Chronic Running Exercise Alleviates Early Progression of Nephropathy with Upregulation of Nitric Oxide Synthases and Suppression of Glycation in Zucker Diabetic Rats
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{"title"=>"Chronic running exercise alleviates early progression of nephropathy with upregulation of nitric oxide synthases and suppression of glycation in Zucker diabetic rats", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Daisuke", "last_name"=>"Ito", "scopus_author_id"=>"36611753200"}, {"first_name"=>"Pengyu", "last_name"=>"Cao", "scopus_author_id"=>"37033571100"}, {"first_name"=>"Takaaki", "last_name"=>"Kakihana", "scopus_author_id"=>"56938635700"}, {"first_name"=>"Emiko", "last_name"=>"Sato", "scopus_author_id"=>"15137309500"}, {"first_name"=>"Chihiro", "last_name"=>"Suda", "scopus_author_id"=>"35622668300"}, {"first_name"=>"Yoshikazu", "last_name"=>"Muroya", "scopus_author_id"=>"37034592800"}, {"first_name"=>"Yoshiko", "last_name"=>"Ogawa", "scopus_author_id"=>"56937609600"}, {"first_name"=>"Gaizun", "last_name"=>"Hu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56937508400"}, {"first_name"=>"Tadashi", "last_name"=>"Ishii", "scopus_author_id"=>"55656652900"}, {"first_name"=>"Osamu", "last_name"=>"Ito", "scopus_author_id"=>"55575305700"}, {"first_name"=>"Masahiro", "last_name"=>"Kohzuki", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006824956"}, {"first_name"=>"Hideyasu", "last_name"=>"Kiyomoto", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003441986"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0138037", "sgr"=>"84945902510", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84945902510", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"26379244", "pui"=>"606624572"}, "id"=>"895aa938-cae8-3351-8fb4-222acc3603e8", "abstract"=>"Exercise training is known to exert multiple beneficial effects including renal protection in type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. However, the mechanisms regulating these actions remain unclear. The present study evaluated the effects of chronic running exercise on the early stage of diabetic nephropathy, focusing on nitric oxide synthase (NOS), oxidative stress and glycation in the kidneys of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Male ZDF rats (6 weeks old) underwent forced treadmill exercise for 8 weeks (Ex-ZDF). Sedentary ZDF (Sed-ZDF) and Zucker lean (Sed-ZL) rats served as controls. Exercise attenuated hyperglycemia (plasma glucose; 242 ± 43 mg/dL in Sed-ZDF and 115 ± 5 mg/dL in Ex-ZDF) with increased insulin secretion (plasma insulin; 2.3 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ± 0.9 ng/mL), reduced albumin excretion (urine albumin; 492 ± 70 and 176 ± 11 mg/g creatinine) and normalized creatinine clearance (9.7 ± 1.4 and 4.5 ± 0.8 mL/min per body weight) in ZDF rats. Endothelial (e) and neuronal (n) NOS expression in kidneys of Sed-ZDF rats were lower compared with Sed-ZL rats (p<0.01), while both eNOS and nNOS expression were upregulated by exercise (p<0.01). Furthermore, exercise decreased NADPH oxidase activity, p47phox expression (p<0.01) and α-oxoaldehydes (the precursors for advanced glycation end products) (p<0.01) in the kidneys of ZDF rats. Additionally, morphometric evidence indicated renal damage was reduced in response to exercise. These data suggest that upregulation of NOS expression, suppression of NADPH oxidase and α-oxoaldehydes in the kidneys may, at least in part, contribute to the renal protective effects of exercise in the early progression of diabetic nephropathy in ZDF rats. Moreover, this study supports the theory that chronic aerobic exercise could be recommended as an effective non-pharmacological therapy for renoprotection in the early stages of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/chronic-running-exercise-alleviates-early-progression-nephropathy-upregulation-nitric-oxide-synthase", "reader_count"=>24, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>7, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Chile"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2269810"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Plasma glucose and (B) plasma insulin levels were measured by intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) at 4 days after the last exercise session and after 5 h of fasting in sedentary lean Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (Sed-ZL), sedentary ZDF rats (Sed-ZDF) and aerobic treadmill exercised ZDF rats (Ex-ZDF) groups. (C) Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), (D) HOMA for insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and (E) HOMA for β-cell function (HOMA-β) were calculated by IPGTT data in