Intelligence May Moderate the Cognitive Profile of Patients with ASD
Publication Date
October 07, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Nanda Rommelse, Ilse Langerak, Jolanda Van Der Meer, Yvette De Bruijn, et al
Volume
10
Issue
10
Pages
e0138698
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138698
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0138698
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26444877
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4596821
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26444877
Web of Science
000362510600036
Scopus
84948650803
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/intelligence-moderate-cognitive-profile-patients-asd
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Intelligence may moderate the cognitive profile of patients with ASD", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nanda", "last_name"=>"Rommelse", "scopus_author_id"=>"14720195600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ilse", "last_name"=>"Langerak", "scopus_author_id"=>"56983087400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jolanda", "last_name"=>"Van Der Meer", "scopus_author_id"=>"55433100200"}, {"first_name"=>"Yvette", "last_name"=>"De Bruijn", "scopus_author_id"=>"55777687200"}, {"first_name"=>"Wouter", "last_name"=>"Staal", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603635034"}, {"first_name"=>"Anoek", "last_name"=>"Oerlemans", "scopus_author_id"=>"55197325400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jan", "last_name"=>"Buitelaar", "scopus_author_id"=>"26640178500"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"607096599", "sgr"=>"84948650803", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"26444877", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84948650803", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0138698", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"f6136014-5068-3d5c-90ec-4577810e829a", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The intelligence of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) varies considerably. The pattern of cognitive deficits associated with ASD may differ depending on intelligence. We aimed to study the absolute and relative severity of cognitive deficits in participants with ASD in relation to IQ.\\n\\nMETHODS: A total of 274 children (M age = 12.1, 68.6% boys) participated: 30 ASD and 22 controls in the below average Intelligence Quotient (IQ) group (IQ<85), 57 ASD and 54 controls in the average IQ group (85<IQ<115) and 41 ASD and 70 controls in the above average IQ group (IQ>115). Matching for age, sex, Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ) and VIQ-PIQ difference was performed. Speed and accuracy of social cognition, executive functioning, visual pattern recognition and basic processing speed were examined per domain and as a composite score.\\n\\nRESULTS: The composite score revealed a trend significant IQ by ASD interaction (significant when excluding the average IQ group). In absolute terms, participants with below average IQs performed poorest (regardless of diagnosis). However, in relative terms, above average intelligent participants with ASD showed the most substantial cognitive problems (particularly for social cognition, visual pattern recognition and verbal working memory) since this group differed significantly from the IQ-matched control group (p < .001), whereas this was not the case for below-average intelligence participants with ASD (p = .57).\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: In relative terms, cognitive deficits appear somewhat more severe in individuals with ASD and above average IQs compared to the below average IQ patients with ASD. Even though high IQ ASD individuals enjoy a certain protection from their higher IQ, they clearly demonstrate cognitive impairments that may be targeted in clinical assessment and treatment. Conversely, even though in absolute terms ASD patients with below average IQs were clearly more impaired than ASD patients with average to above average IQs, the differences in cognitive functioning between participants with and without ASD on the lower end of the IQ spectrum were less pronounced. Clinically this may imply that cognitive assessment and training of cognitive skills in below average intelligent children with ASD may be a less fruitful endeavour. These findings tentatively suggest that intelligence may act as a moderator in the cognitive presentation of ASD, with qualitatively different cognitive processes affected in patients at the high and low end of the IQ spectrum.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/intelligence-moderate-cognitive-profile-patients-asd", "reader_count"=>58, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>5, "Psychology"=>28, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>28}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2349031"], "description"=>"<p>Standardized z-score composed of the speed & accuracy measures of all task variables. Higher z-scores are indicative of better performance (faster performance and/or less errors).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["piq", "Autism Spectrum Disorder", "ASD BackgroundThe intelligence", "Full Scale IQ", "viq", "terms ASD patients", "IQ ASD individuals", "IQ spectrum", "fsiq", "pattern recognition"], "article_id"=>1567559, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nanda Rommelse", "Ilse Langerak", "Jolanda van der Meer", "Yvette de Bruijn", "Wouter Staal", "Anoek Oerlemans", "Jan Buitelaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138698.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_ASD_and_IQ_on_the_cognitive_composite_score_/1567559", "title"=>"The effect of ASD and IQ on the cognitive composite score.