Speaking and Listening with the Eyes: Gaze Signaling during Dyadic Interactions
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{"title"=>"Speaking and listening with the eyes: Gaze signaling during dyadic interactions", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Simon", "last_name"=>"Ho", "scopus_author_id"=>"56888243800"}, {"first_name"=>"Tom", "last_name"=>"Foulsham", "scopus_author_id"=>"8983741300"}, {"first_name"=>"Alan", "last_name"=>"Kingstone", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006826868"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84943138242", "sgr"=>"84943138242", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0136905", "pmid"=>"26309216", "pui"=>"606225675"}, "id"=>"a9d56b11-a36e-3135-b5e3-40e8dbe1cb8a", "abstract"=>"Cognitive scientists have long been interested in the role that eye gaze plays in social interactions. Previous research suggests that gaze acts as a signaling mechanism and can be used to control turn-taking behaviour. However, early research on this topic employed methods of analysis that aggregated gaze information across an entire trial (or trials), which masks any temporal dynamics that may exist in social interactions. More recently, attempts have been made to understand the temporal characteristics of social gaze but little research has been conducted in a natural setting with two interacting participants. The present study combines a temporally sensitive analysis technique with modern eye tracking technology to 1) validate the overall results from earlier aggregated analyses and 2) provide insight into the specific moment-to-moment temporal characteristics of turn-taking behaviour in a natural setting. Dyads played two social guessing games (20 Questions and Heads Up) while their eyes were tracked. Our general results are in line with past aggregated data, and using cross-correlational analysis on the specific gaze and speech signals of both participants we found that 1) speakers end their turn with direct gaze at the listener and 2) the listener in turn begins to speak with averted gaze. Convergent with theoretical models of social interaction, our data suggest that eye gaze can be used to signal both the end and the beginning of a speaking turn during a social interaction. The present study offers insight into the temporal dynamics of live dyadic interactions and also provides a new method of analysis for eye gaze data when temporal relationships are of interest.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/speaking-listening-eyes-gaze-signaling-during-dyadic-interactions", "reader_count"=>57, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Engineering"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Psychology"=>25, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Computer Science"=>8, "Linguistics"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>25}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>8}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "China"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2227390"], "description"=>"<p>Each Dikablis has a forward facing camera capturing a live video stream of the other participant, and the eye gaze of the wearer is overlaid on the video (A-B). Dikablis eye tracker worn by a participant (C). The individuals in this manuscript have given written informed consent (as outlined in PLOS consent form) to publish these case details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eye gaze data", "analysis", "Dyadic Interactions Cognitive scientists", "aggregated gaze information", "interaction", "eye gaze"], "article_id"=>1522784, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Simon Ho", "Tom Foulsham", "Alan Kingstone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136905.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dikablis_eye_tracker_and_associated_video_streams_/1522784", "title"=>"Dikablis eye tracker and associated video streams.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 02:55:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2227391"], "description"=>"<p>Firstly, participants end their talking turn with direct gaze at their partner. This is represented by the onset of direct gaze (dark blue) occurring prior to the end of talking (light blue). Secondly, participants will be averting their gaze prior to speaking. This is shown by participant A’s talking turns (light blue) beginning with no direct gaze (dark blue). Both of these predictions are also depicted in participant B’s talking (light red) and gazing (dark red) series.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eye gaze data", "analysis", "Dyadic Interactions Cognitive scientists", "aggregated gaze information", "interaction", "eye gaze"], "article_id"=>1522785, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Simon Ho", "Tom Foulsham", "Alan Kingstone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136905.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Idealized_time_series_showing_data_pattern_as_predicted_by_earlier_models_of_social_interaction_/1522785", "title"=>"Idealized time series showing data pattern as predicted by earlier models of social interaction.