Sed-ZL, Sed-ZDF and Ex-ZDF groups. Values are means ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 5/group). * <i>p</i><0.05, ** <i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZL group; <sup>†</sup><i>p</i><0.05, <sup>††</sup><i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZDF group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nitric oxide synthases", "p 47phox expression", "exercise", "Exercise attenuated hyperglycemia", "NADPH oxidase activity", "Nitric Oxide Synthase", "type 2 diabetes mellitus", "mg", "ZDF rats", "Zucker Diabetic Rats Exercise training", "NOS expression", "glycation end products"], "article_id"=>1547745, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daisuke Ito", "Pengyu Cao", "Takaaki Kakihana", "Emiko Sato", "Chihiro Suda", "Yoshikazu Muroya", "Yoshiko Ogawa", "Gaizun Hu", "Tadashi Ishii", "Osamu Ito", "Masahiro Kohzuki", "Hideyasu Kiyomoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138037.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_chronic_running_exercise_on_the_intra_peritoneal_glucose_tolerance_test_in_Zucker_diabetic_fatty_rats_/1547745", "title"=>"Effects of chronic running exercise on the intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-17 03:58:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2269812"], "description"=>"<p>A, B: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was evaluated as the <i>in vitro</i> formation of nitrate/nitrite (NO<sub>x</sub>) in the renal cortex (A) and outer medulla (B) of sedentary lean Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (Sed-ZL), sedentary ZDF rats (Sed-ZDF) and aerobic treadmill exercised ZDF rats (Ex-ZDF) groups. C–F: Protein expression of the endothelial NOS (eNOS) in the renal cortex (C) and outer medulla (D), and the neuronal NOS (nNOS) in the renal cortex (E) and outer medulla (F) of Sed-ZL, Sed-ZDF and Ex-ZDF groups were examined by western blot analysis. Top panels depict representative immunoblots from the different groups. The intensities of the eNOS bands (140 kDa) and the nNOS bands (155 kDa) for each protein were normalized against that of <i>β</i>-actin (40 kDa). The intensity of the band in the Sed-ZL group was assigned a value of 1. Values are means ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 5/group). * <i>p</i><0.05, ** <i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZL group; <sup>†</sup><i>p</i><0.05, <sup>††</sup><i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZDF group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nitric oxide synthases", "p 47phox expression", "exercise", "Exercise attenuated hyperglycemia", "NADPH oxidase activity", "Nitric Oxide Synthase", "type 2 diabetes mellitus", "mg", "ZDF rats", "Zucker Diabetic Rats Exercise training", "NOS expression", "glycation end products"], "article_id"=>1547747, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daisuke Ito", "Pengyu Cao", "Takaaki Kakihana", "Emiko Sato", "Chihiro Suda", "Yoshikazu Muroya", "Yoshiko Ogawa", "Gaizun Hu", "Tadashi Ishii", "Osamu Ito", "Masahiro Kohzuki", "Hideyasu Kiyomoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138037.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_chronic_running_exercise_on_nitric_oxide_synthase_NOS_activity_endothelial_NOS_eNOS_and_neuronal_NOS_nNOS_protein_expression_in_the_renal_cortex_and_outer_medulla_of_Zucker_diabetic_fatty_rats_/1547747", "title"=>"Effects of chronic running exercise on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, endothelial NOS (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) protein expression in the renal cortex and outer medulla of Zucker diabetic fatty rats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-17 03:58:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2269814"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Plasma and (B) urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels, expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, were measured as an index of lipid peroxidation in sedentary lean Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (Sed-ZL), sedentary ZDF rats (Sed-ZDF) and aerobic treadmill exercised ZDF rats (Ex-ZDF) groups. Values are means ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 5/group). ** <i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZL group; <sup>††</sup><i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZDF group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nitric oxide synthases", "p 47phox expression", "exercise", "Exercise attenuated hyperglycemia", "NADPH oxidase activity", "Nitric Oxide Synthase", "type 2 diabetes mellitus", "mg", "ZDF rats", "Zucker Diabetic Rats Exercise training", "NOS expression", "glycation end products"], "article_id"=>1547749, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daisuke Ito", "Pengyu Cao", "Takaaki Kakihana", "Emiko Sato", "Chihiro Suda", "Yoshikazu Muroya", "Yoshiko Ogawa", "Gaizun Hu", "Tadashi Ishii", "Osamu Ito", "Masahiro Kohzuki", "Hideyasu Kiyomoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138037.