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:35:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2349032"], "description"=>"<p>Measures of speed are depicted. Please see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0138698#pone.0138698.s002\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Fig</a> for measures of accuracy.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["piq", "Autism Spectrum Disorder", "ASD BackgroundThe intelligence", "Full Scale IQ", "viq", "terms ASD patients", "IQ ASD individuals", "IQ spectrum", "fsiq", "pattern recognition"], "article_id"=>1567560, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nanda Rommelse", "Ilse Langerak", "Jolanda van der Meer", "Yvette de Bruijn", "Wouter Staal", "Anoek Oerlemans", "Jan Buitelaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138698.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_ASD_and_IQ_on_social_cognition_face_recognition_identification_of_facial_emotions_prosody_/1567560", "title"=>"The effect of ASD and IQ on social cognition (face recognition, identification of facial emotions, prosody).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:35:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2349033"], "description"=>"<p>Measures of speed are depicted for inhibition and set shifting. Please see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0138698#pone.0138698.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Fig</a> for measures of accuracy.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["piq", "Autism Spectrum Disorder", "ASD BackgroundThe intelligence", "Full Scale IQ", "viq", "terms ASD patients", "IQ ASD individuals", "IQ spectrum", "fsiq", "pattern recognition"], "article_id"=>1567561, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nanda Rommelse", "Ilse Langerak", "Jolanda van der Meer", "Yvette de Bruijn", "Wouter Staal", "Anoek Oerlemans", "Jan Buitelaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138698.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_ASD_and_IQ_on_executive_functioning_motor_inhibition_set_shifting_verbal_working_memory_visual_working_memory_/1567561", "title"=>"The effect of ASD and IQ on executive functioning (motor inhibition, set shifting, verbal working memory, visual working memory).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:35:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2349034"], "description"=>"<p>Measures of speed are depicted. Please see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0138698#pone.0138698.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S3 Fig</a> for measures of accuracy (visual pattern recognition) and variability (baseline speed).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["piq", "Autism Spectrum Disorder", "ASD BackgroundThe intelligence", "Full Scale IQ", "viq", "terms ASD patients", "IQ ASD individuals", "IQ spectrum", "fsiq", "pattern recognition"], "article_id"=>1567562, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nanda Rommelse", "Ilse Langerak", "Jolanda van der Meer", "Yvette de Bruijn", "Wouter Staal", "Anoek Oerlemans", "Jan Buitelaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138698.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_ASD_and_IQ_on_visual_pattern_recognition_and_baseline_speed_/1567562", "title"=>"The effect of ASD and IQ on visual pattern recognition and baseline speed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:35:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2349035"], "description"=>"<p>Note.</p><p><sup>a</sup> Social Communication Questionnaire.</p><p><sup>b</sup> Total IQ based on four subtests (Similarities, Block Patterns and Picture Completion, Vocabulary/Arithmetic).</p><p><sup>c</sup> Verbal IQ based on two subtests (Vocabulary/Arithmetic and Similarities).</p><p><sup>d</sup> Performance IQ based on two subtests (Block Patterns and Picture Completion).</p><p><sup>e</sup> Difference between verbal IQ and performance IQ; positive outcome means in favor of verbal IQ, negative outcome means in favor of performance IQ.</p><p>Participant characteristics.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["piq", "Autism Spectrum Disorder", "ASD BackgroundThe intelligence", "Full Scale IQ", "viq", "terms ASD patients", "IQ ASD individuals", "IQ spectrum", "fsiq", "pattern recognition"], "article_id"=>1567563, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nanda Rommelse", "Ilse Langerak", "Jolanda van der Meer", "Yvette de Bruijn", "Wouter Staal", "Anoek Oerlemans", "Jan Buitelaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138698.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Participant_characteristics_/1567563", "title"=>"Participant characteristics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:35:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2349036"], "description"=>"<p>Note.</p><p><sup>a</sup> Amsterdam Neuropsychological Test (ANT) battery. For a full description of these tasks, please see (Oerlemans <i>et al</i>., 2013).</p><p><sup>b</sup> Wechsler Intelligence Scales (Wechsler, 2000, 2002).</p><p><sup>c</sup> Given the highly basic level of this task, virtually no errors are made by participants. The main indices are mean reaction time as well as the variability of reaction times. Both indices are correlated but also convey distinct underlying processes and are influenced by partly distinct etiological factors (see for instance). Therefore, both indices were included in the analyses.</p><p>Description of the cognitive measures.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["piq", "Autism Spectrum Disorder", "ASD BackgroundThe intelligence", "Full Scale IQ", "viq", "terms ASD patients", "IQ ASD individuals", "IQ spectrum", "fsiq", "pattern recognition"], "article_id"=>1567564, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nanda Rommelse", "Ilse Langerak", "Jolanda van der Meer", "Yvette de Bruijn", "Wouter Staal", "Anoek Oerlemans", "Jan Buitelaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138698.