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 02:55:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2227396"], "description"=>"<p>Each series represents the duration of the entire game for a single dyad with the on/offset of all gaze and talking events from both participants. Within each series, the rows represent (in order from top to bottom): person A talk events, person A gaze events, person B talk events, person B gaze events. Of note is the density of each of these events at various points of the game. There is an inverse relationship between gaze and talking, such that when a participant has a higher density of talking events, there is an lower density of gazing events, and vice versa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eye gaze data", "analysis", "Dyadic Interactions Cognitive scientists", "aggregated gaze information", "interaction", "eye gaze"], "article_id"=>1522788, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Simon Ho", "Tom Foulsham", "Alan Kingstone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136905.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_series_of_events_in_a_single_pair_for_20_Questions_A_and_Heads_Up_B_/1522788", "title"=>"Time series of events in a single pair for 20 Questions (A) and Heads Up (B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 02:55:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2227398"], "description"=>"<p>A short 20 Questions segment for a single pair of participants. Bottom half of the figure is a continuation of the top. Rows follow the same ordering as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136905#pone.0136905.g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 3</a>. Key talking events have been annotated. In this segment, person B thought of an object while person A is guessing/asking questions about it. As with <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136905#pone.0136905.g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 3</a>, an inverse relationship is seen between density of gaze and talking events. Furthermore, talking events are generally preceded by the same participant averting their gaze.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eye gaze data", "analysis", "Dyadic Interactions Cognitive scientists", "aggregated gaze information", "interaction", "eye gaze"], "article_id"=>1522789, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Simon Ho", "Tom Foulsham", "Alan Kingstone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136905.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Segment_of_the_20_Questions_game_for_a_single_pair_/1522789", "title"=>"Segment of the 20 Questions game for a single pair.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 02:55:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2227402"], "description"=>"<p>A short Heads Up segment for a single pair of participants. Bottom half of the figure is a continuation of the top. Rows follow the same ordering as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136905#pone.0136905.g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 3</a>. Key talking events have been annotated. In this segment, person B is describing the object while person A is guessing its identity. As with <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0136905#pone.0136905.g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 3</a>, an inverse relationship is seen between density of gaze and talking events. This is especially evident for person A. Furthermore, speech turns typically begin with averted gaze, and end with direct gaze.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eye gaze data", "analysis", "Dyadic Interactions Cognitive scientists", "aggregated gaze information", "interaction", "eye gaze"], "article_id"=>1522794, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Simon Ho", "Tom Foulsham", "Alan Kingstone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136905.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Segment_of_the_Heads_Up_game_for_a_single_pair_/1522794", "title"=>"Segment of the Heads Up game for a single pair.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 02:55:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2227403"], "description"=>"<p>An example of how a cross-correlation can be used to measure the temporal relationship between partners’ gaze, where a solid block represents the onset of a gaze event and white space represents averted gaze. Here, the gaze of participant B precedes that of participant A (see text for more detail).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eye gaze data", "analysis", "Dyadic Interactions Cognitive scientists", "aggregated gaze information", "interaction", "eye gaze"], "article_id"=>1522795, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Simon Ho", "Tom Foulsham", "Alan Kingstone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136905.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simplified_example_demonstrating_the_cross_correlation_technique_/1522795", "title"=>"Simplified example demonstrating the cross-correlation technique.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 02:55:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2227404"], "description"=>"<p>The boxes highlight regions from the excerpt where the data pattern is particularly evident. Participant A gazes (dark blue) at their partner (B) prior to the partner beginning their speech turn (light red). Additionally, participant A tends to end their speech turn (light blue) by gazing at their partner (dark blue). The pattern suggests that direct gaze is used to end a current speech turn and also to signal a turn transition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eye gaze data", "analysis", "Dyadic Interactions Cognitive scientists", "aggregated gaze information", "interaction", "eye gaze"], "article_id"=>1522796, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Simon Ho", "Tom Foulsham", "Alan Kingstone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136905.