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_chronic_running_exercise_on_levels_of_thiobarbituric_acid_reactive_substances_levels_in_Zucker_diabetic_fatty_rats_/1547749", "title"=>"Effects of chronic running exercise on levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-17 03:58:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2269815"], "description"=>"<p>(A) NADPH oxidase activity was measured as an index of O<sub>2</sub><sup>•–</sup> generation in the renal cortex of sedentary lean Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (Sed-ZL), sedentary ZDF rats (Sed-ZDF) and aerobic treadmill exercised ZDF rats (Ex-ZDF) groups. (B) Protein expression of the p47<sup>phox</sup> in the renal cortex of Sed-ZL, Sed-ZDF and Ex-ZDF groups were examined by western blot analysis. Top panels depict representative immunoblots from the different groups. The intensities of the p47<sup>phox</sup> bands (47 kDa) for the protein were normalized against <i>β</i>-actin (40 kDa). The intensity of the band in the Sed-ZL group was assigned a value of 1. Values are means ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 5/group). ** <i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZL group; <sup>††</sup><i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZDF group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nitric oxide synthases", "p 47phox expression", "exercise", "Exercise attenuated hyperglycemia", "NADPH oxidase activity", "Nitric Oxide Synthase", "type 2 diabetes mellitus", "mg", "ZDF rats", "Zucker Diabetic Rats Exercise training", "NOS expression", "glycation end products"], "article_id"=>1547750, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daisuke Ito", "Pengyu Cao", "Takaaki Kakihana", "Emiko Sato", "Chihiro Suda", "Yoshikazu Muroya", "Yoshiko Ogawa", "Gaizun Hu", "Tadashi Ishii", "Osamu Ito", "Masahiro Kohzuki", "Hideyasu Kiyomoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138037.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_chronic_running_exercise_on_NADPH_oxidase_activity_and_p47_phox_protein_expression_in_the_renal_cortex_of_Zucker_diabetic_fatty_rats_/1547750", "title"=>"Effects of chronic running exercise on NADPH oxidase activity and p47<sup>phox</sup> protein expression in the renal cortex of Zucker diabetic fatty rats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-17 03:58:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2269818"], "description"=>"<p>Protein expression of the nitrotyrosine in the renal cortex (A) and outer medulla (B) of sedentary lean Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (Sed-ZL), sedentary ZDF rats (Sed-ZDF) and aerobic treadmill exercised ZDF rats (Ex-ZDF) groups were examined by western blot analysis. Top panels depict representative immunoblots from the different groups. The intensities of the nitrotyrosine bands (70 kDa) for the protein were normalized against that of <i>β</i>-actin (40 kDa). The intensity of the band in the Sed-ZL group was assigned a value of 1. Values are means ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 5/group). ** <i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZL group; <sup>†</sup><i>p</i><0.05, <sup>††</sup><i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZDF group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nitric oxide synthases", "p 47phox expression", "exercise", "Exercise attenuated hyperglycemia", "NADPH oxidase activity", "Nitric Oxide Synthase", "type 2 diabetes mellitus", "mg", "ZDF rats", "Zucker Diabetic Rats Exercise training", "NOS expression", "glycation end products"], "article_id"=>1547753, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daisuke Ito", "Pengyu Cao", "Takaaki Kakihana", "Emiko Sato", "Chihiro Suda", "Yoshikazu Muroya", "Yoshiko Ogawa", "Gaizun Hu", "Tadashi Ishii", "Osamu Ito", "Masahiro Kohzuki", "Hideyasu Kiyomoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138037.