Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol
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{"title"=>"Strategies to reduce tin and other metals in electronic cigarette aerosol", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Monique", "last_name"=>"Williams", "scopus_author_id"=>"37001231400"}, {"first_name"=>"An", "last_name"=>"To", "scopus_author_id"=>"56963688400"}, {"first_name"=>"Krassimir", "last_name"=>"Bozhilov", "scopus_author_id"=>"35560473800"}, {"first_name"=>"Prue", "last_name"=>"Talbot", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102670276"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"26406602", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0138933", "sgr"=>"84947245158", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84947245158", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"606879138"}, "id"=>"f0aa465e-8954-3d9a-bdd0-914d9bc707a5", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC) fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users.\\n\\nOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components.\\n\\nMETHODS: Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.\\n\\nRESULTS: All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/strategies-reduce-tin-other-metals-electronic-cigarette-aerosol", "reader_count"=>22, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2289945"], "description"=>"<p>(A) SEM of poor quality solder joint from brand B. (B) Elemental map showing brand B solder joints (1.0 mm) were made of tin. (C) SEM and elemental map showing a better quality solder joint from brand B. (D) SEM of brand C (2011) showing brazed wires (0.75 mm). (E-F) The wire joint from brand C (2011) showing copper and chromium in the brazed area. (G) SEM of the clamp used in brand C (2013) (1.65 mm). (H-I) Clamp joining wires in brand C (2013) is made of copper and zinc. (J) SEM of joined wires in brand D (1.41 mm). (K-L) Clamp in brand D is made of copper and zinc. Red arrow = joint between thick and thin wires.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emission spectroscopy.ResultsAll filaments", "brass clamps", "ec", "Electronic Cigarette Aerosol BackgroundMetals", "atomizer components.MethodsFour brands", "aerosol"], "article_id"=>1557357, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Monique Williams", "An To", "Krassimir Bozhilov", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138933.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Elemental_Analysis_of_the_joints_between_wires_in_EC_/1557357", "title"=>"Elemental Analysis of the joints between wires in EC.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-25 04:28:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2289944"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of brand B solder joint. (B-C) Thin filament (0.15 mm) from brand B containing nickel and chromium. (D-E) Thick wire (0.33 mm) from brand B containing copper coated with silver. (F) SEM of brand C (2011) showing brazed joint between thin and thick wires. (G-H) Thin wire (0.14 mm) from brand C (2011) containing nickel and chromium. (I-J) Thick wire (0.25 mm) from brand C (2011) containing copper coated with tin. (K) SEM of brand C (2013) wires joined by clamp. (L-M) Thin wire (0.14 mm) from brand C (2013) containing nickel and chromium. (N-O) Thick wire (0.35 mm) from brand C (2013) containing copper coated with silver. (P) SEM of brand D showing brass clamp surrounding the thin and thick wires. (Q-R) Thin wire (0.13 mm) coiled around the wick from brand D showing nickel and chromium. (S-T) Thick wire (0.27 mm) from brand D containing copper coated with silver. White arrow = thin wire; Orange arrow = thick wire.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emission spectroscopy.ResultsAll filaments", "brass clamps", "ec", "Electronic Cigarette Aerosol BackgroundMetals", "atomizer components.MethodsFour brands", "aerosol"], "article_id"=>1557356, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Monique Williams", "An To", "Krassimir Bozhilov", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138933.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Elemental_Analysis_of_the_EC_wires_/1557356", "title"=>"Elemental Analysis of the EC wires.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-25 04:28:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2289941"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Anatomy of a dissected cartomizer A1. (B) High magnification of the fibers from A1. (C) Anatomy of a dissected cartomizer A2. (D) High magnification of fibers from A2. (E) Micrograph of clamp joining wires in brand A1. (F) Scanning micrograph of clamp between thick wire and thin filament of A1 (2 mm). (G) Micrograph of clamp joining wires in cartomizer A2. (H) Scanning micrograph of clamp between thick wire and thin filament of A2 (2 mm).The thin wire (0.11 mm) from A1 was comprised of nickel (I) and chromium (J). The thick wire (0.25 mm) from A1 was comprised of copper (K) coated with silver (L). The thin wire (0.13 mm) from A2 was comprised of nickel (M) and chromium (N). Thick wire (0.25 mm) from A2 was comprised of copper (O) coated with silver (P). The clamp between the wires of A1 was comprised of mainly copper (Q) and zinc (R) (2 mm). The clamp between wires of A2 was nickel (S), copper (T), and zinc (U) (2 mm). White arrow = thin wire; Orange arrow = thick wire; Red arrow = the joints between the thick and thin wires; Green arrow = joint between wires.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emission spectroscopy.ResultsAll filaments", "brass clamps", "ec", "Electronic Cigarette Aerosol BackgroundMetals", "atomizer components.MethodsFour brands", "aerosol"], "article_id"=>1557353, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Monique Williams", "An To", "Krassimir Bozhilov", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138933.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cartomizer_anatomy_fibers_and_wire_to_wire_joints_in_brand_A_/1557353", "title"=>"Cartomizer anatomy, fibers, and wire-to-wire joints in brand A.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-25 04:28:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2289940"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Total concentration of six metals (tin, copper, zinc, silver, chromium, nickel). (B) Total concentration of five metals (copper, zinc, silver, chromium, nickel). Each bar is the average ± standard deviation of three cartomizers. Black arrows indicate samples that were below the limit of quantification.