Will the Effects of Sea-Level Rise Create Ecological Traps for Pacific Island Seabirds?
Publication Date
September 23, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Michelle H. Reynolds, Karen N. Courtot, Paul Berkowitz, Curt D. Storlazzi, et al
Volume
10
Issue
9
Pages
e0136773
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0136773
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26398209
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4580421
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26398209
Scopus
84946924396
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-sealevel-rise-create-ecological-traps-pacific-island-seabirds
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Will the effects of sea-level rise create ecological traps for Pacific island seabirds?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Michelle H.", "last_name"=>"Reynolds", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202326935"}, {"first_name"=>"Karen N.", "last_name"=>"Courtot", "scopus_author_id"=>"55343858800"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Berkowitz", "scopus_author_id"=>"55035270700"}, {"first_name"=>"Curt D.", "last_name"=>"Storlazzi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003476372"}, {"first_name"=>"Janet", "last_name"=>"Moore", "scopus_author_id"=>"56957447100"}, {"first_name"=>"Elizabeth", "last_name"=>"Flint", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005238958"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84946924396", "sgr"=>"84946924396", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0136773", "pmid"=>"26398209", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"606828593"}, "id"=>"cf6845cb-6384-3bf7-977b-4e3a7e1b6a3a", "abstract"=>"More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km2). However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR) and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pacific. We acquired new high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and used the Delft3D wave model and ArcGIS to model wave heights and inundation for a range of SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m) at Midway Atoll. Next, we classified vegetation to delineate habitat exposure to inundation and identified how breeding phenology, colony synchrony, and life history traits affect species-specific sensitivity. We identified 3 of 13 species as highly vulnerable to SLR in the Hawaiian Islands and quantified their atoll-wide distribution (Laysan albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis; black-footed albatross, P. nigripes; and Bonin petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca). Our models of wave-driven flooding forecast nest losses up to 10% greater than passive inundation models at +1.0 m SLR. At projections of + 2.0 m SLR, approximately 60% of albatross and 44% of Bonin petrel nests were overwashed displacing more than 616,400 breeding albatrosses and petrels. Habitat loss due to passive SLR may decrease the carrying capacity of some islands to support seabird colonies, while sudden high-water events directly reduce survival and reproduction. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven flooding and the combined impacts of SLR, groundwater rise, and storm waves on seabird colonies. Our results highlight the need for early climate change planning and restoration of higher elevation seabird refugia to prevent low-lying protected islands from becoming ecological traps in the face of rising sea levels.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-sealevel-rise-create-ecological-traps-pacific-island-seabirds", "reader_count"=>59, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>15, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>15}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Fiji Islands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Mexico"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285366"], "description"=>"<p>Approximate nest locations assuming uniform distribution within colonies (known active nesting areas) stratified by estimated nesting density (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773#sec002\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a> for details). Inundation of Bonin petrel colonies at Eastern Island is not shown (refer to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773#pone.0136773.t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a> for values). Bonin petrel nesting data was collected during 2008 (see [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773#pone.0136773.ref098\" target=\"_blank\">98</a>]).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Pacific Island Seabirds", "forecast nest losses", "inundation", "58 Pacific islands", "elevation seabird refugia", "model wave heights", "dem", "seabird colonies", "life history traits", "2.0 m SLR", "Digital Elevation Models", "Bonin petrel nests", "support seabird colonies", "Delft 3D wave model", "U.S", "climate change planning"], "article_id"=>1553760, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Michelle H. Reynolds", "Karen N. Courtot", "Paul Berkowitz", "Curt D. Storlazzi", "Janet Moore", "Elizabeth Flint"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Projected_Bonin_petrel_nests_inundated_at_Sand_Island_Midway_Atoll_for_four_different_sea_level_rise_scenarios_0_5_1_0_1_5_and_2_0_m_using_passive_a_and_wave_driven_b_models_including_grounwater_rise_/1553760", "title"=>"Projected Bonin petrel nests inundated at Sand Island, Midway Atoll for four different sea-level rise scenarios (+ 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m) using passive (a) and wave-driven (b) models, including grounwater rise.