Future Discounting in Congo Basin Hunter-Gatherers Declines with Socio-Economic Transitions
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{"title"=>"Future discounting in congo basin hunter-gatherers declines with socio-economic transitions", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gul Deniz", "last_name"=>"Salali", "scopus_author_id"=>"54413002700"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrea Bamberg", "last_name"=>"Migliano", "scopus_author_id"=>"23393347700"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"26381883", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84946592906", "sgr"=>"84946592906", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0137806", "pui"=>"606742931", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"ec08382d-a63e-33cc-a0f7-fb512576edfd", "abstract"=>"Humans have a tendency to discount the future; that is we value small, short-term rewards over larger, long-term rewards. The degree of future discounting, however, changes in response to socio-ecological factors. Here, we study Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers of northern Congo and their farmer neighbours to investigate adaptations in inter-temporal preferences in humans. We argue that in immediate-return systems, where food storage is absent and egalitarianism is enforced through levelling mechanisms, future discounting is an adaptive strategy to prevent wealth accumulation and the emergence of hierarchies. This ensures food sharing and allows for survival in unpredictable environments where there is risk of an energy shortfall. On the other hand, when food storage is made possible by the emergence of agriculture or as seen in some delayed-return hunter-gatherer populations, wealth accumulation, hierarchies and lower discount rates become the adaptive strategy. Therefore, individuals in immediate-return, egalitarian societies will discount the future more than those in non-egalitarian, delayed-return societies. Consistent with the predictions we found that market integration and socio-economic transitions decrease the future discounting in Mbendjele hunter-gatherers. Our measures of socio-economic differences marked this transition in hunter-gatherers living in a logging town. The degree of future-discounting was the same between more market-integrated hunter-gatherers and their farmer neighbours.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/future-discounting-congo-basin-huntergatherers-declines-socioeconomic-transitions-1", "reader_count"=>33, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>10, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>10}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Luxembourg"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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