Playing 20 Questions with the Mind: Collaborative Problem Solving by Humans Using a Brain-to-Brain Interface
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{"title"=>"Playing 20 questions with the mind: Collaborative problem solving by humans using a brain-to-brain interface", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Andrea", "last_name"=>"Stocco", "scopus_author_id"=>"36099547600"}, {"first_name"=>"Chantel S.", "last_name"=>"Prat", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004235526"}, {"first_name"=>"Darby M.", "last_name"=>"Losey", "scopus_author_id"=>"56958412900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeneva A.", "last_name"=>"Cronin", "scopus_author_id"=>"56957787500"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph", "last_name"=>"Wu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56416852600"}, {"first_name"=>"Justin A.", "last_name"=>"Abernethy", "scopus_author_id"=>"56957969300"}, {"first_name"=>"Rajesh P.N.", "last_name"=>"Rao", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403068988"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"26398267", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0137303", "sgr"=>"84946962540", "arxiv"=>"26398267", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84946962540", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"606828531"}, "id"=>"c416cab9-712d-3280-930f-3a4eeab84d67", "abstract"=>"We present, to our knowledge, the first demonstration that a non-invasive brain-to-brain interface (BBI) can be used to allow one human to guess what is on the mind of another human through an interactive question-and-answering paradigm similar to the \"20 Questions\" game. As in previous non-invasive BBI studies in humans, our interface uses electroencephalography (EEG) to detect specific patterns of brain activity from one participant (the \"respondent\"), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to deliver functionally-relevant information to the brain of a second participant (the \"inquirer\"). Our results extend previous BBI research by (1) using stimulation of the visual cortex to convey visual stimuli that are privately experienced and consciously perceived by the inquirer; (2) exploiting real-time rather than off-line communication of information from one brain to another; and (3) employing an interactive task, in which the inquirer and respondent must exchange information bi-directionally to collaboratively solve the task. The results demonstrate that using the BBI, ten participants (five inquirer-respondent pairs) can successfully identify a \"mystery item\" using a true/false question-answering protocol similar to the \"20 Questions\" game, with high levels of accuracy that are significantly greater than a control condition in which participants were connected through a sham BBI.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/playing-20-questions-mind-collaborative-problem-solving-humans-using-braintobrain-interface-1", "reader_count"=>87, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>16, "Engineering"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Neuroscience"=>9, "Design"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>21, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>21}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>9}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>16}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>4, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Russia"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285774"], "description"=>"<p>In the experiment, two participants (an “inquirer” and a “respondent”) played a question-answering game similar to “20 Questions.” The respondent is given an object (e.g., “dog”) that is unknown to the inquirer and that the inquirer has to guess. The inquirer asks a question about the object by selecting a question (using a mouse) from questions displayed on a screen. The question is then presented visually to the respondent through a web interface. The respondent answers “Yes” or “No” directly through their brain signals by paying attention to one of two flashing LEDs (“Yes” = 13 Hz; “No” = 12 Hz). The BBI uses EEG to decode the respondent’s answer, and a TMS apparatus to convey the answer to the inquirer by generating a visual percept through stimulation for “Yes” and the absence of a percept for “No.” In the figure, the BBI system is highlighted in red.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["BBI research", "tms", "respondent", "eeg", "information", "brain activity", "stimulation", "inquirer", "interface", "participant", "task", "BBI studies", "20 Questions", "sham BBI", "Collaborative Problem", "control condition"], "article_id"=>1554066, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Stocco", "Chantel S. Prat", "Darby M. Losey", "Jeneva A. Cronin", "Joseph Wu", "Justin A. Abernethy", "Rajesh P. N. Rao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137303.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Architecture_of_the_BBI_and_8220_20_Questions_8221_Experiment_/1554066", "title"=>"Architecture of the BBI and “20 Questions” Experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:41:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285777"], "description"=>"<p>During the experiment, the respondent sat in front of a computer screen (A) on a comfortable chair, while EEG signals were recorded from the scalp using an active electrode cap (D). SSVEPs in the EEG signal from the occipital lobe were driven by the frequencies of two flashing LEDs, positioned on the left (“Yes” answer, 13 Hz: B) and the right (“No” answer, 12 Hz: C) side of the screen.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["BBI research", "tms", "respondent", "eeg", "information", "brain activity", "stimulation", "inquirer", "interface", "participant", "task", "BBI studies", "20 Questions", "sham BBI", "Collaborative Problem", "control condition"], "article_id"=>1554069, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Stocco", "Chantel S. Prat", "Darby M. Losey", "Jeneva A. Cronin", "Joseph Wu", "Justin A. Abernethy", "Rajesh P. N. Rao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137303.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_EEG_Components_of_the_BBI_for_the_Respondent_/1554069", "title"=>"EEG Components of the BBI for the Respondent.