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:11:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285364"], "description"=>"<p>Individual nest sites with GPS locations (± < 3 m accuracy) are indicated in black, approximate site locations of nests counted within census sectors are indicated in gray (assumes uniform distribution in suitable habitat [excludes infrastructure, shrubs and wetlands]).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Pacific Island Seabirds", "forecast nest losses", "inundation", "58 Pacific islands", "elevation seabird refugia", "model wave heights", "dem", "seabird colonies", "life history traits", "2.0 m SLR", "Digital Elevation Models", "Bonin petrel nests", "support seabird colonies", "Delft 3D wave model", "U.S", "climate change planning"], "article_id"=>1553758, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Michelle H. Reynolds", "Karen N. Courtot", "Paul Berkowitz", "Curt D. Storlazzi", "Janet Moore", "Elizabeth Flint"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Projected_inundation_of_black_footed_albatross_nests_at_Midway_Atoll_for_four_sea_level_rise_scenarios_0_5_1_0_1_5_and_2_0_m_using_passive_a_and_wave_driven_b_models_including_groundwater_rise_/1553758", "title"=>"Projected inundation of black-footed albatross nests at Midway Atoll for four sea-level rise scenarios (+ 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m) using passive (a) and wave-driven (b) models, including groundwater rise.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:11:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285375"], "description"=>"<div><p>More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km<sup>2</sup>). However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR) and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pacific. We acquired new high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and used the Delft3D wave model and ArcGIS to model wave heights and inundation for a range of SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m) at Midway Atoll. Next, we classified vegetation to delineate habitat exposure to inundation and identified how breeding phenology, colony synchrony, and life history traits affect species-specific sensitivity. We identified 3 of 13 species as highly vulnerable to SLR in the Hawaiian Islands and quantified their atoll-wide distribution (Laysan albatross, <i>Phoebastria immutabilis</i>; black-footed albatross, <i>P</i>. <i>nigripes</i>; and Bonin petrel, <i>Pterodroma hypoleuca</i>). Our models of wave-driven flooding forecast nest losses up to 10% greater than passive inundation models at +1.0 m SLR. At projections of + 2.0 m SLR, approximately 60% of albatross and 44% of Bonin petrel nests were overwashed displacing more than 616,400 breeding albatrosses and petrels. Habitat loss due to passive SLR may decrease the carrying capacity of some islands to support seabird colonies, while sudden high-water events directly reduce survival and reproduction. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven flooding and the combined impacts of SLR, groundwater rise, and storm waves on seabird colonies. Our results highlight the need for early climate change planning and restoration of higher elevation seabird refugia to prevent low-lying protected islands from becoming ecological traps in the face of rising sea levels.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Pacific Island Seabirds", "forecast nest losses", "inundation", "58 Pacific islands", "elevation seabird refugia", "model wave heights", "dem", "seabird colonies", "life history traits", "2.0 m SLR", "Digital Elevation Models", "Bonin petrel nests", "support seabird colonies", "Delft 3D wave model", "U.S", "climate change planning"], "article_id"=>1553769, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Michelle H. Reynolds", "Karen N. Courtot", "Paul Berkowitz", "Curt D. Storlazzi", "Janet Moore", "Elizabeth Flint"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Will_the_Effects_of_Sea_Level_Rise_Create_Ecological_Traps_for_Pacific_Island_Seabirds_/1553769", "title"=>"Will the Effects of Sea-Level Rise Create Ecological Traps for Pacific Island Seabirds?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:11:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285360"], "description"=>"<p>Monthly mean of top wave heights and wind speeds (± 1 standard deviation; [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773#pone.0136773.ref027\" target=\"_blank\">27</a>]) were derived from hindcast data for the years 1981–2004 at 28° 00’ N, 174° 00’ W (375 km east of Sand Island). Peak nesting period includes incubation and chick rearing. Species listed in descending order of nesting colony synchrony (observed at Midway Atoll).