The Use of a Mercury Biosensor to Evaluate the Bioavailability of Mercury-Thiol Complexes and Mechanisms of Mercury Uptake in Bacteria
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{"title"=>"The use of a mercury biosensor to evaluate the bioavailability of mercury-thiol complexes and mechanisms of mercury uptake in Bacteria", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Udonna", "last_name"=>"Ndu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55447977900"}, {"first_name"=>"Tamar", "last_name"=>"Barkay", "scopus_author_id"=>"19633363000"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert P.", "last_name"=>"Mason", "scopus_author_id"=>"35420452300"}, {"first_name"=>"Amina Traore", "last_name"=>"Schartup", "scopus_author_id"=>"55889636600"}, {"first_name"=>"Radwan", "last_name"=>"Al-Farawati", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507851159"}, {"first_name"=>"Jie", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"57196289016"}, {"first_name"=>"John R.", "last_name"=>"Reinfelder", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603771701"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0138333", "sgr"=>"84945920339", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84945920339", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"27144720", "pui"=>"606624662"}, "id"=>"e8f78f0a-aceb-3867-9a02-c23438f6900c", "abstract"=>"<p>As mercury (Hg) biosensors are sensitive to only intracellular Hg, they are useful in the investigation of Hg uptake mechanisms and the effects of speciation on Hg bioavailability to microbes. In this study, bacterial biosensors were used to evaluate the roles that several transporters such as the glutathione, cystine/cysteine, and Mer transporters play in the uptake of Hg from Hg-thiol complexes by comparing uptake rates in strains with functioning transport systems to strains where these transporters had been knocked out by deletion of key genes. The Hg uptake into the biosensors was quantified based on the intracellular conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) to elemental mercury (Hg(0)) by the enzyme MerA. It was found that uptake of Hg from Hg-cysteine (Hg(CYS)<sub>2</sub>) and Hg-glutathione (Hg(GSH)<sub>2</sub>) complexes occurred at the same rate as that of inorganic complexes of Hg(II) into <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> strains with and without intact Mer transport systems. However, higher rates of Hg uptake were observed in the strain with a functioning Mer transport system. These results demonstrate that thiol-bound Hg is bioavailable to <italic>E</italic>. <italic>coli</italic> and that this bioavailability is higher in Hg-resistant bacteria with a complete Mer system than in non-resistant strains. No difference in the uptake rate of Hg from Hg(GSH)<sub>2</sub> was observed in <italic>E</italic>. <italic>coli</italic> strains with or without functioning glutathione transport systems. There was also no difference in uptake rates between a wildtype <italic>Bacillus subtilis</italic> strain with a functioning cystine/cysteine transport system, and a mutant strain where this transport system had been knocked out. These results cast doubt on the viability of the hypothesis that the entire Hg-thiol complex is taken up into the cell by a thiol transporter. It is more likely that the Hg in the Hg-thiol complex is transferred to a transport protein on the cell membrane and is subsequently internalized.</p>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mercury-biosensor-evaluate-bioavailability-mercurythiol-complexes-mechanisms-mercury-uptake-bacteria", "reader_count"=>25, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>5}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2266464"], "description"=>"<p>A. The <i>mer</i> operon of plasmid pHYRIA. B. The plasmid pHYRIAX is a modification of pHYRIA by the deletion of <i>E</i>, <i>T</i>, and <i>P</i>. C. Gel showing deletion of the genes <i>E</i>, <i>T</i>, & P from the plasmid pHYRIA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mer transport system", "Hg uptake", "glutathione transport systems", "Escherichia coli strains", "Hg uptake mechanisms", "uptake rates", "Mer transport systems", "wildtype Bacillus subtilis strain", "results cast doubt"], "article_id"=>1545255, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Udonna Ndu", "Tamar Barkay", "Robert P. Mason", "Amina Traore Schartup", "Radwan Al-Farawati", "Jie Liu", "John R. Reinfelder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138333.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diagrams_of_plasmids_used_in_this_study_and_a_gel_showing_modification_of_plasmids_/1545255", "title"=>"Diagrams of plasmids used in this study and a gel showing modification of plasmids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-15 03:24:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2266466"], "description"=>"<p>Hg uptake was measured in (A) an <i>E</i>. <i>coli</i> strain (MER strain) with a functioning Mer transport system and (B) <i>E</i>. <i>coli</i> strain NRBZ1 which lacks a functioning Mer transport system. Cells were exposed to 10 nM Hg(II) with no thiol or with 100 nM glutathione or cysteine in M9 minimal media. The symbol “●” represents the negative control which is an <i>E</i>. <i>coli</i> strain without any component of the <i>mer</i> operon.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mer transport system", "Hg uptake", "glutathione transport systems", "Escherichia coli strains", "Hg uptake mechanisms", "uptake rates", "Mer transport systems", "wildtype Bacillus subtilis strain", "results cast doubt"], "article_id"=>1545257, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Udonna Ndu", "Tamar Barkay", "Robert P. Mason", "Amina Traore Schartup", "Radwan Al-Farawati", "Jie Liu", "John R. Reinfelder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138333.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_Mer_transporters_on_the_reduction_of_several_species_of_Hg_II_such_as_Hg_NH_3_22_9675_Hg_glutathione_complex_Hg_GSH_2_9633_and_Hg_cysteine_complex_Hg_CYS_2_916_/1545257", "title"=>"The effect of Mer transporters on the reduction of several species of Hg(II) such as Hg(NH<sub>3</sub>)22+(○), Hg-glutathione complex Hg(GSH)<sub>2</sub> (□), and Hg-cysteine complex Hg(CYS)<sub>2</sub> (Δ).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-15 03:24:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2266467"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were exposed to 10 nM Hg(II) in equilibrium with 250 nM glutathione.