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emission spectroscopy.ResultsAll filaments", "brass clamps", "ec", "Electronic Cigarette Aerosol BackgroundMetals", "atomizer components.MethodsFour brands", "aerosol"], "article_id"=>1557352, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Monique Williams", "An To", "Krassimir Bozhilov", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138933.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_concentration_of_metals_in_aerosol_of_four_brands_of_EC_/1557352", "title"=>"Total concentration of metals in aerosol of four brands of EC.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-25 04:28:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2289947"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of Elements in EC Wires and Joints.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emission spectroscopy.ResultsAll filaments", "brass clamps", "ec", "Electronic Cigarette Aerosol BackgroundMetals", "atomizer components.MethodsFour brands", "aerosol"], "article_id"=>1557359, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Monique Williams", "An To", "Krassimir Bozhilov", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138933.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_Elements_in_EC_Wires_and_Joints_/1557359", "title"=>"Summary of Elements in EC Wires and Joints.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-25 04:28:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2289948"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC) fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users.</p><p>Objective</p><p>The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.</p><p>Results</p><p>All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emission spectroscopy.ResultsAll filaments", "brass clamps", "ec", "Electronic Cigarette Aerosol BackgroundMetals", "atomizer components.MethodsFour brands", "aerosol"], "article_id"=>1557360, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Monique Williams", "An To", "Krassimir Bozhilov", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138933", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Strategies_to_Reduce_Tin_and_Other_Metals_in_Electronic_Cigarette_Aerosol_/1557360", "title"=>"Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-25 04:28:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2289946"], "description"=>"<p>(A) SEM of joint between thick wire and air tube of brand B (2 mm). (B) Elemental map showing joint contains tin. (C) SEM of joint between thick wire and air tube in Brand C (2011) (2 mm). (D-E) Elemental maps showing this joint contains carbon and oxygen. (F) SEM of joint between thick wire and air tube for brand C (2013) (2 mm). (G-H) Elemental map of the joint contains carbon and oxygen. (I) SEM of the joint between thick wire and the battery (1.71 mm) for brand D. (J). Elemental map showing this joint is comprised of tin. Red arrowheads = the joints between the thick wire and the air tube or battery.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emission spectroscopy.ResultsAll filaments", "brass clamps", "ec", "Electronic Cigarette Aerosol BackgroundMetals", "atomizer components.MethodsFour brands", "aerosol"], "article_id"=>1557358, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Monique Williams", "An To", "Krassimir Bozhilov", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138933.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Elemental_analysis_of_joints_between_the_EC_wire_and_air_tube_or_EC_wire_and_battery_/1557358", "title"=>"Elemental analysis of joints between the EC wire and air tube or EC wire and battery.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-25 04:28:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2289943"], "description"=>"<p>The coiled thin wire (filament), wick, thick wire, air tube and battery are shown for the three brands.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emission spectroscopy.ResultsAll filaments", "brass clamps", "ec", "Electronic Cigarette Aerosol BackgroundMetals", "atomizer components.MethodsFour brands", "aerosol"], "article_id"=>1557355, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Monique Williams", "An To", "Krassimir Bozhilov", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138933.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anatomy_of_dissected_EC_atomizers_for_Brands_B_C_2013_and_D_/1557355", "title"=>"Anatomy of dissected EC atomizers for Brands B, C (2013), and D.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-25 04:28:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2289942"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Micrograph of the solder joint between the thick wire and the air tube in A1. (B) Elemental map showing this solder joint in A1 is tin. (C) Micrograph of the solder joint between the thick wire and the air tube in A2. (D) Elemental map showing the solder joint in A2 is tin. (E) Micrograph of the solder joint between the thick wire and the mouthpiece in A1. (F) Elemental map showing the solder joint in A1 is tin. (G) Micrograph of the solder joint between the thick wire and the mouthpiece in A2. (H) Elemental map showing the solder joint in A2 is tin. (I) Electron micrograph of the fibers from A1. Elemental maps showing A1 fibers contains tin (J), carbon (M), oxygen (N), and copper (O). (K) Electron micrograph of the fibers of A2. Elemental maps showing the A2 fibers contains carbon (P) and oxygen (Q) but lack tin (L). Spectrum showing the fibers/fluid from A1 contains carbon, oxygen, tin, and copper (R), while the fibers/fluid from A2 contains carbon and oxygen (S). Red arrows = the joints between the thick wire and the air tube.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emission spectroscopy.ResultsAll filaments", "brass clamps", "ec", "Electronic Cigarette Aerosol BackgroundMetals", "atomizer components.MethodsFour brands", "aerosol"], "article_id"=>1557354, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Monique Williams", "An To", "Krassimir Bozhilov", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138933.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Joints_between_the_thick_wire_and_air_tube_or_mouthpiece_and_Poly_fil_fibers_/1557354", "title"=>"Joints between the thick wire and air tube or mouthpiece and Poly-fil fibers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-25 04:28:33"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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