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Pacific Island Seabirds", "forecast nest losses", "inundation", "58 Pacific islands", "elevation seabird refugia", "model wave heights", "dem", "seabird colonies", "life history traits", "2.0 m SLR", "Digital Elevation Models", "Bonin petrel nests", "support seabird colonies", "Delft 3D wave model", "U.S", "climate change planning"], "article_id"=>1553754, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Michelle H. Reynolds", "Karen N. Courtot", "Paul Berkowitz", "Curt D. Storlazzi", "Janet Moore", "Elizabeth Flint"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Breeding_phenology_and_synchrony_of_select_gt_100_pairs_seabird_species_at_Midway_Atoll_compared_with_the_monthly_mean_of_the_top_5_of_wave_heights_and_wind_speeds_/1553754", "title"=>"Breeding phenology and synchrony of select (> 100 pairs) seabird species at Midway Atoll compared with the monthly mean of the top 5% of wave heights and wind speeds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:11:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285369"], "description"=>"<p>The projected area inundated (in hectares as a proportion of land cover class, or total island area) at Midway Atoll for four scenarios of sea-level rise and two modeling approaches, passive (a) and wave-driven (b), with effects of rising groundwater.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Pacific Island Seabirds", "forecast nest losses", "inundation", "58 Pacific islands", "elevation seabird refugia", "model wave heights", "dem", "seabird colonies", "life history traits", "2.0 m SLR", "Digital Elevation Models", "Bonin petrel nests", "support seabird colonies", "Delft 3D wave model", "U.S", "climate change planning"], "article_id"=>1553763, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Michelle H. Reynolds", "Karen N. Courtot", "Paul Berkowitz", "Curt D. Storlazzi", "Janet Moore", "Elizabeth Flint"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_projected_area_inundated_in_hectares_as_a_proportion_of_land_cover_class_or_total_island_area_at_Midway_Atoll_for_four_scenarios_of_sea_level_rise_and_two_modeling_approaches_passive_a_and_wave_driven_b_with_effects_of_rising_groundwater_/1553763", "title"=>"The projected area inundated (in hectares as a proportion of land cover class, or total island area) at Midway Atoll for four scenarios of sea-level rise and two modeling approaches, passive (a) and wave-driven (b), with effects of rising groundwater.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:11:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285368"], "description"=>"<p>Seabird behavior and nesting habitat by land cover class identified from satellite imagery at Midway Atoll (2011). Species’ sensitivity to population-level effects of storm-wave overwash were ranked from least (1) to most (3) sensitive. Nesting philopatry (natal and nest site fidelity) of species were ranked relatively as low (1), moderate (2), or high (3) and nesting frequency as annual–semi-annual (1), annual (2), annual–alternate (3; see [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773#pone.0136773.ref028\" target=\"_blank\">28</a>] for additional details). Land cover classes beach, wetland, and infrastructure are not used as seabird nesting habitat at Midway Atoll (see [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773#pone.0136773.ref023\" target=\"_blank\">23</a>]). Species in <b>bold</b> lay at most a single egg per year. Species with populations less than 100 nesting pairs at Midway Atoll were excluded.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Pacific Island Seabirds", "forecast nest losses", "inundation", "58 Pacific islands", "elevation seabird refugia", "model wave heights", "dem", "seabird colonies", "life history traits", "2.0 m SLR", "Digital Elevation Models", "Bonin petrel nests", "support seabird colonies", "Delft 3D wave model", "U.S", "climate change planning"], "article_id"=>1553762, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Michelle H. Reynolds", "Karen N. Courtot", "Paul Berkowitz", "Curt D. Storlazzi", "Janet Moore", "Elizabeth Flint"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Types_of_nesting_habitat_used_by_seabirds_and_rankings_of_species_8217_sensitivity_to_storm_wave_overwash_at_Midway_Atoll_/1553762", "title"=>"Types of nesting habitat used by seabirds and rankings of species’ sensitivity to storm-wave overwash at Midway Atoll.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:11:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285362"], "description"=>"<p>Projected inundation of Laysan albatross nests at Midway Atoll for four sea-level rise scenarios (+ 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m) using passive (a) and wave-driven (b) models, including groundwater rise.