First Assessment of the Sex Ratio for an East Pacific Green Sea Turtle Foraging Aggregation: Validation and Application of a Testosterone ELISA
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{"title"=>"First assessment of the sex ratio for an east pacific green sea turtle foraging aggregation: Validation and application of a testosterone ELISA", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Camryn D.", "last_name"=>"Allen", "scopus_author_id"=>"55566265100"}, {"first_name"=>"Michelle N.", "last_name"=>"Robbins", "scopus_author_id"=>"56504669800"}, {"first_name"=>"Tomoharu", "last_name"=>"Eguchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"8381753500"}, {"first_name"=>"David W.", "last_name"=>"Owens", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401549992"}, {"first_name"=>"Anne B.", "last_name"=>"Meylan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004054374"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter A.", "last_name"=>"Meylan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006287254"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicholas M.", "last_name"=>"Kellar", "scopus_author_id"=>"12143859900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeffrey A.", "last_name"=>"Schwenter", "scopus_author_id"=>"17135974300"}, {"first_name"=>"Hendrik H.", "last_name"=>"Nollens", "scopus_author_id"=>"8660122000"}, {"first_name"=>"Robin A.", "last_name"=>"LeRoux", "scopus_author_id"=>"24438355200"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter H.", "last_name"=>"Dutton", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102771934"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeffrey A.", "last_name"=>"Seminoff", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602089815"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84949032814", "pmid"=>"26465620", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0138861", "pui"=>"607111809", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84949032814"}, "id"=>"67d0b12d-00a1-3625-ab1b-475bcbf22fc9", "abstract"=>"Determining sex ratios of endangered populations is important for wildlife management, particularly species subject to sex-specific threats or that exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination. Sea turtle sex is determined by incubation temperature and individuals lack external sex-based traits until sexual maturity. Previous research utilized serum/ plasma testosterone radioimmunoassays (RIA) to determine sex in immature/juvenile sea turtles. However, there has been a growing application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for wildlife endocrinology studies, but no study on sea turtles has compared the results of ELISA and RIA. This study provides the first sex ratio for a threatened East Pacific green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) foraging aggregation, a critical step for future management of this species. Here, we validate a testosterone ELISA and compare results between RIA and ELISA of duplicate samples. The ELISA demonstrated excellent correspondence with the RIA for providing testosterone concentrations for sex determination. Neither assay proved reliable for predicting the sex of reproductively active females with increased testosterone production. We then applied ELISA to examine the sex ratio of 69 green turtles foraging in San Diego Bay, California. Of 45 immature turtles sampled, sex could not be determined for three turtles because testosterone concentrations fell between the ranges for either sex (females: 4.1–113.1 pg/mL, males: 198.4–2,613.0 pg/mL) and these turtles were not subsequently recaptured to enable sex determination; using a Bayesian model to predict probabilities of turtle sex we predicted all three ‘unknowns’ were female (> 0.86). Additionally, the model assigned all turtles with their correct sex (if determined at recapture) with 100% accuracy. Results indicated a female bias (2.83F:1M) among all turtles in the aggregation; when focusing only on putative immature turtles the sex ratio was 3.5F:1M. With appropriate validation, ELISA sexing could be applied to other sea turtle species, and serve as a crucial conservation tool.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/first-assessment-sex-ratio-east-pacific-green-sea-turtle-foraging-aggregation-validation-application", "reader_count"=>63, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. 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Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2359485"], "description"=>"<p>Grey circles represent plasma samples collected from male turtles and black circles represent female turtles. No strong trend was found.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["East Pacific Green Sea Turtle Foraging Aggregation", "sex ratio", "Sex determination", "elisa", "sea turtle species", "San Diego Bay", "wildlife endocrinology studies", "ria", "sea turtle sex", "testosterone concentrations"], "article_id"=>1575227, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Camryn D. Allen", "Michelle N. Robbins", "Tomoharu Eguchi", "David W. Owens", "Anne B. Meylan", "Peter A. Meylan", "Nicholas M. Kellar", "Jeffrey A. Schwenter", "Hendrik H. Nollens", "Robin A. LeRoux", "Peter H. Dutton", "Jeffrey A. Seminoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138861.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bivariate_analysis_to_examine_if_the_date_day_of_year_of_plasma_sample_collection_influences_log_transformed_mean_testosterone_concentrations_pg_mL_obtained_from_putative_immature_and_adult_green_sea_turtles_which_forage_in_San_Diego_Bay_CA_/1575227", "title"=>"Bivariate analysis to examine if the date (day of year) of plasma sample collection influences log transformed mean testosterone concentrations (pg/mL) obtained from putative immature and adult green sea turtles which forage in San Diego Bay, CA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-14 04:17:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2359484"], "description"=>"<p>Note: some (n = 19) turtles were recaptured and are represented by multiple data points.