Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Levels and Cysteamine Supplementation on Protein Synthetic and Degradative Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Finishing Pigs
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{"title"=>"Effects of dietary crude protein levels and cysteamine supplementation on protein synthetic and degradative signaling in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ping", "last_name"=>"Zhou", "scopus_author_id"=>"56367096500"}, {"first_name"=>"Lin", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"53864471600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jiaolong", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"56267892300"}, {"first_name"=>"Yiqiu", "last_name"=>"Luo", "scopus_author_id"=>"56970017400"}, {"first_name"=>"Bolin", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56701101900"}, {"first_name"=>"Shen", "last_name"=>"Xing", "scopus_author_id"=>"56701947000"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuping", "last_name"=>"Zhu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56969846700"}, {"first_name"=>"Hui", "last_name"=>"Sun", "scopus_author_id"=>"56701223800"}, {"first_name"=>"Feng", "last_name"=>"Gao", "scopus_author_id"=>"54417209500"}, {"first_name"=>"Guanghong", "last_name"=>"Zhou", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403685804"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"26422009", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0139393", "sgr"=>"84947775231", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84947775231", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"606955602"}, "id"=>"e8f210df-131d-33a9-bdf8-f1789a6344b4", "abstract"=>"Dietary protein levels and cysteamine (CS) supplementation can affect growth performance and protein metabolism of pigs. However, the influence of dietary protein intake on the growth response of CS-treated pigs is unclear, and the mechanisms involved in protein metabolism remain unknown. Hence, we investigated the interactions between dietary protein levels and CS supplementation and the effects of dietary crude protein levels and CS supplementation on protein synthetic and degradative signaling in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs. One hundred twenty barrows (65.84 ± 0.61 kg) were allocated to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with five replicates of six pigs each. The primary variations were dietary crude protein (CP) levels (14% or 10%) and CS supplemental levels (0 or 700 mg/kg). The low-protein (LP) diets (10% CP) were supplemented with enough essential amino acids (EAA) to meet the NRC AA requirements of pigs and maintain the balanced supply of eight EAA including lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, and leucine. After 41 days, 10 pigs per treatment were slaughtered. We found that LP diets supplemented with EAA resulted in decreased concentrations of plasma somatostatin (SS) (P<0.01) and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) (P<0.001), while dietary protein levels did not affect other traits. However, CS supplementation increased the average daily gain (P<0.001) and lean percentage (P<0.05), and decreased the feed conversion ratio (P<0.05) and back fat (P<0.05). CS supplementation also increased the concentrations of plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (P<0.001), and reduced the concentrations of leptin, SS, and PUN (P<0.001). Increased mRNA abundance of Akt1 and IGF-1 signaling (P<0.001) and decreased mRNA abundance of Forkhead Box O (FOXO) 4 (P<0.01) and muscle atrophy F-box (P<0.001) were observed in pigs receiving CS. Additionally, CS supplementation increased the protein levels for the phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), eIF-4E binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (P<0.001). There were no interactions between dietary protein levels and CS supplementation for all traits. In conclusion, dietary protein levels and CS supplementation influenced growth and protein metabolism through independent mechanisms in pigs. In addition, LP diets supplemented with EAA did not affect growth performance and other traits except the concentrations of SS and PUN probably through maintenance of protein synthesis and degradation signaling. Moreover, CS supplementation improved growth performance by increasing plasma IGF-1 concentrations possibly through alterations of mTOR and Akt/FOXO signaling pathways in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-dietary-crude-protein-levels-cysteamine-supplementation-protein-synthetic-degradative-signal", "reader_count"=>10, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Turkey"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2294842"], "description"=>"<p>β-actin was used to normalize the abundance of total and phosphorylated mTOR. Values are means ± SEM. <i>P<0</i>.