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Excerpt_from_a_Heads_Up_game_showing_gaze_being_used_to_signal_an_end_of_turn_transition_/1522796", "title"=>"Excerpt from a Heads Up game showing gaze being used to signal an end-of-turn transition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 02:55:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2227406"], "description"=>"<p>Cross-correlation between participant gazing and partner talking computed at each lag value. The highest cross-correlation values occur at negative lags, when partner talking lags behind participant gazing.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eye gaze data", "analysis", "Dyadic Interactions Cognitive scientists", "aggregated gaze information", "interaction", "eye gaze"], "article_id"=>1522798, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Simon Ho", "Tom Foulsham", "Alan Kingstone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136905.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cross_correlation_values_participant_gazing_and_partner_talking_at_each_lag_/1522798", "title"=>"Cross-correlation values (participant gazing and partner talking) at each lag.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 02:55:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2227408"], "description"=>"<p>The boxes highlight regions from the excerpt where the data pattern is particularly evident. Both participants A and B begin their speech turn with averted gaze. Once the speech turn has started, they then gaze towards the other person.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eye gaze data", "analysis", "Dyadic Interactions Cognitive scientists", "aggregated gaze information", "interaction", "eye gaze"], "article_id"=>1522800, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Simon Ho", "Tom Foulsham", "Alan Kingstone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136905.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Excerpt_from_Heads_Up_showing_gaze_aversion_at_the_beginning_of_a_speaking_turn_/1522800", "title"=>"Excerpt from Heads Up showing gaze aversion at the beginning of a speaking turn.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 02:55:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2227409"], "description"=>"<p>Cross-correlation between participant gazing and their own talking computed at each lag value. The highest cross-correlation values occur at positive lags, when participant gazing lags behind their own talking.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eye gaze data", "analysis", "Dyadic Interactions Cognitive scientists", "aggregated gaze information", "interaction", "eye gaze"], "article_id"=>1522801, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Simon Ho", "Tom Foulsham", "Alan Kingstone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136905.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cross_correlation_values_participant_gazing_and_own_talking_at_each_lag_/1522801", "title"=>"Cross-correlation values (participant gazing and own talking) at each lag.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 02:55:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2227410"], "description"=>"<div><p>Cognitive scientists have long been interested in the role that eye gaze plays in social interactions. Previous research suggests that gaze acts as a signaling mechanism and can be used to control turn-taking behaviour. However, early research on this topic employed methods of analysis that aggregated gaze information across an entire trial (or trials), which masks any temporal dynamics that may exist in social interactions. More recently, attempts have been made to understand the temporal characteristics of social gaze but little research has been conducted in a natural setting with two interacting participants. The present study combines a temporally sensitive analysis technique with modern eye tracking technology to 1) validate the overall results from earlier aggregated analyses and 2) provide insight into the specific moment-to-moment temporal characteristics of turn-taking behaviour in a natural setting. Dyads played two social guessing games (<i>20 Questions</i> and <i>Heads Up</i>) while their eyes were tracked. Our general results are in line with past aggregated data, and using cross-correlational analysis on the specific gaze and speech signals of both participants we found that 1) speakers end their turn with direct gaze at the listener and 2) the listener in turn begins to speak with averted gaze. Convergent with theoretical models of social interaction, our data suggest that eye gaze can be used to signal both the end and the beginning of a speaking turn during a social interaction. The present study offers insight into the temporal dynamics of live dyadic interactions and also provides a new method of analysis for eye gaze data when temporal relationships are of interest.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eye gaze data", "analysis", "Dyadic Interactions Cognitive scientists", "aggregated gaze information", "interaction", "eye gaze"], "article_id"=>1522802, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Simon Ho", "Tom Foulsham", "Alan Kingstone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136905", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Speaking_and_Listening_with_the_Eyes_Gaze_Signaling_during_Dyadic_Interactions_/1522802", "title"=>"Speaking and Listening with the Eyes: Gaze Signaling during Dyadic Interactions", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-08-26 02:55:40"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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