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["East Pacific Green Sea Turtle Foraging Aggregation", "sex ratio", "Sex determination", "elisa", "sea turtle species", "San Diego Bay", "wildlife endocrinology studies", "ria", "sea turtle sex", "testosterone concentrations"], "article_id"=>1575226, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Camryn D. Allen", "Michelle N. Robbins", "Tomoharu Eguchi", "David W. Owens", "Anne B. Meylan", "Peter A. Meylan", "Nicholas M. Kellar", "Jeffrey A. Schwenter", "Hendrik H. Nollens", "Robin A. LeRoux", "Peter H. Dutton", "Jeffrey A. Seminoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138861.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_a_Bayesian_statistical_model_to_determine_the_probabilities_of_sex_for_45_immature_hollow_circles_and_24_putative_adult_filled_circles_green_sea_turtles_in_San_Diego_Bay_CA_based_on_mean_testosterone_concentration_pg_mL_/1575226", "title"=>"Results of a Bayesian statistical model to determine the probabilities of sex for 45 immature (hollow circles) and 24 putative adult (filled circles) green sea turtles in San Diego Bay, CA based on mean testosterone concentration (pg/mL).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-14 04:17:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2359479"], "description"=>"<p>San Diego Bay foraging area of East Pacific green sea turtles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["East Pacific Green Sea Turtle Foraging Aggregation", "sex ratio", "Sex determination", "elisa", "sea turtle species", "San Diego Bay", "wildlife endocrinology studies", "ria", "sea turtle sex", "testosterone concentrations"], "article_id"=>1575221, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Camryn D. Allen", "Michelle N. Robbins", "Tomoharu Eguchi", "David W. Owens", "Anne B. Meylan", "Peter A. Meylan", "Nicholas M. Kellar", "Jeffrey A. Schwenter", "Hendrik H. Nollens", "Robin A. LeRoux", "Peter H. Dutton", "Jeffrey A. Seminoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138861.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_San_Diego_Bay_foraging_area_of_East_Pacific_green_sea_turtles_/1575221", "title"=>"San Diego Bay foraging area of East Pacific green sea turtles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-14 04:17:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2359487"], "description"=>"<p>Hatchling sex ratios are from nesting beaches while immature and adult sex ratios are from foraging grounds. NA: not applicable. CCL: curved carapace length. *: 1,199 turtles sexed, but number of turtles for each life stage was not provided.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["East Pacific Green Sea Turtle Foraging Aggregation", "sex ratio", "Sex determination", "elisa", "sea turtle species", "San Diego Bay", "wildlife endocrinology studies", "ria", "sea turtle sex", "testosterone concentrations"], "article_id"=>1575229, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Camryn D. Allen", "Michelle N. Robbins", "Tomoharu Eguchi", "David W. Owens", "Anne B. Meylan", "Peter A. Meylan", "Nicholas M. Kellar", "Jeffrey A. Schwenter", "Hendrik H. Nollens", "Robin A. LeRoux", "Peter H. Dutton", "Jeffrey A. Seminoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138861.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sex_ratios_of_different_life_stages_hatchling_immature_and_adult_of_green_turtles_at_various_locations_worldwide_/1575229", "title"=>"Sex ratios of different life stages (hatchling, immature, and adult) of green turtles at various locations worldwide.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-10-14 04:17:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2359486"], "description"=>"<p>Note: multiple blood samples were collected from 19 turtles captured on several occasions and, therefore, the results of those additional samplings are integrated within the maturity state at the time of capture based on size [straight carapace length (SCL)].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["East Pacific Green Sea Turtle Foraging Aggregation", "sex ratio", "Sex determination", "elisa", "sea turtle species", "San Diego Bay", "wildlife endocrinology studies", "ria", "sea turtle sex", "testosterone concentrations"], "article_id"=>1575228, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Camryn D. Allen", "Michelle N. Robbins", "Tomoharu Eguchi", "David W. Owens", "Anne B. Meylan", "Peter A. Meylan", "Nicholas M. Kellar", "Jeffrey A. Schwenter", "Hendrik H. Nollens", "Robin A. LeRoux", "Peter H. Dutton", "Jeffrey A. Seminoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138861.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_177_standard_error_of_mean_SEM_and_range_testosterone_concentrations_pg_mL_of_plasma_samples_n_96_obtained_from_different_maturity_states_of_female_and_male_green_turtles_n_69_that_forage_in_San_Diego_Bay_CA_/1575228", "title"=>"Mean ± standard error of mean (SEM) and (range) testosterone concentrations (pg/mL) of plasma samples (n = 96) obtained from different maturity states of female and male green turtles (n = 69) that forage in San Diego Bay, CA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-10-14 04:17:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2359483"], "description"=>"<p>Filled circles indicate medians, vertical lines indicate 95% confidence intervals, and X symbols indicate observed values. Note: some turtles were recaptured and are represented by multiple data points. Three adult male turtles (IDs 7, 33, 39) have values outside of the 95% confidence intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["East Pacific Green Sea Turtle Foraging Aggregation", "sex ratio", "Sex determination", "elisa", "sea turtle species", "San Diego Bay", "wildlife endocrinology studies", "ria", "sea turtle sex", "testosterone concentrations"], "article_id"=>1575225, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Camryn D. Allen", "Michelle N. Robbins", "Tomoharu Eguchi", "David W. Owens", "Anne B. Meylan", "Peter A. Meylan", "Nicholas M. Kellar", "Jeffrey A. Schwenter", "Hendrik H. Nollens", "Robin A. LeRoux", "Peter H. Dutton", "Jeffrey A. Seminoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138861.