A New Titanosaurian Braincase from the Cretaceous "Lo Hueco" Locality in Spain Sheds Light on Neuroanatomical Evolution within Titanosauria
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{"title"=>"A new titanosaurian braincase from the cretaceous \"Lo Hueco\" locality in Spain sheds light on neuroanatomical evolution within titanosauria", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Fabien", "last_name"=>"Knoll", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004083486"}, {"first_name"=>"Lawrence M.", "last_name"=>"Witmer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601970331"}, {"first_name"=>"Ryan C.", "last_name"=>"Ridgely", "scopus_author_id"=>"14629484300"}, {"first_name"=>"Francisco", "last_name"=>"Ortega", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102751907"}, {"first_name"=>"Jose Luis", "last_name"=>"Sanz", "scopus_author_id"=>"56235144600"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84948684624", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0138233", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84948684624", "pui"=>"607096675"}, "id"=>"1e0f0864-ea10-3eec-bbc0-2e36bad408fb", "abstract"=>"© 2015 Knoll et al. Despite continuous improvements, our knowledge of the neurocranial anatomy of sauropod dinosaurs as a whole is still poor, which is especially true for titanosaurians even though their postcranial remains are common in many Upper Cretaceous sites worldwide. Here we describe a braincase from the uppermost Cretaceous locality of \"Lo Hueco\" in Spain that is one of the most complete titanosaurian braincases found so far in Europe. Although the titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp. is known from the same locality, this specimen is clearly a distinct taxon and presents a number of occipital characters found in Antarctosaurus and Jainosaurus, which are approximately coeval taxa from southern Gondwana. The specimen was subjected to X-ray computed tomographic (CT) scanning, allowing the generation of 3D renderings of the endocranial cavity enclosing the brain, cranial nerves, and blood vessels, as well as the labyrinth of the inner ear. These findings add considerable knowledge to the field of sauropod paleoneuroanatomy in general and titanosaurian endocast diversity in particular. Compared with that of many sauropodomorphs, the endocast appears only slightly flexed in lateral view and bears similarities (e.g., reduction of the rostral dural expansion) with Gondwanan titanosaurians such as Jainosaurus, Bonatitan, and Antarctosaurus. The vestibular system of the inner ear is somewhat contracted (i.e., the radius of the semicircular canals is small), but less so than expected in derived titanosaurians. However, as far as the new specimen and Jainosaurus can be contrasted, and with the necessary caution due to the small sample of comparative data currently available, the two taxa appear more similar to one another in endocast morphology than to other titanosaurians. Recent phylogenetic analyses of titanosaurians have not included virtually any of the taxa under consideration here, and thus the phylogenetic position of the new Spanish titanosaurian - even its generic, let alone specific, identification - is not possible at the moment. Copyright:", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/new-titanosaurian-braincase-cretaceous-lo-hueco-locality-spain-sheds-light-neuroanatomical-evolution", "reader_count"=>23, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>15}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>15}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/2349164/Fig_2.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jose Luis Sanz", "Lawrence M. Witmer", "Francisco Ortega", "Fabien Knoll", "Ryan C. Ridgely"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimen", "Spain Sheds Light", "Jainosauru", "titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp", "Upper Cretaceous sites", "rostral dural expansion", "3 D renderings", "New Titanosaurian Braincase", "titanosaurian endocast diversity", "Recent phylogenetic analyses", "endocast morphology", "ct"], "title"=>"<p>Photographs of the indeterminate titanosaurian sauropod braincase MCCM-HUE-1667 from the Cretaceous of Fuentes, Spain.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Photographs_of_the_indeterminate_titanosaurian_sauropod_braincase_MCCM_HUE_1667_from_the_Cretaceous_of_Fuentes_Spain_/1567664", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138233.g002"], "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:42:32", "article_id"=>1567664, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "description"=>"<p >In dorsal (A), ventral (B), right lateral (C), rostral (D), and caudal (E) views. Rostral is to the top in (A, B), dorsal is to the top in (C-E). Abbreviations: BO, basioccipital; F, frontal; LS, laterosphenoid; OO, otoccipital; OS, orbitosphenoid; P, parietal; PB, parabasisphenoid; PF, prefrontal; PR, prootic; SO, supraoccipital. Scale bar equals 10 cm.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/2349165/Fig_3.