continuity of the cortical bone through the irregularly-shaped tip of the left lamina. (<b>B)</b> Radiography of SD-1094, the arrow indicates the continuity of cortical bone at the anterior inferior corner of the midsagittal cleft (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136550#pone.0136550.g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 2D and 2E</a>), while the triangle indicates the continuity of cortical bone at the superior corner of the cleft (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136550#pone.0136550.g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 2H and 2I</a>). Lack of continuation of cortical bone through the entire cleft is due to post mortem breakage (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136550#pone.0136550.g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 2F and 2G</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interpretation", "evidence", "frequency", "atlase", "Pleistocene humans", "Neandertal paleogenetics", "deciduous mandibular", "Neandertal Group", "Congenital Clefts", "Sidr", "incidence", "Population size", "el", "Low Genetic Diversity"], "article_id"=>1559720, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Luis Rios", "Antonio Rosas", "Almudena Estalrrich", "Antonio Garcia-Tabernero", "Markus Bastir", "Rosa Huguet", "Francisco Pastor", "Juan Alberto Sanchís-Gimeno", "Marco de la Rasilla"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136550.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Radiographic_images_of_SD_1643_and_SD_1094_/1559720", "title"=>"Radiographic images of SD-1643 and SD-1094.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 03:33:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292927"], "description"=>"<p><b>(</b>A) Superior view of SD-1094, placed on its anatomical location within a modern human atlas, bar represents 1 cm. (B) Posterior view of SD-1094, the right superior and inferior articular surfaces can be observed. The facet for the dens of the axis can be observed in the anterior arch, bar represents 1 cm. (C) Anterior view of SD-1094, the beginning of the anterior tubercle of the transverse foramen can be observed on the left. (D) Medial anterior view of the midsagittal cleft, slightly tilted to superior in order to view its anterior inferior corner. Continuity of the cortical bone from the anterior to the sagittal surface can be observed. (E) ESEM image, with clearer view of the anterior inferior corner, with continuity of the cortical bone from the anterior to the sagittal surfaces. (F) Medial view of the anterior sagittal cleft. Cortical bone can be observed in the inferior and superior thirds. Bone breakage can be observed in the central third. (G) ESEM image, with clearer view of the cortical bone and the areas of bone breakage. (H) Medial posterior view with continuity of cortical bone from the posterior to the anterior surfaces of the posterior arch of the atlas. (I) ESEM image of the superior corner of the midsagittal cleft, with clearer view of the cortical continuity between the posterior and anterior surface along the sagittal cleft.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interpretation", "evidence", "frequency", "atlase", "Pleistocene humans", "Neandertal paleogenetics", "deciduous mandibular", "Neandertal Group", "Congenital Clefts", "Sidr", "incidence", "Population size", "el", "Low Genetic Diversity"], "article_id"=>1559718, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Luis Rios", "Antonio Rosas", "Almudena Estalrrich", "Antonio Garcia-Tabernero", "Markus Bastir", "Rosa Huguet", "Francisco Pastor", "Juan Alberto Sanchís-Gimeno", "Marco de la Rasilla"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136550.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Atlas_SD_1094_/1559718", "title"=>"Atlas SD-1094.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 03:33:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292932"], "description"=>"<p>Frequency of congenital defects of the atlas in modern humans.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interpretation", "evidence", "frequency", "atlase", "Pleistocene humans", "Neandertal paleogenetics", "deciduous mandibular", "Neandertal Group", "Congenital Clefts", "Sidr", "incidence", "Population size", "el", "Low Genetic Diversity"], "article_id"=>1559723, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Luis Rios", "Antonio Rosas", "Almudena Estalrrich", "Antonio Garcia-Tabernero", "Markus Bastir", "Rosa Huguet", "Francisco Pastor", "Juan Alberto Sanchís-Gimeno", "Marco de la Rasilla"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136550.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_of_congenital_defects_of_the_atlas_in_modern_humans_/1559723", "title"=>"Frequency of congenital defects of the atlas in modern humans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 03:33:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292931"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison between SD-1643 and three cases of a type A posterior cleft of the atlas from the anatomical collection curated at University of Valladolid (UVA). In this superior view the truncation of the anterior arches at the midsagittal line can be observed. As indicated in the text, the post mortem breakage immediately posterior to the right lateral mass of SD-1643 opens the possibility of a type A or type B (absence of one lamina) defect.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interpretation", "evidence", "frequency", "atlase", "Pleistocene humans", "Neandertal paleogenetics", "deciduous mandibular", "Neandertal Group", "Congenital Clefts", "Sidr", "incidence", "Population size", "el", "Low Genetic Diversity"], "article_id"=>1559722, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Luis Rios", "Antonio Rosas", "Almudena Estalrrich", "Antonio Garcia-Tabernero", "Markus Bastir", "Rosa Huguet", "Francisco Pastor", "Juan Alberto Sanchís-Gimeno", "Marco de la Rasilla"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136550.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Atlases_with_type_A_defect_/1559722", "title"=>"Atlases with type A defect.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 03:33:54"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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