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Description_of_the_cognitive_measures_/1567564", "title"=>"Description of the cognitive measures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:35:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2349037"], "description"=>"<p>Note: Comparisons are based on variance analyses with normalized dependent variables, with age and sex as covariates and ASD, IQ and ASD by IQ as factors. Findings printed in bold are significant after correction for multiple testing using the False Discovery rate procedure with a q-value setting of .05 (correction for 16 variables, correction separately for both main effects and the interaction effect). MRT = Mean reaction time; SDRT = Standard deviation of reaction time.</p><p>Means and standard deviations of the unstandardized cognitive task variables for below average, average and above average intelligent ASD and control children.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["piq", "Autism Spectrum Disorder", "ASD BackgroundThe intelligence", "Full Scale IQ", "viq", "terms ASD patients", "IQ ASD individuals", "IQ spectrum", "fsiq", "pattern recognition"], "article_id"=>1567565, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nanda Rommelse", "Ilse Langerak", "Jolanda van der Meer", "Yvette de Bruijn", "Wouter Staal", "Anoek Oerlemans", "Jan Buitelaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138698.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Means_and_standard_deviations_of_the_unstandardized_cognitive_task_variables_for_below_average_average_and_above_average_intelligent_ASD_and_control_children_/1567565", "title"=>"Means and standard deviations of the unstandardized cognitive task variables for below average, average and above average intelligent ASD and control children.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:35:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2349038", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2349039", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2349040", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2349041"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>The intelligence of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) varies considerably. The pattern of cognitive deficits associated with ASD may differ depending on intelligence. We aimed to study the absolute and relative severity of cognitive deficits in participants with ASD in relation to IQ.</p><p>Methods</p><p>A total of 274 children (<i>M</i> age = 12.1, 68.6% boys) participated: 30 ASD and 22 controls in the below average Intelligence Quotient (IQ) group (IQ<85), 57 ASD and 54 controls in the average IQ group (85115). Matching for age, sex, Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ) and VIQ-PIQ difference was performed. Speed and accuracy of social cognition, executive functioning, visual pattern recognition and basic processing speed were examined per domain and as a composite score.</p><p>Results</p><p>The composite score revealed a trend significant IQ by ASD interaction (significant when excluding the average IQ group). In <i>absolute</i> terms, participants with below average IQs performed poorest (regardless of diagnosis). However, in <i>relative</i> terms, above average intelligent participants with ASD showed the most substantial cognitive problems (particularly for social cognition, visual pattern recognition and verbal working memory) since this group differed significantly from the IQ-matched control group (<i>p</i> < .001), whereas this was not the case for below-average intelligence participants with ASD (p = .57).</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>In <i>relative</i> terms, cognitive deficits appear somewhat more severe in individuals with ASD and above average IQs compared to the below average IQ patients with ASD. Even though high IQ ASD individuals enjoy a certain protection from their higher IQ, they clearly demonstrate cognitive impairments that may be targeted in clinical assessment and treatment. Conversely, even though in <i>absolute</i> terms ASD patients with below average IQs were clearly more impaired than ASD patients with average to above average IQs, the differences in cognitive functioning between participants with and without ASD on the lower end of the IQ spectrum were less pronounced. Clinically this may imply that cognitive assessment and training of cognitive skills in below average intelligent children with ASD may be a less fruitful endeavour. These findings tentatively suggest that intelligence may act as a moderator in the cognitive presentation of ASD, with qualitatively different cognitive processes affected in patients at the high and low end of the IQ spectrum.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["piq", "Autism Spectrum Disorder", "ASD BackgroundThe intelligence", "Full Scale IQ", "viq", "terms ASD patients", "IQ ASD individuals", "IQ spectrum", "fsiq", "pattern recognition"], "article_id"=>1567566, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nanda Rommelse", "Ilse Langerak", "Jolanda van der Meer", "Yvette de Bruijn", "Wouter Staal", "Anoek Oerlemans", "Jan Buitelaar"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138698.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138698.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138698.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138698.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intelligence_May_Moderate_the_Cognitive_Profile_of_Patients_with_ASD_/1567566", "title"=>"Intelligence May Moderate the Cognitive Profile of Patients with ASD", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-10-07 03:35:07"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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