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jose Luis Sanz", "Lawrence M. Witmer", "Francisco Ortega", "Fabien Knoll", "Ryan C. Ridgely"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimen", "Spain Sheds Light", "Jainosauru", "titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp", "Upper Cretaceous sites", "rostral dural expansion", "3 D renderings", "New Titanosaurian Braincase", "titanosaurian endocast diversity", "Recent phylogenetic analyses", "endocast morphology", "ct"], "title"=>"<p>Volume-rendered CT-based images of the indeterminate titanosaurian sauropod braincase MCCM-HUE-1667 from the Cretaceous of Fuentes, Spain.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Volume_rendered_CT_based_images_of_the_indeterminate_titanosaurian_sauropod_braincase_MCCM_HUE_1667_from_the_Cretaceous_of_Fuentes_Spain_/1567665", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138233.g003"], "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:42:32", "article_id"=>1567665, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "description"=>"<p >Opaque and unfilled in dorsal (A), ventral (B), left lateral (C), rostral (E), and caudal (F) views and semitransparent with the endocast and associated structures in left lateral view (D). Rostral is to the top in (A, B), dorsal is to the top in (C-F). Abbreviations: BP, basipterygoid process; BT, basal tuber; CP, capitate process; CA, crista antotica; CO, crista otosphenoidea; CT, crista tuberalis; FM, foramen magnum; OC, occipital condyle; OF, olfactory fenestra; OR, orbital recess; PP, paroccipital process; PSR, parasphenoidal rostrum; PTF, posttemporal fenestra; SNC, sagittal nuchal crest; STF, supratemporal fenestra; TNC, transverse nuchal crest; V, trigeminal foramen. Scale bar equals 10 cm.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/2349166/Fig_4.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jose Luis Sanz", "Lawrence M. Witmer", "Francisco Ortega", "Fabien Knoll", "Ryan C. Ridgely"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimen", "Spain Sheds Light", "Jainosauru", "titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp", "Upper Cretaceous sites", "rostral dural expansion", "3 D renderings", "New Titanosaurian Braincase", "titanosaurian endocast diversity", "Recent phylogenetic analyses", "endocast morphology", "ct"], "title"=>"<p>Surface-rendered CT-based images of the cranial endocast and endosseous labyrinth of the indeterminate titanosaurian sauropod braincase MCCM-HUE-1667 from the Cretaceous of Fuentes, Spain.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Surface_rendered_CT_based_images_of_the_cranial_endocast_and_endosseous_labyrinth_of_the_indeterminate_titanosaurian_sauropod_braincase_MCCM_HUE_1667_from_the_Cretaceous_of_Fuentes_Spain_/1567666", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138233.g004"], "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:42:32", "article_id"=>1567666, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "description"=>"<p >In left lateral view. Dorsal is to the top. Abbreviations: CAR, internal carotid artery; CER, cerebrum; DE, dural expansion; II, optic nerve; III, oculomotor nerve; IV, trochlear nerve; LAB, labyrinth; MO, medulla oblongata; OL, olfactory lobe; PFO, pituitary body; V, trigeminal nerve; VI, abducens nerve; VII, facial nerve; IX-XI, glossopharyngeal and vagoaccessory nerves; XII, hypoglossal nerve. Scale bar equals 5 cm.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/2349167/Fig_5.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jose Luis Sanz", "Lawrence M. Witmer", "Francisco Ortega", "Fabien Knoll", "Ryan C. Ridgely"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimen", "Spain Sheds Light", "Jainosauru", "titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp", "Upper Cretaceous sites", "rostral dural expansion", "3 D renderings", "New Titanosaurian Braincase", "titanosaurian endocast diversity", "Recent phylogenetic analyses", "endocast morphology", "ct"], "title"=>"<p>Surface-rendered CT-based images of the cranial endocast and endosseous labyrinth of the indeterminate titanosaurian sauropod braincase MCCM-HUE-1667 from the Cretaceous of Fuentes, Spain.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Surface_rendered_CT_based_images_of_the_cranial_endocast_and_endosseous_labyrinth_of_the_indeterminate_titanosaurian_sauropod_braincase_MCCM_HUE_1667_from_the_Cretaceous_of_Fuentes_Spain_/1567667", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138233.g005"], "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:42:32", "article_id"=>1567667, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "description"=>"<p>In rostral (A), caudal (B), ventral (C), and dorsal (D) views. Dorsal is to the top in (A, B), rostral is to the top in (C, D). Abbreviations as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0138233#pone.0138233.g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 3</a>. Scale bar equals 5 cm.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/2349168/Fig_6.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jose Luis Sanz", "Lawrence M. Witmer", "Francisco Ortega", "Fabien Knoll", "Ryan C. Ridgely"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimen", "Spain Sheds Light", "Jainosauru", "titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp", "Upper Cretaceous sites", "rostral dural expansion", "3 D renderings", "New Titanosaurian Braincase", "titanosaurian endocast diversity", "Recent phylogenetic analyses", "endocast morphology", "ct"], "title"=>"<p>Endocasts of some sauropod taxa discussed in the text, displayed on a cladogram.