Using Agent-Based Modelling to Predict the Role of Wild Refugia in the Evolution of Resistance of Sea Lice to Chemotherapeutants
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{"title"=>"Using agent-based modelling to predict the role of wild refugia in the evolution of resistance of sea lice to chemotherapeutants", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gregor F.", "last_name"=>"McEwan", "scopus_author_id"=>"56992903700"}, {"first_name"=>"Maya L.", "last_name"=>"Groner", "scopus_author_id"=>"36494494400"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark D.", "last_name"=>"Fast", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004356912"}, {"first_name"=>"George", "last_name"=>"Gettinby", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005067544"}, {"first_name"=>"Crawford W.", "last_name"=>"Revie", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603700404"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"26485023", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84949309303", "pui"=>"607132792", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0139128", "sgr"=>"84949309303"}, "id"=>"abb138f8-3de0-3581-8a18-4bb2517f697d", "abstract"=>"A major challenge for Atlantic salmon farming in the northern hemisphere is infestation by the sea louse parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis. The most frequent method of controlling these sea louse infestations is through the use of chemical treatments. However, most major salmon farming areas have observed resistance to common chemotherapeutants. In terrestrial environments, many strategies employed to manage the evolution of resistance involve the use of refugia, where a portion of the population is left untreated to maintain susceptibility. While refugia have not been deliberately used in Atlantic salmon farming, wild salmon populations that migrate close to salmon farms may act as natural refugia. In this paper we describe an agent-based model that explores the influence of different sizes of wild salmon populations on resistance evolution in sea lice on a salmon farm. Using the model, we demonstrate that wild salmon populations can act as refugia that limit the evolution of resistance in the sea louse populations. Additionally, we demonstrate that an increase in the size of the population of wild salmon results in an increased effect in slowing the evolution of resistance. We explore the effect of a population fitness cost associated with resistance, finding that in some cases it substantially reduces the speed of evolution to chemical treatments.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/using-agentbased-modelling-predict-role-wild-refugia-evolution-resistance-sea-lice-chemotherapeutant", "reader_count"=>27, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367163"], "description"=>"<p>In some cases, we based these parameter values on research in the literature. These sources are noted in the table. In all other cases, the parameters are plausible values based on expert opinion within our group and are based on field and/or laboratory observations of different populations within the North Atlantic.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["salmon farming areas", "population fitness cost", "resistance", "refugia", "parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis", "chemical treatments", "evolution", "Atlantic salmon farming", "salmon populations"], "article_id"=>1581197, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Gregor F. McEwan", "Maya L. Groner", "Mark D. Fast", "George Gettinby", "Crawford W. Revie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_General_model_parameters_/1581197", "title"=>"General model parameters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-10-20 04:29:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367148"], "description"=>"<p>Male and female sea lice have different reproductive and mating behaviours as reflected in these statecharts for the sea louse agents. These two statecharts come into effect when the sea louse agents reach the <i>Adult</i> state in their lifecycle. Males search for female mates, and if there are no mature females available they will guard <i>Pre-Adult</i> females until they are mature. While searching, there is a chance of dispersing to a different host. Females extrude egg strings, which are attached to them until hatching. There is a separate state for the first gravid period to reflect lower fecundity in the first egg clutch.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["salmon farming areas", "population fitness cost", "resistance", "refugia", "parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis", "chemical treatments", "evolution", "Atlantic salmon farming", "salmon populations"], "article_id"=>1581182, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Gregor F. McEwan", "Maya L. Groner", "Mark D. Fast", "George Gettinby", "Crawford W. Revie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reproduction_and_mating_behaviour_statecharts_/1581182", "title"=>"Reproduction and mating behaviour statecharts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-20 04:29:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367159"], "description"=>"<p>Left chart shows the four scenarios with no fitness cost of resistance, the right chart shows the scenarios with a small fitness cost applied. Values are lice count per host per day averaged over the whole cycle (without fallow time) from 100 replications. Grey bars show 95% confidence interval. Note that the y-axis does not show zero. Proportions of wild salmon to farmed salmon for each scenario are shown in the legend, e.g. 1:10 is 1 wild for every 10 farmed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["salmon farming areas", "population fitness cost", "resistance", "refugia", "parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis", "chemical treatments", "evolution", "Atlantic salmon farming", "salmon populations"], "article_id"=>1581193, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Gregor F. McEwan", "Maya L. Groner", "Mark D. Fast", "George Gettinby", "Crawford W. Revie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_adult_sea_lice_per_host_per_day_for_each_cycle_/1581193", "title"=>"Average adult sea lice per host per day for each cycle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-20 04:29:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367156"], "description"=>"<p>The four abundance lines indicate mean adult sea lice counts from each of the four scenarios during the 10<sup>th</sup> and final cycle of the simulation. Each line is the mean