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:41:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285781"], "description"=>"<p>During the experiment, the inquirer sat in front of a computer screen on a BrainSight chair, with his or her head kept in place by a two-pronged head rest (A). A figure-of-8 TMS coil (B), connected to a MagStim Super Rapid<sup>2</sup> stimulator (C) was positioned over the inquirer’s occipital lobe to deliver visual stimulation in accordance with the respondent’s answer. The head position and the coil position were carefully checked with the aid of a laser pointer (D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["BBI research", "tms", "respondent", "eeg", "information", "brain activity", "stimulation", "inquirer", "interface", "participant", "task", "BBI studies", "20 Questions", "sham BBI", "Collaborative Problem", "control condition"], "article_id"=>1554073, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Stocco", "Chantel S. Prat", "Darby M. Losey", "Jeneva A. Cronin", "Joseph Wu", "Justin A. Abernethy", "Rajesh P. N. Rao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137303.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TMS_Components_of_the_BBI_for_the_Inquirer_/1554073", "title"=>"TMS Components of the BBI for the Inquirer.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:41:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285782"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Mean number of objects correctly guessed by the inquirer over 10 experimental (red) and 10 control trials (black) across 5 pairs of subjects; chance performance is 0.125 (dotted line); (B) Mean area under the ROC curves (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0137303#pone.0137303.g005\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 5</a>, below); chance performance is 0.5 (dotted line); (C) Mean number of bits transferred during the experimental and control conditions, using the mutual information criterion; chance performance corresponds to 0 bits (dotted line). In all figures, the grey lines represent the five pairs of participants. Note that in (A), two pairs near the center of the plot had identical performance, giving the appearance of only four lines.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["BBI research", "tms", "respondent", "eeg", "information", "brain activity", "stimulation", "inquirer", "interface", "participant", "task", "BBI studies", "20 Questions", "sham BBI", "Collaborative Problem", "control condition"], "article_id"=>1554074, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Stocco", "Chantel S. Prat", "Darby M. Losey", "Jeneva A. Cronin", "Joseph Wu", "Justin A. Abernethy", "Rajesh P. N. Rao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137303.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Different_Measures_of_BBI_Performance_Across_Conditions_and_Subjects_/1554074", "title"=>"Different Measures of BBI Performance Across Conditions and Subjects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:41:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285783"], "description"=>"<p>Each plot illustrates the performance of pairs of subjects in terms of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) for the experimental (red dots) and control (gray dots) games. The first plot (A) depicts the performance of each pair as whole while the other two plots represent the individual performances of respondents (B) and inquirers (C) in each pair. Overlapping points are indicated by darker shades of red or gray.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["BBI research", "tms", "respondent", "eeg", "information", "brain activity", "stimulation", "inquirer", "interface", "participant", "task", "BBI studies", "20 Questions", "sham BBI", "Collaborative Problem", "control condition"], "article_id"=>1554075, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Stocco", "Chantel S. Prat", "Darby M. Losey", "Jeneva A. Cronin", "Joseph Wu", "Justin A. Abernethy", "Rajesh P. N. Rao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137303.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Performance_of_Each_Pair_of_Subjects_/1554075", "title"=>"Performance of Each Pair of Subjects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:41:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285784"], "description"=>"<p>An example of the sets of objects (first column) and associated questions used during the experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["BBI research", "tms", "respondent", "eeg", "information", "brain activity", "stimulation", "inquirer", "interface", "participant", "task", "BBI studies", "20 Questions", "sham BBI", "Collaborative Problem", "control condition"], "article_id"=>1554076, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Stocco", "Chantel S. Prat", "Darby M. Losey", "Jeneva A. Cronin", "Joseph Wu", "Justin A. Abernethy", "Rajesh P. N. Rao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137303.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_8220_Animals_1_8221_Set_/1554076", "title"=>"The “Animals #1” Set.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:41:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2285785"], "description"=>"<p>TMS stimulation intensities and sites for the five inquirers in the experiment. Intensities are expressed as percentage of the stimulator’s maximum output.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["BBI research", "tms", "respondent", "eeg", "information", "brain activity", "stimulation", "inquirer", "interface", "participant", "task", "BBI studies", "20 Questions", "sham BBI", "Collaborative Problem", "control condition"], "article_id"=>1554077, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Stocco", "Chantel S. Prat", "Darby M. Losey", "Jeneva A. Cronin", "Joseph Wu", "Justin A. Abernethy", "Rajesh P. N. Rao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137303.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TMS_Stimulation_Parameters_/1554077", "title"=>"TMS Stimulation Parameters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-23 03:41:24"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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