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Endocasts_of_some_sauropod_taxa_discussed_in_the_text_displayed_on_a_cladogram_/1567668", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138233.g006"], "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:42:32", "article_id"=>1567668, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "description"=>"<p>From left: <i>Camarasaurus lentus</i> (CM 11338), indeterminate titanosaurian from Uzbekistan (CCMGE 628/12457), <i>Ampelosaurus</i> sp. from Spain (MCCM-HUE-8741, right side mirrored), indeterminate titanosaurian from Spain (MCCM-HUE-1667), and <i>Jainosaurus septentrionalis</i> (composite). In left lateral view. Dorsal is to the top. All but E digital endocasts; <i>Jainosaurus septentrionalis</i> is a montage of a photograph of the physical endocast (incomplete rostrally) made from the lectotypic braincase (GSI K27/497 ([<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0138233#pone.0138233.ref028\" target=\"_blank\">28</a>]: fig. 7A), right side mirrored and colorized) combined with the digital reconstruction of the endosseous labyrinth from a different specimen referred to the same species (ISI R162). CCMGE 628/12457 ([<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0138233#pone.0138233.ref010\" target=\"_blank\">10</a>]: fig. 3A, B) is depicted in a more basal phylogenetic position than either <i>Ampelosaurus</i> sp., MCCM-HUE-1667 or <i>Jainosaurus septentrionalis</i> based on its well-developed “middle cerebral vein” system. Scale bar equals 5 cm.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/2349169/Fig_7.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jose Luis Sanz", "Lawrence M. Witmer", "Francisco Ortega", "Fabien Knoll", "Ryan C. Ridgely"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimen", "Spain Sheds Light", "Jainosauru", "titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp", "Upper Cretaceous sites", "rostral dural expansion", "3 D renderings", "New Titanosaurian Braincase", "titanosaurian endocast diversity", "Recent phylogenetic analyses", "endocast morphology", "ct"], "title"=>"<p>Surface-rendered CT-based images of the left endosseous labyrinth of the indeterminate titanosaurian sauropod braincase MCCM-HUE-1667 from the Cretaceous of Fuentes, Spain.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Surface_rendered_CT_based_images_of_the_left_endosseous_labyrinth_of_the_indeterminate_titanosaurian_sauropod_braincase_MCCM_HUE_1667_from_the_Cretaceous_of_Fuentes_Spain_/1567669", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138233.g007"], "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:42:32", "article_id"=>1567669, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "description"=>"<p >In lateral (A), caudal (B), and dorsal (C) views. Dorsal is to the top. Abbreviations: CC, common crus; CSC, caudal semicircular canal; L, lagena; LSC, lateral semicircular canal; OW, oval window; PD, perilymphatic duct; RSC, rostral semicircular canal; V, vestibule. Scale bar equals 5 mm.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/2349170/Fig_8.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jose Luis Sanz", "Lawrence M. Witmer", "Francisco Ortega", "Fabien Knoll", "Ryan C. Ridgely"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimen", "Spain Sheds Light", "Jainosauru", "titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp", "Upper Cretaceous sites", "rostral dural expansion", "3 D renderings", "New Titanosaurian Braincase", "titanosaurian endocast diversity", "Recent phylogenetic analyses", "endocast morphology", "ct"], "title"=>"<p>Endosseous labyrinths of some sauropod taxa discussed in the text, displayed on a cladogram.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Endosseous_labyrinths_of_some_sauropod_taxa_discussed_in_the_text_displayed_on_a_cladogram_/1567670", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138233.g008"], "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:42:32", "article_id"=>1567670, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "description"=>"<p>In lateral view. Dorsal is to the top. From left: surface renderings of CT images of the inner ears of <i>Giraffatitan brancai</i> (MB.R.2180.22.1–4, right side mirrored), <i>Ampelosaurus</i> sp. from Spain (MCCM-HUE-8741, right side mirrored), the indeterminate titanosaurian from Spain (MCCM-HUE-1667, left side), and the indeterminate titanosaurian from Uzbekistan (CCMGE 628/12457, left side). Scale bar equals 20 mm.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/2349171/Table_1.xls"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jose Luis Sanz", "Lawrence M. Witmer", "Francisco Ortega", "Fabien Knoll", "Ryan C. Ridgely"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimen", "Spain Sheds Light", "Jainosauru", "titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp", "Upper Cretaceous sites", "rostral dural expansion", "3 D renderings", "New Titanosaurian Braincase", "titanosaurian endocast diversity", "Recent phylogenetic analyses", "endocast morphology", "ct"], "title"=>"<p>Titanosaurian braincases used for comparison in this study.