from 100 simulation replications. Grey bars indicate the 95% confidence intervals. The sine curve shows the modelled temperature input (values shown on the right hand y-axis). Proportions of wild salmon to farmed salmon for each scenario are shown in the legend, e.g. 1:10 is 1 wild for every 10 farmed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["salmon farming areas", "population fitness cost", "resistance", "refugia", "parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis", "chemical treatments", "evolution", "Atlantic salmon farming", "salmon populations"], "article_id"=>1581190, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Gregor F. McEwan", "Maya L. Groner", "Mark D. Fast", "George Gettinby", "Crawford W. Revie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Abundance_of_adult_sea_louse_infestations_on_farmed_hosts_for_the_final_cycle_of_no_fitness_cost_scenarios_/1581190", "title"=>"Abundance of adult sea louse infestations on farmed hosts for the final cycle of no fitness cost scenarios.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-20 04:29:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367153"], "description"=>"<p>Each of the lines is the mean of 100 replications of the scenario involving no wild salmon, assuming a different fitness cost associated with resistance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["salmon farming areas", "population fitness cost", "resistance", "refugia", "parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis", "chemical treatments", "evolution", "Atlantic salmon farming", "salmon populations"], "article_id"=>1581187, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Gregor F. McEwan", "Maya L. Groner", "Mark D. Fast", "George Gettinby", "Crawford W. Revie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Resistance_level_outcomes_of_differing_levels_of_fitness_cost_/1581187", "title"=>"Resistance level outcomes of differing levels of fitness cost.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-20 04:29:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367167"], "description"=>"<p>In each scenario there are 1500 farmed salmon.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["salmon farming areas", "population fitness cost", "resistance", "refugia", "parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis", "chemical treatments", "evolution", "Atlantic salmon farming", "salmon populations"], "article_id"=>1581201, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Gregor F. McEwan", "Maya L. Groner", "Mark D. Fast", "George Gettinby", "Crawford W. Revie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_of_resistance_in_each_scenario_on_the_day_of_harvest_in_the_final_10th_cycle_/1581201", "title"=>"Proportion of resistance in each scenario on the day of harvest in the final (10th) cycle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-10-20 04:29:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367165"], "description"=>"<p>Where there is a range of values, an individual's rate parameter is sampled from a uniform distribution over that range. All values are from [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128#pone.0139128.ref024\" target=\"_blank\">24</a>]</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["salmon farming areas", "population fitness cost", "resistance", "refugia", "parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis", "chemical treatments", "evolution", "Atlantic salmon farming", "salmon populations"], "article_id"=>1581199, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Gregor F. McEwan", "Maya L. Groner", "Mark D. Fast", "George Gettinby", "Crawford W. Revie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Daily_sea_louse_mortality_rates_by_stage_sex_combination_/1581199", "title"=>"Daily sea louse mortality rates by stage-sex combination.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-10-20 04:29:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367166"], "description"=>"<p>β<sub>1</sub> and β<sub>2</sub> are sampled from normal distributions. λ is the parameter for an exponential distribution. Where there is a range of values, the value used is randomly sampled from a uniform distribution over that range. Time in the Nauplii stage does not involve the term from the exponential distribution [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128#pone.0139128.ref024\" target=\"_blank\">24</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["salmon farming areas", "population fitness cost", "resistance", "refugia", "parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis", "chemical treatments", "evolution", "Atlantic salmon farming", "salmon populations"], "article_id"=>1581200, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Gregor F. McEwan", "Maya L. Groner", "Mark D. Fast", "George Gettinby", "Crawford W. Revie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameters_for_calculating_developmental_times_for_different_stage_in_the_sea_louse_life_cycle_/1581200", "title"=>"Parameters for calculating developmental times for different stage in the sea louse life cycle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-10-20 04:29:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367164"], "description"=>"<p>Sea louse agent numbers on wild salmon agents when coming into contact with farm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["salmon farming areas", "population fitness cost", "resistance", "refugia", "parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis", "chemical treatments", "evolution", "Atlantic salmon farming", "salmon populations"], "article_id"=>1581198, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Gregor F. McEwan", "Maya L. Groner", "Mark D. Fast", "George Gettinby", "Crawford W. Revie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sea_louse_agent_numbers_on_wild_salmon_agents_when_coming_into_contact_with_farm_/1581198", "title"=>"Sea louse agent numbers on wild salmon agents when coming into contact with farm.