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Posterior_simulations_of_mean_testosterone_concentrations_in_the_natural_logarithm_space_for_the_96_green_sea_turtle_plasma_samples_used_in_this_study_/1575225", "title"=>"Posterior simulations of mean testosterone concentrations (in the natural logarithm space) for the 96 green sea turtle plasma samples used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-14 04:17:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2359481"], "description"=>"<p>The high correlation coefficient (R = 0.97) indicates that the ELISA method is as a comparable method to RIA for determining immature green sea turtle sex. Note: the reference line (0 intercept and slope = 1.0) is illustrative of a perfect correlation</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["East Pacific Green Sea Turtle Foraging Aggregation", "sex ratio", "Sex determination", "elisa", "sea turtle species", "San Diego Bay", "wildlife endocrinology studies", "ria", "sea turtle sex", "testosterone concentrations"], "article_id"=>1575223, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Camryn D. Allen", "Michelle N. Robbins", "Tomoharu Eguchi", "David W. Owens", "Anne B. Meylan", "Peter A. Meylan", "Nicholas M. Kellar", "Jeffrey A. Schwenter", "Hendrik H. Nollens", "Robin A. LeRoux", "Peter H. Dutton", "Jeffrey A. Seminoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138861.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_correlation_analysis_between_radioimmunoassay_RIA_and_enzyme_linked_immunosorbent_assay_ELISA_testosterone_concentrations_of_duplicate_green_sea_turtle_plasma_samples_/1575223", "title"=>"A correlation analysis between radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testosterone concentrations of duplicate green sea turtle plasma samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-14 04:17:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2359482"], "description"=>"<p>Maturity was based on straight carapace length (> 90 cm) and sex was determined by testosterone levels and validated where possible by tail length, turtle size, and testosterone concentration upon future captures of the same individuals. Note: some turtles were recaptured and are represented by multiple data points</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["East Pacific Green Sea Turtle Foraging Aggregation", "sex ratio", "Sex determination", "elisa", "sea turtle species", "San Diego Bay", "wildlife endocrinology studies", "ria", "sea turtle sex", "testosterone concentrations"], "article_id"=>1575224, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Camryn D. Allen", "Michelle N. Robbins", "Tomoharu Eguchi", "David W. Owens", "Anne B. Meylan", "Peter A. Meylan", "Nicholas M. Kellar", "Jeffrey A. Schwenter", "Hendrik H. Nollens", "Robin A. LeRoux", "Peter H. Dutton", "Jeffrey A. Seminoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138861.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_testosterone_concentration_pg_mL_of_plasma_samples_n_96_collected_from_immature_and_putative_adult_green_sea_turtles_n_69_captured_in_San_Diego_Bay_CA_/1575224", "title"=>"Mean testosterone concentration (pg/mL) of plasma samples (n = 96) collected from immature and putative adult green sea turtles (n = 69) captured in San Diego Bay, CA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-14 04:17:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2359480"], "description"=>"<p>Serial dilutions of a pool of extracted green turtle plasma samples (hollow triangles) show parallelism with serial dilutions of testosterone standards (filled squares). Linearity suggests that the assay is measuring the same antigens in the plasma extracts as in the testosterone standards and, therefore, that the ELISA is valid for use with green sea turtle plasma extracts. % B/B<sub>0</sub> = % bound/maximum bound</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["East Pacific Green Sea Turtle Foraging Aggregation", "sex ratio", "Sex determination", "elisa", "sea turtle species", "San Diego Bay", "wildlife endocrinology studies", "ria", "sea turtle sex", "testosterone concentrations"], "article_id"=>1575222, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Camryn D. Allen", "Michelle N. Robbins", "Tomoharu Eguchi", "David W. Owens", "Anne B. Meylan", "Peter A. Meylan", "Nicholas M. Kellar", "Jeffrey A. Schwenter", "Hendrik H. Nollens", "Robin A. LeRoux", "Peter H. Dutton", "Jeffrey A. Seminoff"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138861.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_from_a_linearity_assessment_of_a_testosterone_enzyme_linked_immunosorbent_assay_ELISA_using_green_sea_turtle_plasma_extracts_six_immature_males_/1575222", "title"=>"Results from a linearity assessment of a testosterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using green sea turtle plasma extracts (six immature males).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-14 04:17:42"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"77", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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