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Titanosaurian_braincases_used_for_comparison_in_this_study_/1567671", "defined_type"=>3, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138233.t001"], "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:42:32", "article_id"=>1567671, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "description"=>"<p>Titanosaurian braincases used for comparison in this study.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/2349172/Table_2.xls"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jose Luis Sanz", "Lawrence M. Witmer", "Francisco Ortega", "Fabien Knoll", "Ryan C. Ridgely"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimen", "Spain Sheds Light", "Jainosauru", "titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp", "Upper Cretaceous sites", "rostral dural expansion", "3 D renderings", "New Titanosaurian Braincase", "titanosaurian endocast diversity", "Recent phylogenetic analyses", "endocast morphology", "ct"], "title"=>"<p>Titanosaurian endocasts used for comparison in this study (the first column indicates the specimens from which they are derived).</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Titanosaurian_endocasts_used_for_comparison_in_this_study_the_first_column_indicates_the_specimens_from_which_they_are_derived_/1567672", "defined_type"=>3, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138233.t002"], "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:42:32", "article_id"=>1567672, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "description"=>"<p>Titanosaurian endocasts used for comparison in this study (the first column indicates the specimens from which they are derived).</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/2349183/S1_Fig.pdf"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jose Luis Sanz", "Lawrence M. Witmer", "Francisco Ortega", "Fabien Knoll", "Ryan C. Ridgely"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimen", "Spain Sheds Light", "Jainosauru", "titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp", "Upper Cretaceous sites", "rostral dural expansion", "3 D renderings", "New Titanosaurian Braincase", "titanosaurian endocast diversity", "Recent phylogenetic analyses", "endocast morphology", "ct"], "title"=>"<p>A New Titanosaurian Braincase from the Cretaceous &#8220;Lo Hueco&#8221; Locality in Spain Sheds Light on Neuroanatomical Evolution within Titanosauria</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_A_New_Titanosaurian_Braincase_from_the_Cretaceous_8220_Lo_Hueco_8221_Locality_in_Spain_Sheds_Light_on_Neuroanatomical_Evolution_within_Titanosauria_/1567679", "defined_type"=>3, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138233.s001"], "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:42:32", "article_id"=>1567679, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "description"=>"<div><p>Despite continuous improvements, our knowledge of the neurocranial anatomy of sauropod dinosaurs as a whole is still poor, which is especially true for titanosaurians even though their postcranial remains are common in many Upper Cretaceous sites worldwide. Here we describe a braincase from the uppermost Cretaceous locality of ‘‘Lo Hueco” in Spain that is one of the most complete titanosaurian braincases found so far in Europe. Although the titanosaurian <i>Ampelosaurus</i> sp. is known from the same locality, this specimen is clearly a distinct taxon and presents a number of occipital characters found in <i>Antarctosaurus</i> and <i>Jainosaurus</i>, which are approximately coeval taxa from southern Gondwana. The specimen was subjected to X-ray computed tomographic (CT) scanning, allowing the generation of 3D renderings of the endocranial cavity enclosing the brain, cranial nerves, and blood vessels, as well as the labyrinth of the inner ear. These findings add considerable knowledge to the field of sauropod paleoneuroanatomy in general and titanosaurian endocast diversity in particular. Compared with that of many sauropodomorphs, the endocast appears only slightly flexed in lateral view and bears similarities (e.g., reduction of the rostral dural expansion) with Gondwanan titanosaurians such as <i>Jainosaurus</i>, <i>Bonatitan</i>, and <i>Antarctosaurus</i>. The vestibular system of the inner ear is somewhat contracted (i.e., the radius of the semicircular canals is small), but less so than expected in derived titanosaurians. However, as far as the new specimen and <i>Jainosaurus</i> can be contrasted, and with the necessary caution due to the small sample of comparative data currently available, the two taxa appear more similar to one another in endocast morphology than to other titanosaurians. Recent phylogenetic analyses of titanosaurians have not included virtually any of the taxa under consideration here, and thus the phylogenetic position of the new Spanish titanosaurian—even its generic, let alone specific, identification—is not possible at the moment. Nevertheless, both the braincase osteology and the endocast morphology suggest that the specimen represents a derived titanosaurian that presumably branched further from the base of Lithostrotia, potentially even near Saltasauridae, comparable in evolutionary terms with <i>Jainosaurus</i>.</p></div>"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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