A Meta-Analytic Review of Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image
Publication Date
September 29, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Jessica M. Alleva, Paschal Sheeran, Thomas L. Webb, Carolien Martijn, et al
Volume
10
Issue
9
Pages
e0139177
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0139177
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26418470
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4587797
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26418470
Web of Science
000362171400057
Scopus
84947967111
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/metaanalytic-review-standalone-interventions-improve-body-image
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"A meta-analytic review of stand-alone interventions to improve body image", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jessica M.", "last_name"=>"Alleva", "scopus_author_id"=>"55752419100"}, {"first_name"=>"Paschal", "last_name"=>"Sheeran", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005023452"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas L.", "last_name"=>"Webb", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202490578"}, {"first_name"=>"Carolien", "last_name"=>"Martijn", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801366406"}, {"first_name"=>"Eleanor", "last_name"=>"Miles", "scopus_author_id"=>"23489561000"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"607001016", "sgr"=>"84947967111", "pmid"=>"26418470", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84947967111", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0139177", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"2c73ba81-2a6c-3193-b6fb-e6a2cb6290af", "abstract"=>"OBJECTIVE Numerous stand-alone interventions to improve body image have been developed. The present review used meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of such interventions, and to identify the specific change techniques that lead to improvement in body image. METHODS The inclusion criteria were that (a) the intervention was stand-alone (i.e., solely focused on improving body image), (b) a control group was used, (c) participants were randomly assigned to conditions, and (d) at least one pretest and one posttest measure of body image was taken. Effect sizes were meta-analysed and moderator analyses were conducted. A taxonomy of 48 change techniques used in interventions targeted at body image was developed; all interventions were coded using this taxonomy. RESULTS The literature search identified 62 tests of interventions (N = 3,846). Interventions produced a small-to-medium improvement in body image (d+ = 0.38), a small-to-medium reduction in beauty ideal internalisation (d+ = -0.37), and a large reduction in social comparison tendencies (d+ = -0.72). However, the effect size for body image was inflated by bias both within and across studies, and was reliable but of small magnitude once corrections for bias were applied. Effect sizes for the other outcomes were no longer reliable once corrections for bias were applied. Several features of the sample, intervention, and methodology moderated intervention effects. Twelve change techniques were associated with improvements in body image, and three techniques were contra-indicated. CONCLUSIONS The findings show that interventions engender only small improvements in body image, and underline the need for large-scale, high-quality trials in this area. The review identifies effective techniques that could be deployed in future interventions.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/metaanalytic-review-standalone-interventions-improve-body-image", "reader_count"=>81, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>11, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Psychology"=>43, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>11}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>43}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292353"], "description"=>"<p>Flow of Studies through the Current Meta-Analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intervention", "Body Image ObjectiveNumerous", "body image.MethodsThe inclusion criteria", "body image", "change techniques", "48 change techniques", "taxonomy.ResultsThe literature search", "effect sizes"], "article_id"=>1559269, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jessica M. Alleva", "Paschal Sheeran", "Thomas L. Webb", "Carolien Martijn", "Eleanor Miles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_of_Studies_through_the_Current_Meta_Analysis_/1559269", "title"=>"Flow of Studies through the Current Meta-Analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 02:56:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292354"], "description"=>"<p>s.e. = standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intervention", "Body Image ObjectiveNumerous", "body image.MethodsThe inclusion criteria", "body image", "change techniques", "48 change techniques", "taxonomy.ResultsThe literature search", "effect sizes"], "article_id"=>1559270, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jessica M. Alleva", "Paschal Sheeran", "Thomas L. Webb", "Carolien Martijn", "Eleanor Miles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Funnel_Plot_of_Effect_Sizes_d_for_Body_Image_/1559270", "title"=>"Funnel Plot of Effect Sizes (d<sub>+</sub>) for Body Image.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 02:56:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292355"], "description"=>"<p>Coders are encouraged to make note of any change techniques that do not fall into any of these categories.