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-10-20 04:29:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367161"], "description"=>"<p>The values shown are the average number of treatments for a cycle from 100 replications. Grey bars show 95% confidence intervals. Each line shows a different scenario. There is no fitness cost of resistance in these scenarios. Proportions of wild salmon to farmed salmon for each scenario are shown in the legend, e.g. 1:10 is 1 wild for every 10 farmed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["salmon farming areas", "population fitness cost", "resistance", "refugia", "parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis", "chemical treatments", "evolution", "Atlantic salmon farming", "salmon populations"], "article_id"=>1581195, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Gregor F. McEwan", "Maya L. Groner", "Mark D. Fast", "George Gettinby", "Crawford W. Revie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_Treatments_for_each_cycle_/1581195", "title"=>"Number of Treatments for each cycle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-20 04:29:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367146"], "description"=>"<p>The statechart used in the model to track the lifecycle of the sea louse agents. During the <i>planktonic</i> stage the sea louse lives in the water column. During the <i>Chalimus</i>, <i>Pre-Adult</i>, and <i>Adult</i> stages, the sea louse is attached to a salmon host. Each stage has a different mortality rate. Treatments in the model only apply to sea lice in the attached stages.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["salmon farming areas", "population fitness cost", "resistance", "refugia", "parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis", "chemical treatments", "evolution", "Atlantic salmon farming", "salmon populations"], "article_id"=>1581180, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Gregor F. McEwan", "Maya L. Groner", "Mark D. Fast", "George Gettinby", "Crawford W. Revie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modelled_lifecycle_of_L_salmonis_/1581180", "title"=>"Modelled lifecycle of <i>L</i>. <i>salmonis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-20 04:29:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367155"], "description"=>"<p>Each line is the mean of 100 replications of the <i>equal</i> scenario with a different probability of copepods changing between farm and wild communities when they attach to a host. The bars show 95% confidence intervals around the means. There is no cost of resistance in these scenarios.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["salmon farming areas", "population fitness cost", "resistance", "refugia", "parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis", "chemical treatments", "evolution", "Atlantic salmon farming", "salmon populations"], "article_id"=>1581189, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Gregor F. McEwan", "Maya L. Groner", "Mark D. Fast", "George Gettinby", "Crawford W. Revie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Evolution_of_Proportion_of_Resistance_for_different_Probabilities_of_Copepods_changing_Community_/1581189", "title"=>"The Evolution of Proportion of Resistance for different Probabilities of Copepods changing Community.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-20 04:29:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367172", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367173", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367174"], "description"=>"<div><p>A major challenge for Atlantic salmon farming in the northern hemisphere is infestation by the sea louse parasite <i>Lepeophtheirus salmonis</i>. The most frequent method of controlling these sea louse infestations is through the use of chemical treatments. However, most major salmon farming areas have observed resistance to common chemotherapeutants. In terrestrial environments, many strategies employed to manage the evolution of resistance involve the use of refugia, where a portion of the population is left untreated to maintain susceptibility. While refugia have not been deliberately used in Atlantic salmon farming, wild salmon populations that migrate close to salmon farms may act as natural refugia. In this paper we describe an agent-based model that explores the influence of different sizes of wild salmon populations on resistance evolution in sea lice on a salmon farm. Using the model, we demonstrate that wild salmon populations can act as refugia that limit the evolution of resistance in the sea louse populations. Additionally, we demonstrate that an increase in the size of the population of wild salmon results in an increased effect in slowing the evolution of resistance. We explore the effect of a population fitness cost associated with resistance, finding that in some cases it substantially reduces the speed of evolution to chemical treatments.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["salmon farming areas", "population fitness cost", "resistance", "refugia", "parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis", "chemical treatments", "evolution", "Atlantic salmon farming", "salmon populations"], "article_id"=>1581206, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Gregor F. McEwan", "Maya L. Groner", "Mark D. Fast", "George Gettinby", "Crawford W. Revie"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Using_Agent_Based_Modelling_to_Predict_the_Role_of_Wild_Refugia_in_the_Evolution_of_Resistance_of_Sea_Lice_to_Chemotherapeutants_/1581206", "title"=>"Using Agent-Based Modelling to Predict the Role of Wild Refugia in the Evolution of Resistance of Sea Lice to Chemotherapeutants", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-10-20 04:29:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2367151"], "description"=>"<p>Top chart shows scenarios with no fitness cost and the bottom chart shows scenarios with a fitness cost of 1% per resistant allele. Lines show mean proportions of resistant alleles in the farm sea louse population based on 100 simulation replications. Grey bars indicate 95% confidence intervals. The white vertical “gaps” represent fallow periods. Proportions of wild salmon to farmed salmon for each scenario are shown in the legend, e.g. 1:10 is 1 wild for every 10 farmed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["salmon farming areas", "population fitness cost", "resistance", "refugia", "parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis", "chemical treatments", "evolution", "Atlantic salmon farming", "salmon populations"], "article_id"=>1581185, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Gregor F. McEwan", "Maya L. Groner", "Mark D. Fast", "George Gettinby", "Crawford W. Revie"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139128.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_of_resistant_alleles_in_sea_louse_agent_population_for_all_scenarios_/1581185", "title"=>"Proportion of resistant alleles in sea louse agent population for all scenarios.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-20 04:29:18"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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