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mer transport system", "Hg uptake", "glutathione transport systems", "Escherichia coli strains", "Hg uptake mechanisms", "uptake rates", "Mer transport systems", "wildtype Bacillus subtilis strain", "results cast doubt"], "article_id"=>1545258, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Udonna Ndu", "Tamar Barkay", "Robert P. Mason", "Amina Traore Schartup", "Radwan Al-Farawati", "Jie Liu", "John R. Reinfelder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138333.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_glutathione_transporters_on_the_uptake_of_Hg_glutathione_complexes_in_E_coli_strains_with_and_without_a_glutathione_transport_system_/1545258", "title"=>"The effect of glutathione transporters on the uptake of Hg-glutathione complexes in <i>E</i>. <i>coli</i> strains with (□) and without (▲) a glutathione transport system.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-15 03:24:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2266469"], "description"=>"<p>The strains are <i>B</i>. <i>subtilis</i> 168X (○, wildtype), <i>B</i>. <i>subtilis</i> 1389X (□, strain without the cystine ATP binding cassette transport systems), <i>B</i>. <i>subtilis</i> 1534X (Δ, strain without cystine symporter) and <i>B</i>. <i>subtilis</i> 168 (♦, wildtype without <i>merA</i> used as a negative control). Triplicate cell suspensions (O.D. = 0.1) were exposed to 50 nM Hg(II) in M9 minimal medium for 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 hours.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mer transport system", "Hg uptake", "glutathione transport systems", "Escherichia coli strains", "Hg uptake mechanisms", "uptake rates", "Mer transport systems", "wildtype Bacillus subtilis strain", "results cast doubt"], "article_id"=>1545260, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Udonna Ndu", "Tamar Barkay", "Robert P. Mason", "Amina Traore Schartup", "Radwan Al-Farawati", "Jie Liu", "John R. Reinfelder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138333.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Uptake_of_Hg_II_reported_as_percent_initial_Hg_II_converted_to_purgeable_Hg_0_in_the_absence_A_or_presence_B_of_100_nM_cysteine_by_mer_A_transformed_strains_/1545260", "title"=>"Uptake of Hg(II) (reported as percent initial Hg(II) converted to purgeable Hg(0)) in the absence (A) or presence (B) of 100 nM cysteine by <i>mer</i>A-transformed strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-15 03:24:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2266470"], "description"=>"<p>The strains are <i>B</i>. <i>subtilis</i> 168X (○, wildtype), and <i>B</i>. <i>subtilis</i> 1534X (Δ, strain without cystine symporter). Triplicate cell suspensions (O.D. = 0.1) were exposed to 50 nM Hg(II) in M9 minimal medium for 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 hours.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mer transport system", "Hg uptake", "glutathione transport systems", "Escherichia coli strains", "Hg uptake mechanisms", "uptake rates", "Mer transport systems", "wildtype Bacillus subtilis strain", "results cast doubt"], "article_id"=>1545261, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Udonna Ndu", "Tamar Barkay", "Robert P. Mason", "Amina Traore Schartup", "Radwan Al-Farawati", "Jie Liu", "John R. Reinfelder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138333.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Uptake_of_Hg_II_reported_as_percent_initial_Hg_II_converted_to_purgeable_Hg_0_in_the_presence_of_10_M_cysteine_by_mer_A_transformed_strains_/1545261", "title"=>"Uptake of Hg(II) (reported as percent initial Hg(II) converted to purgeable Hg(0)) in the presence of 10 μM cysteine by <i>mer</i>A-transformed strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-15 03:24:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2266471"], "description"=>"<p>A list of strains used in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mer transport system", "Hg uptake", "glutathione transport systems", "Escherichia coli strains", "Hg uptake mechanisms", "uptake rates", "Mer transport systems", "wildtype Bacillus subtilis strain", "results cast doubt"], "article_id"=>1545262, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Udonna Ndu", "Tamar Barkay", "Robert P. Mason", "Amina Traore Schartup", "Radwan Al-Farawati", "Jie Liu", "John R. Reinfelder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138333.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_list_of_strains_used_in_this_study_/1545262", "title"=>"A list of strains used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-15 03:24:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2266472"], "description"=>"<p>Primers used in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mer transport system", "Hg uptake", "glutathione transport systems", "Escherichia coli strains", "Hg uptake mechanisms", "uptake rates", "Mer transport systems", "wildtype Bacillus subtilis strain", "results cast doubt"], "article_id"=>1545263, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Udonna Ndu", "Tamar Barkay", "Robert P. Mason", "Amina Traore Schartup", "Radwan Al-Farawati", "Jie Liu", "John R. Reinfelder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138333.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primers_used_in_this_study_/1545263", "title"=>"Primers used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-15 03:24:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2266473"], "description"=>"<p>PCR Cycling Parameters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mer transport system", "Hg uptake", "glutathione transport systems", "Escherichia coli strains", "Hg uptake mechanisms", "uptake rates", "Mer transport systems", "wildtype Bacillus subtilis strain", "results cast doubt"], "article_id"=>1545264, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Udonna Ndu", "Tamar Barkay", "Robert P. Mason", "Amina Traore Schartup", "Radwan Al-Farawati", "Jie Liu", "John R. Reinfelder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138333.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PCR_Cycling_Parameters_/1545264", "title"=>"PCR Cycling Parameters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-15 03:24:05"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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