<i>05</i> was considered significant difference. Protein levels were analysed with pen as the experimental unit (n = 3). NP, normal protein diet (14% CP); NP+CS, normal protein diet supplemented with cysteamine; LP, low-protein diet (10% CP); LP+CS, low-protein diet supplemented with cysteamine. P, main effect of dietary protein levels; CS, main effect of cysteamine supplementation; P×CS, interaction between main effects of dietary protein levels and cysteamine supplementation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CS supplementation", "Protein metabolism", "foxo", "growth performance", "protein S 6 kinase 1", "igf", "feed conversion ratio", "mRNA abundance", "LP diets", "cp", "ss", "crude protein levels", "eaa", "protein levels", "pun", "plasma urea nitrogen", "nrc", "forkhead box O"], "article_id"=>1561131, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ping Zhou", "Lin Zhang", "Jiaolong Li", "Yiqiu Luo", "Bolin Zhang", "Shen Xing", "Yuping Zhu", "Hui Sun", "Feng Gao", "Guanghong Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Protein_levels_of_total_a_and_phosphorylated_b_mammalian_target_of_rapamycin_in_skeletal_muscle_/1561131", "title"=>"Protein levels of total (a) and phosphorylated (b) mammalian target of rapamycin in skeletal muscle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-30 04:04:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2294843"], "description"=>"<p>β-actin was used to normalize the abundance of total and phosphorylated 4E-BP1. Values are means ± SEM. <i>P<0</i>.<i>05</i> was considered significant difference. Protein levels were analysed with pen as the experimental unit (n = 3). NP, normal protein diet (14% CP); NP+CS, normal protein diet supplemented with cysteamine; LP, low-protein diet (10% CP); LP+CS, low-protein diet supplemented with cysteamine. P, main effect of dietary protein levels; CS, main effect of cysteamine supplementation; P×CS, interaction between main effects of dietary protein levels and cysteamine supplementation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CS supplementation", "Protein metabolism", "foxo", "growth performance", "protein S 6 kinase 1", "igf", "feed conversion ratio", "mRNA abundance", "LP diets", "cp", "ss", "crude protein levels", "eaa", "protein levels", "pun", "plasma urea nitrogen", "nrc", "forkhead box O"], "article_id"=>1561132, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ping Zhou", "Lin Zhang", "Jiaolong Li", "Yiqiu Luo", "Bolin Zhang", "Shen Xing", "Yuping Zhu", "Hui Sun", "Feng Gao", "Guanghong Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Protein_levels_of_total_a_and_phosphorylated_b_eIF4E_binding_protein_1_in_skeletal_muscle_/1561132", "title"=>"Protein levels of total (a) and phosphorylated (b) eIF4E-binding protein 1 in skeletal muscle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-30 04:04:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2294846"], "description"=>"<p>β-actin was used to normalize the abundance of total and phosphorylated S6K1. Values are means ± SEM. <i>P<0</i>.<i>05</i> was considered significant difference. Protein levels were analysed with pen as the experimental unit (n = 3). NP, normal protein diet (14% CP); NP+CS, normal protein diet supplemented with cysteamine; LP, low-protein diet (10% CP); LP+CS, low-protein diet supplemented with cysteamine. P, main effect of dietary protein levels; CS, main effect of cysteamine supplementation; P×CS, interaction between main effects of dietary protein levels and cysteamine supplementation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CS supplementation", "Protein metabolism", "foxo", "growth performance", "protein S 6 kinase 1", "igf", "feed conversion ratio", "mRNA abundance", "LP diets", "cp", "ss", "crude protein levels", "eaa", "protein levels", "pun", "plasma urea nitrogen", "nrc", "forkhead box O"], "article_id"=>1561134, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ping Zhou", "Lin Zhang", "Jiaolong Li", "Yiqiu Luo", "Bolin Zhang", "Shen Xing", "Yuping Zhu", "Hui Sun", "Feng Gao", "Guanghong Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Protein_levels_of_total_a_and_phosphorylated_b_p70S6K1_in_skeletal_muscle_/1561134", "title"=>"Protein levels of total (a) and phosphorylated (b) p70S6K1 in skeletal muscle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-09-30 04:04:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2294848"], "description"=>"<p>CP, crude protein.