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Pacific Island Seabirds", "forecast nest losses", "inundation", "58 Pacific islands", "elevation seabird refugia", "model wave heights", "dem", "seabird colonies", "life history traits", "2.0 m SLR", "Digital Elevation Models", "Bonin petrel nests", "support seabird colonies", "Delft 3D wave model", "U.S", "climate change planning"], "article_id"=>1553756, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Michelle H. Reynolds", "Karen N. Courtot", "Paul Berkowitz", "Curt D. Storlazzi", "Janet Moore", "Elizabeth Flint"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Projected_inundation_of_Laysan_albatross_nests_at_Midway_Atoll_for_four_sea_level_rise_scenarios_0_5_1_0_1_5_and_2_0_m_using_passive_a_and_wave_driven_b_models_including_groundwater_rise_/1553756", "title"=>"Projected inundation of Laysan albatross nests at Midway Atoll for four sea-level rise scenarios (+ 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m) using passive (a) and wave-driven (b) models, including groundwater rise.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:11:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285359"], "description"=>"<p>Map of the Hawaiian Islands in the Central Pacific Ocean, including Midway Atoll showing year 2011 albatross census sectors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Pacific Island Seabirds", "forecast nest losses", "inundation", "58 Pacific islands", "elevation seabird refugia", "model wave heights", "dem", "seabird colonies", "life history traits", "2.0 m SLR", "Digital Elevation Models", "Bonin petrel nests", "support seabird colonies", "Delft 3D wave model", "U.S", "climate change planning"], "article_id"=>1553753, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Michelle H. Reynolds", "Karen N. Courtot", "Paul Berkowitz", "Curt D. Storlazzi", "Janet Moore", "Elizabeth Flint"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_Hawaiian_Islands_in_the_Central_Pacific_Ocean_including_Midway_Atoll_showing_year_2011_albatross_census_sectors_/1553753", "title"=>"Map of the Hawaiian Islands in the Central Pacific Ocean, including Midway Atoll showing year 2011 albatross census sectors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:11:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285370"], "description"=>"<p>Nest distribution and abundance based on the 2008/2009 breeding season survey at Sand (129,534 nests [95% confidence interval: 120,099–139,367]) and Eastern (1.5 ha of colony area) islands [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773#pone.0136773.ref098\" target=\"_blank\">98</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Pacific Island Seabirds", "forecast nest losses", "inundation", "58 Pacific islands", "elevation seabird refugia", "model wave heights", "dem", "seabird colonies", "life history traits", "2.0 m SLR", "Digital Elevation Models", "Bonin petrel nests", "support seabird colonies", "Delft 3D wave model", "U.S", "climate change planning"], "article_id"=>1553764, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Michelle H. Reynolds", "Karen N. Courtot", "Paul Berkowitz", "Curt D. Storlazzi", "Janet Moore", "Elizabeth Flint"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Projected_Bonin_petrel_nest_inundation_on_Sand_Island_a_and_projected_colony_inundation_on_Eastern_Island_b_for_four_sea_level_rise_scenarios_and_two_inundation_models_including_groundwater_rise_/1553764", "title"=>"Projected Bonin petrel nest inundation on Sand Island (a) and projected colony inundation on Eastern Island (b) for four sea-level rise scenarios and two inundation models, including groundwater rise.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:11:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285367"], "description"=>"<p>Compiled from the International Union for Conservation of Nature [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773#pone.0136773.ref065\" target=\"_blank\">65</a>], the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Endangered Species Program [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773#pone.0136773.ref066\" target=\"_blank\">66</a>] and its list of Birds of Conservation Concern (BCC; [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773#pone.0136773.ref067\" target=\"_blank\">67</a>]), and the State of Hawai‘i, Department of Land and Natural Resources [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773#pone.0136773.ref068\" target=\"_blank\">68</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Pacific Island Seabirds", "forecast nest losses", "inundation", "58 Pacific islands", "elevation seabird refugia", "model wave heights", "dem", "seabird colonies", "life history traits", "2.0 m SLR", "Digital Elevation Models", "Bonin petrel nests", "support seabird colonies", "Delft 3D wave model", "U.S", "climate change planning"], "article_id"=>1553761, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Michelle H. Reynolds", "Karen N. Courtot", "Paul Berkowitz", "Curt D. Storlazzi", "Janet Moore", "Elizabeth Flint"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136773.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conservation_status_2015_and_population_status_of_albatrosses_Phoebastria_immutabilis_and_P_nigripes_and_Bonin_petrels_Pterodroma_hypoleuca_in_the_Northwestern_Hawaiian_Islands_NWHI_/1553761", "title"=>"Conservation status (2015) and population status of albatrosses (<i>Phoebastria immutabilis</i> and <i>P</i>. <i>nigripes</i>) and Bonin petrels (<i>Pterodroma hypoleuca</i>) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:11:48"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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