</p><p>Change Techniques Used in Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intervention", "Body Image ObjectiveNumerous", "body image.MethodsThe inclusion criteria", "body image", "change techniques", "48 change techniques", "taxonomy.ResultsThe literature search", "effect sizes"], "article_id"=>1559271, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jessica M. Alleva", "Paschal Sheeran", "Thomas L. Webb", "Carolien Martijn", "Eleanor Miles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Change_Techniques_Used_in_Stand_Alone_Interventions_to_Improve_Body_Image_/1559271", "title"=>"Change Techniques Used in Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 02:56:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292356"], "description"=>"<p><i>N</i><sub>c</sub> = Number of participants in the control condition; <i>N</i><sub><i>e</i></sub> = Number of participants in the experimental condition; <i>d</i><sub>+</sub> = sample-weighted average effect size; <i>95% CI</i> = 95% confidence interval.</p><p><sup>a</sup> Females.</p><p><sup>b</sup> Males.</p><p><sup>c</sup> Dance aerobics.</p><p><sup>d</sup> Step aerobics.</p><p><sup>e</sup> Video Intervention 1.</p><p><sup>f</sup> Video Intervention 2.</p><p><sup>g</sup> Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT).</p><p><sup>h</sup> Fitness training intervention.</p><p><sup>i</sup> Gratitude diaries.</p><p><sup>j</sup> Monitoring and restructuring.</p><p><sup>k</sup> High-risk women.</p><p><sup>l</sup> Low-risk women.</p><p><sup>m</sup> 3<sup>rd</sup> and 4<sup>th</sup> grade students.</p><p><sup>n</sup> 5<sup>th</sup> and 6<sup>th</sup> grade students.</p><p><sup>o</sup> Cycling.</p><p><sup>p</sup> Running.</p><p><sup>q</sup> Swimming.</p><p><sup>r</sup> Face-to-face intervention.</p><p><sup>s</sup> Internet intervention.</p><p><sup>t</sup> Feminist intervention.</p><p><sup>u</sup> Psychoeducation intervention.</p><p><sup>v</sup> Rosen, Orosan, & Reiter [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref076\" target=\"_blank\">76</a>].</p><p><sup>w</sup> Rosen, Reiter, & Orosan [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref077\" target=\"_blank\">77</a>].</p><p><sup>x</sup> Cognitive therapy.</p><p><sup>y</sup> To accommodate testing for two experimental conditions, the sample size of the control group has been divided by two.</p><p>Measures of body image are coded as follows: 1 = Adult Body Satisfaction Questionnaire (ABSQ, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref078\" target=\"_blank\">78</a>]): Satisfaction with Physical Appearance Subscale; 2 = Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref079\" target=\"_blank\">79</a>]); 3 = Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref080\" target=\"_blank\">80</a>]); 4 = Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref081\" target=\"_blank\">81</a>]); 5 = Body Esteem Scale (BES, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref082\" target=\"_blank\">82</a>]); 6 = BES [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref082\" target=\"_blank\">82</a>]: Sexual Attractiveness Subscale; 7 = Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BES, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref083\" target=\"_blank\">83</a>]): Appearance Body Esteem Subscale; 8 = BES [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref083\" target=\"_blank\">83</a>]: Weight Body Esteem Subscale; 9 = Body Esteem Scale for Children [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref084\" target=\"_blank\">84</a>]; 10 = Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref085\" target=\"_blank\">85</a>]); 11 = Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire (BIDQ, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref086\" target=\"_blank\">86</a>]); 12 = Body Image States Scale (BISS, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref087\" target=\"_blank\">87</a>]); 13 = Body Parts Dissatisfaction Scale (BPDS, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref088\" target=\"_blank\">88</a>]): Number of Body Parts Wished Smaller; 14 = BPDS [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref088\" target=\"_blank\">88</a>]: Number of Body Parts with Which Content; 15 = Body Parts Satisfaction Scale (BPSS, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref089\" target=\"_blank\">89</a>]): Body Parts Satisfaction Subscale; 16 = BPSS [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref089\" target=\"_blank\">89</a>]: Overall Appearance Satisfaction Subscale; 17 = Body Satisfaction and Body Change Inventory (BSBCI, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref090\" target=\"_blank\">90</a>]): Body Satisfaction Subscale; 18 = Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref091\" target=\"_blank\">91</a>]); 19 = Body Shape Questionnaire- Short Form (BSQ-SF, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref092\" target=\"_blank\">92</a>]); 20 = Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (BSRQ, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref093\" target=\"_blank\">93</a>]): Appearance Evaluation Subscale; 21 = Berscheid, Walster, and Bohrnstedt Body Image Questionnaire [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref089\" target=\"_blank\">89</a>]; 22 = Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref094\" target=\"_blank\">94</a>]); 23 = Child and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile (CY-PSPP, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref095\" target=\"_blank\">95</a>]): Body Attractiveness Subscale; 24 = Eating Disorders Inventory–II (EDI-II, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref096\" target=\"_blank\">96</a>]): Body Dissatisfaction Subscale; 25 = Figure Rating Scale (FRS, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref097\" target=\"_blank\">97</a>]); 26 = Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref098\" target=\"_blank\">98</a>]): Appearance Evaluation Subscale; 27 = MBSRQ [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref098\" target=\"_blank\">98</a>]: Body Areas Satisfaction Subscale; 28 = Physical Appearance State and Trait Anxiety Scale (PASTAS, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref099\" target=\"_blank\">99</a>]: State Nonweight Subscale; 29 = PASTAS [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref099\" target=\"_blank\">99</a>]: State Weight Subscale; 30 = PASTAS [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref099\" target=\"_blank\">99</a>]: Trait Weight Subscale; 31 = Marsh Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref100\" target=\"_blank\">100</a>]); 32 = Physical Self-Perceptions-Inventory (PSPP, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref101\" target=\"_blank\">101</a>]): Bodily Attractiveness Subscale; 33 = Physical Self-Concept Scale (PSS, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref102\" target=\"_blank\">102</a>]): Perception of Appreciation of Physical Appearance Subscale; 34 = PSS [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref102\" target=\"_blank\">102</a>]: Perception of Physical Appearance Subscale; 35 = Satisfaction with Body Parts Scale (SBPS, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref089\" target=\"_blank\">89</a>]); 36 = Self-Report Behavioral Avoidance Questionnaire [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref103\" target=\"_blank\">103</a>]; 37 = Self-reported current weight = self-reported ideal weight; 38 = Situational Inventory of Body Image Dysphoria–Short Form (SIBID-S, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref104\" target=\"_blank\">104</a>]); 39 = Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref105\" target=\"_blank\">105</a>]); 40 = Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref106\" target=\"_blank\">106</a>]: Physical Appearance Subscale; 41 = State Self-Esteem Scale (SSES, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref107\" target=\"_blank\">107</a>]): Appearance Subscale; 42 = Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) to assess body satisfaction; 43 = VAS to assess feelings of beauty; 44 = VAS to assess muscle dissatisfaction [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref108\" target=\"_blank\">108</a>]; 45 = VAS to assess weight dissatisfaction [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref108\" target=\"_blank\">108</a>].</p><p>Measures of beauty ideal internalisation are coded as follows: 1 = Questions about desire to look like TV and pop stars; 2 = Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref109\" target=\"_blank\">109</a>]): Internalization of the Thin Ideal Subscale; 3 = Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-III (SATAQ-III, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref110\" target=\"_blank\">110</a>]): General Internalization Subscale.</p><p>Measures of social comparison tendencies are coded as follows: 1 = Body Comparisons Scale (BCS, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref111\" target=\"_blank\">111</a>]); 2 = Physical Appearance Beliefs Test (PABT, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref112\" target=\"_blank\">112</a>]): Social Comparisons Subscale; 3 = Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS, [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177#pone.0139177.ref113\" target=\"_blank\">113</a>]).</p><p>Effect Sizes for Studies Included in the Meta-Analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intervention", "Body Image ObjectiveNumerous", "body image.MethodsThe inclusion criteria", "body image", "change techniques", "48 change techniques", "taxonomy.ResultsThe literature search", "effect sizes"], "article_id"=>1559272, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jessica M. Alleva", "Paschal Sheeran", "Thomas L. Webb", "Carolien Martijn", "Eleanor Miles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_Sizes_for_Studies_Included_in_the_Meta_Analysis_/1559272", "title"=>"Effect Sizes for Studies Included in the Meta-Analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 02:56:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292357"], "description"=>"<p><i>k</i> = number of effect sizes; <i>d</i><sub><i>+</i></sub> = sample-weighted average effect size; <i>95% CI</i> = 95% confidence interval; <i>Q</i> = homogeneity <i>Q</i> statistic; <i>I</i><sup><i>2</i></sup> = homogeneity <i>I</i><sup><i>2</i></sup> statistic.</p><p>*** <i>p</i> < 0.001.</p><p>Overall Effect of Interventions on Outcomes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intervention", "Body Image ObjectiveNumerous", "body image.MethodsThe inclusion criteria", "body image", "change techniques", "48 change techniques", "taxonomy.ResultsThe literature search", "effect sizes"], "article_id"=>1559273, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jessica M. Alleva", "Paschal Sheeran", "Thomas L. Webb", "Carolien Martijn", "Eleanor Miles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overall_Effect_of_Interventions_on_Outcomes_/1559273", "title"=>"Overall Effect of Interventions on Outcomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 02:56:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292358"], "description"=>"<p><i>d</i><sub><i>+</i></sub> = sample-weighted average effect size; <i>95% CI</i> = 95% confidence interval; <i>k</i> = number of effect sizes; <i>Q</i> = homogeneity <i>Q</i> statistic; β = beta from Egger’s regression; <i>SE</i> = standard error; NA = not applicable (because Egger’s regression was not significant or because there were too few tests to permit computation of average effect size).</p><p>* <i>p</i> < 0.05</p><p>*** <i>p</i> < 0.001.</p><p>Tests for Publication Bias and Small Sample Bias.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intervention", "Body Image ObjectiveNumerous", "body image.MethodsThe inclusion criteria", "body image", "change techniques", "48 change techniques", "taxonomy.ResultsThe literature search", "effect sizes"], "article_id"=>1559274, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jessica M. Alleva", "Paschal Sheeran", "Thomas L. Webb", "Carolien Martijn", "Eleanor Miles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tests_for_Publication_Bias_and_Small_Sample_Bias_/1559274", "title"=>"Tests for Publication Bias and Small Sample Bias.