</p><p><sup><b>†</b></sup>The premix provided per kilogram of diet: 100 mg of zinc as zinc oxide, 100 mg of iron as iron sulphate, 30 mg of manganese as manganous oxide, 0.3 mg of selenium as sodium selenite, 20 mg of copper as copper sulphate, 0.5 mg of iodine as calcium iodate, 1720 μg retinyl acetate, 8.0 mg DL-α-tocopheryl acetate, 25 μg cholecalciferol, 3.0 mg menadione sodium bisulphite, 3.0 mg pyridoxine hydrochloride, 2.0 mg thiamin mononitrate, 6.0 mg riboflavin, 1.0 mg folic acid, 20 μg cyanocobalamin, 30 mg nicotinic acid, 30 mg calcium pantothenate, 300 mg choline.</p><p><sup><b>‡</b></sup>Values for standardized ileal concentrations of AA were calculated using standardized ileal digestible coefficients provided by Xiong et al., [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393#pone.0139393.ref028\" target=\"_blank\">28</a>]</p><p>Ingredients and nutrient content of the basal diets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CS supplementation", "Protein metabolism", "foxo", "growth performance", "protein S 6 kinase 1", "igf", "feed conversion ratio", "mRNA abundance", "LP diets", "cp", "ss", "crude protein levels", "eaa", "protein levels", "pun", "plasma urea nitrogen", "nrc", "forkhead box O"], "article_id"=>1561137, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ping Zhou", "Lin Zhang", "Jiaolong Li", "Yiqiu Luo", "Bolin Zhang", "Shen Xing", "Yuping Zhu", "Hui Sun", "Feng Gao", "Guanghong Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ingredients_and_nutrient_content_of_the_basal_diets_/1561137", "title"=>"Ingredients and nutrient content of the basal diets.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-30 04:04:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2294849"], "description"=>"<p><sup><b>†</b></sup>The primer pairs above were reported by Zhang et al., [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393#pone.0139393.ref017\" target=\"_blank\">17</a>].</p><p><i>Akt</i>, protein kinase B, also named PKB; <i>IGF-1</i>, insulin-like growth factor 1; <i>IGF-1R</i>, <i>IGF-1</i> receptor; <i>IR</i>, insulin receptor; <i>IRS-1</i>, insulin receptor substrate 1; <i>FOXO</i>, Forkhead Box O; <i>MAFbx</i>, muscle atrophy F-box; <i>MuRF1</i>, muscle Ring finger 1.</p><p>Primer pairs used in the real-time PCR<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393#t002fn001\" target=\"_blank\"><sup>†</sup></a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CS supplementation", "Protein metabolism", "foxo", "growth performance", "protein S 6 kinase 1", "igf", "feed conversion ratio", "mRNA abundance", "LP diets", "cp", "ss", "crude protein levels", "eaa", "protein levels", "pun", "plasma urea nitrogen", "nrc", "forkhead box O"], "article_id"=>1561138, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ping Zhou", "Lin Zhang", "Jiaolong Li", "Yiqiu Luo", "Bolin Zhang", "Shen Xing", "Yuping Zhu", "Hui Sun", "Feng Gao", "Guanghong Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primer_pairs_used_in_the_real_time_PCR_8224_/1561138", "title"=>"Primer pairs used in the real-time PCR<sup>†</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-30 04:04:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2294850"], "description"=>"<p>BW, body weight; ADG, average daily weight gain; ADFI, average daily feed intake; FCR = feed conversion ratio. Values are means ± SEM. Values within a row with different letters differ (<i>P</i><0.05). All traits in this table were analysed with pen as the experimental unit (n = 5); P, main effect of dietary protein levels; CS, main effect of cysteamine supplementation; P×CS, interaction between main effects of dietary protein levels and cysteamine supplementation.