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_chronic_running_exercise_on_nitrotyrosine_protein_expression_in_the_renal_cortex_and_outer_medulla_of_Zucker_diabetic_fatty_rats_/1547753", "title"=>"Effects of chronic running exercise on nitrotyrosine protein expression in the renal cortex and outer medulla of Zucker diabetic fatty rats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-17 03:58:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2269819"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Urinary methylglyoxal (MG) in sedentary lean Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (Sed-ZL), sedentary ZDF rats (Sed-ZDF) and aerobic treadmill exercised ZDF rats (Ex-ZDF) groups was assessed by electrospray ionization (ESI) liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) (LC-MS/MS), and expressed as urinary MG:creatinine ratio. (B) MG, (C) 3-deoxy-D-glucosone (3DG) and (D) glyoxal (GO) in the renal cortex of Sed-ZL, Sed-ZDF and Ex-ZDF groups were assessed by LC-MS/MS. Values are means ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 5/group). * <i>p</i><0.05, ** <i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZL group; <sup>††</sup><i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZDF group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nitric oxide synthases", "p 47phox expression", "exercise", "Exercise attenuated hyperglycemia", "NADPH oxidase activity", "Nitric Oxide Synthase", "type 2 diabetes mellitus", "mg", "ZDF rats", "Zucker Diabetic Rats Exercise training", "NOS expression", "glycation end products"], "article_id"=>1547754, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daisuke Ito", "Pengyu Cao", "Takaaki Kakihana", "Emiko Sato", "Chihiro Suda", "Yoshikazu Muroya", "Yoshiko Ogawa", "Gaizun Hu", "Tadashi Ishii", "Osamu Ito", "Masahiro Kohzuki", "Hideyasu Kiyomoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138037.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_chronic_running_exercise_on_945_oxoaldehydes_in_Zucker_diabetic_fatty_rats_/1547754", "title"=>"Effects of chronic running exercise on α-oxoaldehydes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-17 03:58:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2269830"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Index of glomerular sclerosis (IGS) was evaluated by Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining in sedentary lean Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (Sed-ZL), sedentary ZDF rats (Sed-ZDF) and aerobic treadmill exercised ZDF rats (Ex-ZDF) groups. Upper panels show representative images of renal cortex specimens stained with PAS from the different groups. Original magnification ×200. Scale bar = 100 μm. IGS was determined by grading (0–4) and graphs indicate IGS scores. (B) Podocyte injury was determined by desmin immunostaining of glomeruli in Sed-ZL, Sed-ZDF and Ex-ZDF groups. Top and middle panels show representative images of renal cortex specimens stained with desmin from the different groups. Original magnification ×200 (top), and ×400 (middle). Scale bar = 100 μm. Strongly positive staining regions were observed in glomeruli of the Sed-ZDF group. G indicates a glomerulus in low magnification field (top) and the arrows indicate desmin positive cells such as damaged glomerular podocytes (middle). Graphs depict quantitative representation of desmin positive staining area. (C) Tubulointerstitial injury was determined by α-SMA immunostaining in Sed-ZL, Sed-ZDF and Ex-ZDF groups. Upper panels show representative images of renal cortex specimens stained with α-SMA from the different groups. Original magnification ×200. Scale bar = 100 μm. Strongly positive staining regions were observed in the tubulointerstitium of the Sed-ZDF group. G indicates a glomerulus and the arrows indicate arteries and arterioles with strong positive lesions. Graphs depict quantitative representation of the α-SMA positive staining area. Values are means ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 5/group). * <i>p</i><0.05, ** <i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZL group; <sup>††</sup><i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZDF group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nitric oxide synthases", "p 47phox expression", "exercise", "Exercise attenuated hyperglycemia", "NADPH oxidase activity", "Nitric Oxide Synthase", "type 2 diabetes mellitus", "mg", "ZDF rats", "Zucker Diabetic Rats Exercise training", "NOS expression", "glycation end products"], "article_id"=>1547758, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daisuke Ito", "Pengyu Cao", "Takaaki Kakihana", "Emiko Sato", "Chihiro Suda", "Yoshikazu Muroya", "Yoshiko Ogawa", "Gaizun Hu", "Tadashi Ishii", "Osamu Ito", "Masahiro Kohzuki", "Hideyasu Kiyomoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138037.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_chronic_running_exercise_on_glomerulosclerosis_podocyte_injury_and_tubulointerstitial_injury_in_Zucker_diabetic_fatty_rats_/1547758", "title"=>"Effects of chronic running exercise on glomerulosclerosis, podocyte injury and tubulointerstitial injury in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-17 03:58:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2269831"], "description"=>"<p>Sed-ZL, sedentary Zucker lean rats; Sed-ZDF, sedentary Zucker diabetic fatty rats; Ex-ZDF, treadmill exercised Zucker diabetic fatty rats.