The Odor Context Facilitates the Perception of Low-Intensity Facial Expressions of Emotion
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{"title"=>"The odor context facilitates the perception of low-intensity facial expressions of emotion", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Arnaud", "last_name"=>"Leleu", "scopus_author_id"=>"21733352200"}, {"first_name"=>"Caroline", "last_name"=>"Demily", "scopus_author_id"=>"20435321500"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicolas", "last_name"=>"Franck", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003904939"}, {"first_name"=>"Karine", "last_name"=>"Durand", "scopus_author_id"=>"56601238700"}, {"first_name"=>"Benoist", "last_name"=>"Schaal", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006820008"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean Yves", "last_name"=>"Baudouin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004293711"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0138656", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84946592921", "pui"=>"606742990", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"26390036", "sgr"=>"84946592921", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"2df53adb-bd2a-371e-9a75-d843d35550aa", "abstract"=>"It has been established that the recognition of facial expressions integrates contextual infor- mation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the influence of contextual odors. The participants were asked tomatch a target face varying in expression intensity with non-ambiguous expressive faces. Intensity variations in the target faces were designed by morphing expressive faces with neutral faces. In addition, the influence of verbal information was assessed by providing half the participants with the emotion names. Odor cues were manip- ulated by placing participants in a pleasant (strawberry), aversive (butyric acid), or no-odor control context. The results showed twomain effects of the odor context. First, the minimum amount of visual information required to perceive an expression was lowered when the odor context was emotionally congruent: happiness was correctly perceived at lower intensities in the faces displayed in the pleasant odor context, and the same phenomenon occurred for disgust and anger in the aversive odor context. Second, the odor context influenced the false perception of expressions that were not used in target faces, with distinct patterns according to the presence of emotion names. When emotion names were provided, the aversive odor context decreased intrusions for disgust ambiguous faces but increased them for anger. When the emotion names were not provided, this effect did not occur and the pleasant odor context elicited an overall increase in intrusions for negative expressions. We conclude that olfaction plays a role in the way facial expressions are perceived in inter- action with other contextual influences such as verbal information.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/odor-context-facilitates-perception-lowintensity-facial-expressions-emotion", "reader_count"=>48, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Design"=>1, "Psychology"=>23, "Chemistry"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>23}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2281655"], "description"=>"<p>Mean percentages of intrusions of other expressions according to Odor context, Expression continuum, and Group (error bars are standard errors of the means).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Odor Context Facilitates", "influence", "information", "participant", "odor context", "emotion names", "contextual", "aversive odor context", "expression"], "article_id"=>1551638, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Arnaud Leleu", "Caroline Demily", "Nicolas Franck", "Karine Durand", "Benoist Schaal", "Jean-Yves Baudouin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138656.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_intrusions_/1551638", "title"=>"Percentage of intrusions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-21 03:00:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2281653"], "description"=>"<p>Illustration of the morph continua (top) and of the display of ambiguous and non-ambiguous expressions during a single trial in the main experiment (bottom). Top: the expressive faces (smiling in the illustration) were morphed with the neutral faces in steps of 10%. Bottom: during a trial, the central large face was one of the morph levels (50% of the smiling face in the illustration; see the red rectangle in the continuum). The lateral smaller faces represent the extrema of all continua for the model (e.g., the “4. neutral” and “3. happiness” faces at the bottom were the faces in blue rectangles in the continuum). The participants were instructed to determine which lateral face the central one more resembled. For half the participants, the emotion names were removed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Odor Context Facilitates", "influence", "information", "participant", "odor context", "emotion names", "contextual", "aversive odor context", "expression"], "article_id"=>1551636, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Arnaud Leleu", "Caroline Demily", "Nicolas Franck", "Karine Durand", "Benoist Schaal", "Jean-Yves Baudouin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138656.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Face_stimuli_and_procedure_/1551636", "title"=>"Face stimuli and procedure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-21 03:00:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2281656", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2281657", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2281658", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2281659", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2281660"], "description"=>"<div><p>It has been established that the recognition of facial expressions integrates contextual information. In this study, we aimed to clarify the influence of contextual odors. The participants were asked to match a target face varying in expression intensity with non-ambiguous expressive faces. Intensity variations in the target faces were designed by morphing expressive faces with neutral faces. In addition, the influence of verbal information was assessed by providing half the participants with the emotion names. Odor cues were manipulated by placing participants in a pleasant (strawberry), aversive (butyric acid), or no-odor control context. The results showed two main effects of the odor context. First, the minimum amount of visual information required to perceive an expression was lowered when the odor context was emotionally congruent: happiness was correctly perceived at lower intensities in the faces displayed in the pleasant odor context, and the same phenomenon occurred for disgust and anger in the aversive odor context. Second, the odor context influenced the false perception of expressions that were not used in target faces, with distinct patterns according to the presence of emotion names. When emotion names were provided, the aversive odor context decreased intrusions for disgust ambiguous faces but increased them for anger. When the emotion names were not provided, this effect did not occur and the pleasant odor context elicited an overall increase in intrusions for negative expressions. We conclude that olfaction plays a role in the way facial expressions are perceived in interaction with other contextual influences such as verbal information.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Odor Context Facilitates", "influence", "information", "participant", "odor context", "emotion names", "contextual", "aversive odor context", "expression"], "article_id"=>1551639, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Arnaud Leleu", "Caroline Demily", "Nicolas Franck", "Karine Durand", "Benoist Schaal", "Jean-Yves Baudouin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138656.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138656.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138656.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138656.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138656.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Odor_Context_Facilitates_the_Perception_of_Low_Intensity_Facial_Expressions_of_Emotion_/1551639", "title"=>"The Odor Context Facilitates the Perception of Low-Intensity Facial Expressions of Emotion", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-09-21 03:00:43"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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