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 02:56:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292359"], "description"=>"<p><i>k</i> = number of effect sizes; β = beta from metaregression; <i>SE</i> = standard error; <i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = percentage of variance explained by the change technique.</p><p><sup>a</sup> A 0.5 results from a study where the sample size for the control condition was halved (to accommodate comparison with two experimental conditions/interventions) and where the change technique was used in one intervention but not the other.</p><p>* <i>p</i> < 0.05</p><p>** <i>p</i> < 0.01</p><p>*** <i>p</i> < 0.001.</p><p>Effect of Specific Change Techniques on Body Image.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intervention", "Body Image ObjectiveNumerous", "body image.MethodsThe inclusion criteria", "body image", "change techniques", "48 change techniques", "taxonomy.ResultsThe literature search", "effect sizes"], "article_id"=>1559275, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jessica M. Alleva", "Paschal Sheeran", "Thomas L. Webb", "Carolien Martijn", "Eleanor Miles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_Specific_Change_Techniques_on_Body_Image_/1559275", "title"=>"Effect of Specific Change Techniques on Body Image.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 02:56:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292360"], "description"=>"<p><i>k</i> = number of effect sizes; <i>d</i><sub><i>+</i></sub> = sample-weighted average effect size; <i>95% CI</i> = 95% confidence interval; <i>Q</i> = homogeneity <i>Q</i> statistic; <i>I</i><sup><i>2</i></sup> = homogeneity <i>I</i><sup><i>2</i></sup> statistic.</p><p>* <i>p</i> < 0.05</p><p>*** <i>p</i> < 0.001.</p><p>Moderators of Intervention Effects on Body Image.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intervention", "Body Image ObjectiveNumerous", "body image.MethodsThe inclusion criteria", "body image", "change techniques", "48 change techniques", "taxonomy.ResultsThe literature search", "effect sizes"], "article_id"=>1559276, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jessica M. Alleva", "Paschal Sheeran", "Thomas L. Webb", "Carolien Martijn", "Eleanor Miles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Moderators_of_Intervention_Effects_on_Body_Image_/1559276", "title"=>"Moderators of Intervention Effects on Body Image.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 02:56:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292361", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292362", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292363", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292364", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292365", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2292366"], "description"=>"<div><p>Objective</p><p>Numerous stand-alone interventions to improve body image have been developed. The present review used meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of such interventions, and to identify the <i>specific change techniques</i> that lead to improvement in body image.</p><p>Methods</p><p>The inclusion criteria were that (a) the intervention was stand-alone (i.e., solely focused on improving body image), (b) a control group was used, (c) participants were randomly assigned to conditions, and (d) at least one pretest and one posttest measure of body image was taken. Effect sizes were meta-analysed and moderator analyses were conducted. A taxonomy of 48 change techniques used in interventions targeted at body image was developed; all interventions were coded using this taxonomy.</p><p>Results</p><p>The literature search identified 62 tests of interventions (<i>N</i> = 3,846). Interventions produced a small-to-medium improvement in body image (<i>d</i><sub>+</sub> = 0.38), a small-to-medium reduction in beauty ideal internalisation (<i>d</i><sub>+</sub> = -0.37), and a large reduction in social comparison tendencies (<i>d</i><sub>+</sub> = -0.72). However, the effect size for body image was inflated by bias both within and across studies, and was reliable but of small magnitude once corrections for bias were applied. Effect sizes for the other outcomes were no longer reliable once corrections for bias were applied. Several features of the sample, intervention, and methodology moderated intervention effects. Twelve change techniques were associated with improvements in body image, and three techniques were contra-indicated.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>The findings show that interventions engender only small improvements in body image, and underline the need for large-scale, high-quality trials in this area. The review identifies effective techniques that could be deployed in future interventions.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intervention", "Body Image ObjectiveNumerous", "body image.MethodsThe inclusion criteria", "body image", "change techniques", "48 change techniques", "taxonomy.ResultsThe literature search", "effect sizes"], "article_id"=>1559277, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jessica M. Alleva", "Paschal Sheeran", "Thomas L. Webb", "Carolien Martijn", "Eleanor Miles"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139177.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Meta_Analytic_Review_of_Stand_Alone_Interventions_to_Improve_Body_Image_/1559277", "title"=>"A Meta-Analytic Review of Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-09-29 02:56:20"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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