</p><p>Effects of dietary crude protein levels and cysteamine (CS) supplementation on growth performance and carcass traits of finishing pigs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CS supplementation", "Protein metabolism", "foxo", "growth performance", "protein S 6 kinase 1", "igf", "feed conversion ratio", "mRNA abundance", "LP diets", "cp", "ss", "crude protein levels", "eaa", "protein levels", "pun", "plasma urea nitrogen", "nrc", "forkhead box O"], "article_id"=>1561139, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ping Zhou", "Lin Zhang", "Jiaolong Li", "Yiqiu Luo", "Bolin Zhang", "Shen Xing", "Yuping Zhu", "Hui Sun", "Feng Gao", "Guanghong Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_dietary_crude_protein_levels_and_cysteamine_CS_supplementation_on_growth_performance_and_carcass_traits_of_finishing_pigs_/1561139", "title"=>"Effects of dietary crude protein levels and cysteamine (CS) supplementation on growth performance and carcass traits of finishing pigs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-30 04:04:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2294851"], "description"=>"<p>IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor 1; SS, somatostatin; PUN, plasma urea nitrogen. Values are means ± SEM. Values within a row with different letters differ (<i>P</i><0.05). All traits in this table were analysed with pen as the experimental unit (n = 5). P, main effect of dietary protein levels; CS, main effect of cysteamine supplementation; P×CS, interaction between main effects of dietary protein levels and cysteamine supplementation.</p><p>Effects of dietary crude protein levels and cysteamine (CS) supplementation on plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations of finishing pigs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CS supplementation", "Protein metabolism", "foxo", "growth performance", "protein S 6 kinase 1", "igf", "feed conversion ratio", "mRNA abundance", "LP diets", "cp", "ss", "crude protein levels", "eaa", "protein levels", "pun", "plasma urea nitrogen", "nrc", "forkhead box O"], "article_id"=>1561140, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ping Zhou", "Lin Zhang", "Jiaolong Li", "Yiqiu Luo", "Bolin Zhang", "Shen Xing", "Yuping Zhu", "Hui Sun", "Feng Gao", "Guanghong Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_dietary_crude_protein_levels_and_cysteamine_CS_supplementation_on_plasma_metabolite_and_hormone_concentrations_of_finishing_pigs_/1561140", "title"=>"Effects of dietary crude protein levels and cysteamine (CS) supplementation on plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations of finishing pigs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-30 04:04:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2294852"], "description"=>"<p>IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor 1; IGF-1R, IGF-1 receptor; IR, insulin receptor; IRS-1, insulin receptor substrate 1. Akt1, protein kinase B, also named PKB; FOXO, Forkhead Box O; MAFbx, muscle atrophy F-box; MuRF1, muscle Ring finger 1. Values are means ± SEM. Values within a row with different letters differ (<i>P</i><0.05). All traits in this table were analysed with pen as the experimental unit (n = 5). P, main effect of dietary protein levels; CS, main effect of cysteamine supplementation; P×CS, interaction between main effects of dietary protein levels and cysteamine supplementation.</p><p>Effects of dietary crude protein levels and cysteamine (CS) supplementation on mRNA abundance of IGF-1 (insulin)/Akt/FOXO signaling and their target genes in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CS supplementation", "Protein metabolism", "foxo", "growth performance", "protein S 6 kinase 1", "igf", "feed conversion ratio", "mRNA abundance", "LP diets", "cp", "ss", "crude protein levels", "eaa", "protein levels", "pun", "plasma urea nitrogen", "nrc", "forkhead box O"], "article_id"=>1561141, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ping Zhou", "Lin Zhang", "Jiaolong Li", "Yiqiu Luo", "Bolin Zhang", "Shen Xing", "Yuping Zhu", "Hui Sun", "Feng Gao", "Guanghong Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_dietary_crude_protein_levels_and_cysteamine_CS_supplementation_on_mRNA_abundance_of_IGF_1_insulin_Akt_FOXO_signaling_and_their_target_genes_in_skeletal_muscle_of_finishing_pigs_/1561141", "title"=>"Effects of dietary crude protein levels and cysteamine (CS) supplementation on mRNA abundance of IGF-1 (insulin)/Akt/FOXO signaling and their target genes in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-09-30 