</p><p>* <i>p</i> < 0.05,</p><p>** <i>p</i> < 0.01 compared with Sed-ZL group.</p><p><sup>†</sup><i>p</i> < 0.05,</p><p><sup>††</sup><i>p</i> < 0.01 compared with Sed-ZDF group.</p><p>Values are mean ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 5/group).</p><p>Effects of chronic running exercise on plasma parameters, urine volume, urine parameters, and systolic blood pressure in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nitric oxide synthases", "p 47phox expression", "exercise", "Exercise attenuated hyperglycemia", "NADPH oxidase activity", "Nitric Oxide Synthase", "type 2 diabetes mellitus", "mg", "ZDF rats", "Zucker Diabetic Rats Exercise training", "NOS expression", "glycation end products"], "article_id"=>1547759, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daisuke Ito", "Pengyu Cao", "Takaaki Kakihana", "Emiko Sato", "Chihiro Suda", "Yoshikazu Muroya", "Yoshiko Ogawa", "Gaizun Hu", "Tadashi Ishii", "Osamu Ito", "Masahiro Kohzuki", "Hideyasu Kiyomoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138037.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_chronic_running_exercise_on_plasma_parameters_urine_volume_urine_parameters_and_systolic_blood_pressure_in_Zucker_diabetic_fatty_rats_/1547759", "title"=>"Effects of chronic running exercise on plasma parameters, urine volume, urine parameters, and systolic blood pressure in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-17 03:58:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2269807"], "description"=>"<p>The concentration of each substance tested was 6.25 pmol. The ion transition of the derived methylglyoxal, glyoxal, 3-deoxy-D-glucosone and 2,3-butanedione was <i>m/z</i> 145→117, <i>m/z</i> 131→103, <i>m/z</i> 235→156, and <i>m/z</i> 159→117, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nitric oxide synthases", "p 47phox expression", "exercise", "Exercise attenuated hyperglycemia", "NADPH oxidase activity", "Nitric Oxide Synthase", "type 2 diabetes mellitus", "mg", "ZDF rats", "Zucker Diabetic Rats Exercise training", "NOS expression", "glycation end products"], "article_id"=>1547742, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daisuke Ito", "Pengyu Cao", "Takaaki Kakihana", "Emiko Sato", "Chihiro Suda", "Yoshikazu Muroya", "Yoshiko Ogawa", "Gaizun Hu", "Tadashi Ishii", "Osamu Ito", "Masahiro Kohzuki", "Hideyasu Kiyomoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138037.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chromatograms_of_derived_methylglyoxal_glyoxal_3_deoxy_D_glucosone_and_2_3_butanedione_/1547742", "title"=>"Chromatograms of derived methylglyoxal, glyoxal, 3-deoxy-D-glucosone and 2,3-butanedione.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-17 03:58:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2269808"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The water intake, (B) food intake and (C) body weight were measured weekly for 8 weeks in sedentary lean Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (Sed-ZL), sedentary ZDF rats (Sed-ZDF) and aerobic treadmill exercised ZDF rats (Ex-ZDF) groups. Values are means ± SEM (<i>n</i> = 5/group). * <i>p</i><0.05, ** <i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZL group; <sup>†</sup><i>p</i><0.05, <sup>††</sup><i>p</i><0.01 compared with the Sed-ZDF group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nitric oxide synthases", "p 47phox expression", "exercise", "Exercise attenuated hyperglycemia", "NADPH oxidase activity", "Nitric Oxide Synthase", "type 2 diabetes mellitus", "mg", "ZDF rats", "Zucker Diabetic Rats Exercise training", "NOS expression", "glycation end products"], "article_id"=>1547743, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Daisuke Ito", "Pengyu Cao", "Takaaki Kakihana", "Emiko Sato", "Chihiro Suda", "Yoshikazu Muroya", "Yoshiko Ogawa", "Gaizun Hu", "Tadashi Ishii", "Osamu Ito", "Masahiro Kohzuki", "Hideyasu Kiyomoto"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138037.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_chronic_running_exercise_on_water_intake_food_intake_and_body_weight_over_8_weeks_in_Zucker_diabetic_fatty_rats_/1547743", "title"=>"Effects of chronic running exercise on water intake, food intake and body weight over 8 weeks in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-17 03:58:20"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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