04:04:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2294853", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2294854", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2294855", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2294856", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2294857", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2294858"], "description"=>"<div><p>Dietary protein levels and cysteamine (CS) supplementation can affect growth performance and protein metabolism of pigs. However, the influence of dietary protein intake on the growth response of CS-treated pigs is unclear, and the mechanisms involved in protein metabolism remain unknown. Hence, we investigated the interactions between dietary protein levels and CS supplementation and the effects of dietary crude protein levels and CS supplementation on protein synthetic and degradative signaling in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs. One hundred twenty barrows (65.84 ± 0.61 kg) were allocated to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with five replicates of six pigs each. The primary variations were dietary crude protein (CP) levels (14% or 10%) and CS supplemental levels (0 or 700 mg/kg). The low-protein (LP) diets (10% CP) were supplemented with enough essential amino acids (EAA) to meet the NRC AA requirements of pigs and maintain the balanced supply of eight EAA including lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, and leucine. After 41 days, 10 pigs per treatment were slaughtered. We found that LP diets supplemented with EAA resulted in decreased concentrations of plasma somatostatin (SS) (<i>P</i><0.01) and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) (<i>P</i><0.001), while dietary protein levels did not affect other traits. However, CS supplementation increased the average daily gain (<i>P</i><0.001) and lean percentage (<i>P</i><0.05), and decreased the feed conversion ratio (<i>P</i><0.05) and back fat (<i>P</i><0.05). CS supplementation also increased the concentrations of plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (<i>P</i><0.001), and reduced the concentrations of leptin, SS, and PUN (<i>P</i><0.001). Increased mRNA abundance of Akt1 and IGF-1 signaling (<i>P</i><0.001) and decreased mRNA abundance of Forkhead Box O (FOXO) 4 (<i>P</i><0.01) and muscle atrophy F-box (<i>P<</i>0.001) were observed in pigs receiving CS. Additionally, CS supplementation increased the protein levels for the phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), eIF-4E binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (<i>P</i><0.001). There were no interactions between dietary protein levels and CS supplementation for all traits. In conclusion, dietary protein levels and CS supplementation influenced growth and protein metabolism through independent mechanisms in pigs. In addition, LP diets supplemented with EAA did not affect growth performance and other traits except the concentrations of SS and PUN probably through maintenance of protein synthesis and degradation signaling. Moreover, CS supplementation improved growth performance by increasing plasma IGF-1 concentrations possibly through alterations of mTOR and Akt/FOXO signaling pathways in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CS supplementation", "Protein metabolism", "foxo", "growth performance", "protein S 6 kinase 1", "igf", "feed conversion ratio", "mRNA abundance", "LP diets", "cp", "ss", "crude protein levels", "eaa", "protein levels", "pun", "plasma urea nitrogen", "nrc", "forkhead box O"], "article_id"=>1561142, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Ping Zhou", "Lin Zhang", "Jiaolong Li", "Yiqiu Luo", "Bolin Zhang", "Shen Xing", "Yuping Zhu", "Hui Sun", "Feng Gao", "Guanghong Zhou"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139393.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>52, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_Dietary_Crude_Protein_Levels_and_Cysteamine_Supplementation_on_Protein_Synthetic_and_Degradative_Signaling_in_Skeletal_Muscle_of_Finishing_Pigs_/1561142", "title"=>"Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Levels and Cysteamine Supplementation on Protein Synthetic and Degradative Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Finishing Pigs", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-09-30 04:04:13"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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