Effects of Increased Flight on the Energetics and Life History of the Butterfly Speyeria mormonia
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{"title"=>"Effects of increased flight on the energetics and life history of the butterfly speyeria mormonia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kristjan", "last_name"=>"Niitepõld", "scopus_author_id"=>"25930098000"}, {"first_name"=>"Carol L.", "last_name"=>"Boggs", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005679578"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84949940409", "pui"=>"607232341", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0140104", "sgr"=>"84949940409"}, "id"=>"7a9a4199-18a2-3950-a8a4-45f5cdedee87", "abstract"=>"Movement uses resources that may otherwise be allocated to somatic maintenance or reproduction. How does increased energy expenditure affect resource allocation? Using the butterfly Speyeria mormonia, we tested whether experimentally increased flight affects fecundity, lifespan or flight capacity. We measured body mass (storage), resting metabolic rate and lifespan (repair and maintenance), flight metabolic rate (flight capacity), egg number and composition (reproduction), and food intake across the adult lifespan. The flight treatment did not affect body mass or lifespan. Food intake increased sufficiently to offset the increased energy expenditure. Total egg number did not change, but flown females had higher early-life fecundity and higher egg dry mass than control females. Egg dry mass decreased with age in both treatments. Egg protein, triglyceride or glycogen content did not change with flight or age, but some components tracked egg dry mass. Flight elevated resting metabolic rate, indicating increased maintenance costs. Flight metabolism decreased with age, with a steeper slope for flown females. This may reflect accelerated metabolic senescence from detrimental effects of flight. These effects of a drawdown of nutrients via flight contrast with studies restricting adult nutrient input. There, fecundity was reduced, but flight capacity and lifespan were unchanged. The current study showed that when food resources were abundant, wing-monomorphic butterflies living in a continuous meadow landscape resisted flight-induced stress, exhibiting no evidence of a flight-fecundity or flight-longevity trade-off. Instead, flight changed the dynamics of energy use and reproduction as butterflies adopted a faster lifestyle in early life. High investment in early reproduction may have positive fitness effects in the wild, as long as food is available. Our results help to predict the effect of stressful conditions on the life history of insects living in a changing world.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-increased-flight-energetics-life-history-butterfly-speyeria-mormonia", "reader_count"=>27, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2385222"], "description"=>"<p>PMR and FMR were modelled using a repeated measures mixed model with heterogeneous autoregressive (1) covariance structure.</p><p>Factors affecting peak metabolic rate (PMR) and flight metabolic rate (FMR).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["food intake", "Butterfly Speyeria mormonia Movement", "body mass", "Total egg number", "butterfly Speyeria mormonia", "lifespan", "energy expenditure", "flight capacity"], "article_id"=>1587488, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kristjan Niitepõld", "Carol L. Boggs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140104.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Factors_affecting_peak_metabolic_rate_PMR_and_flight_metabolic_rate_FMR_/1587488", "title"=>"Factors affecting peak metabolic rate (PMR) and flight metabolic rate (FMR).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-10-28 02:59:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2385220"], "description"=>"<p>a) The number of eggs laid followed a nonlinear pattern where daily egg production first increased, then decreased. Females in the flight treatment (grey circles) had higher early-life fecundity than control females (black circles). b) Egg dry mass decreased with female age but was not affected by the flight treatment. Flight also had no effect on the c) protein content, d) triglyceride content, or e) glycogen content of eggs. The data are least squares means ± standard error and have been adjusted for the effect of egg dry mass.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["food intake", "Butterfly Speyeria mormonia Movement", "body mass", "Total egg number", "butterfly Speyeria mormonia", "lifespan", "energy expenditure", "flight capacity"], "article_id"=>1587486, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kristjan Niitepõld", "Carol L. Boggs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140104.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_flight_on_egg_number_mass_and_composition_/1587486", "title"=>"Effect of flight on egg number, mass and composition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-28 02:59:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2385225", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2385226", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2385228", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2385229", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2385230", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2385231"], "description"=>"<div><p>Movement uses resources that may otherwise be allocated to somatic maintenance or reproduction. How does increased energy expenditure affect resource allocation? Using the butterfly <i>Speyeria mormonia</i>, we tested whether experimentally increased flight affects fecundity, lifespan or flight capacity. We measured body mass (storage), resting metabolic rate and lifespan (repair and maintenance), flight metabolic rate (flight capacity), egg number and composition (reproduction), and food intake across the adult lifespan. The flight treatment did not affect body mass or lifespan. Food intake increased sufficiently to offset the increased energy expenditure. Total egg number did not change, but flown females had higher early-life fecundity and higher egg dry mass than control females. Egg dry mass decreased with age in both treatments. Egg protein, triglyceride or glycogen content did not change with flight or age, but some components tracked egg dry mass. Flight elevated resting metabolic rate, indicating increased maintenance costs. Flight metabolism decreased with age, with a steeper slope for flown females. This may reflect accelerated metabolic senescence from detrimental effects of flight. These effects of a drawdown of nutrients via flight contrast with studies restricting adult nutrient input. There, fecundity was reduced, but flight capacity and lifespan were unchanged. The current study showed that when food resources were abundant, wing-monomorphic butterflies living in a continuous meadow landscape resisted flight-induced stress, exhibiting no evidence of a flight-fecundity or flight-longevity trade-off. Instead, flight changed the dynamics of energy use and reproduction as butterflies adopted a faster lifestyle in early life. High investment in early reproduction may have positive fitness effects in the wild, as long as food is available. Our results help to predict the effect of stressful conditions on the life history of insects living in a changing world.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["food intake", "Butterfly Speyeria mormonia Movement", "body mass", "Total egg number", "butterfly Speyeria mormonia", "lifespan", "energy expenditure", "flight capacity"], "article_id"=>1587491, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kristjan Niitepõld", "Carol L. Boggs"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140104.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140104.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140104.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140104.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140104.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140104.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effects_of_Increased_Flight_on_the_Energetics_and_Life_History_of_the_Butterfly_Speyeria_mormonia_/1587491", "title"=>"Effects of Increased Flight on the Energetics and Life History of the Butterfly <i>Speyeria mormonia</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-10-28 02:59:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2385219"], "description"=>"<p>a-d) CO<sub>2</sub> emission rate plotted against time at ages 4 and 16 days in the control (upper panels) and flight treatment (lower panels). For illustrative purposes, metabolic rate has been divided by body mass. The thick line in each panel represents mean CO<sub>2</sub> emission rate. The first 1.5 min of the recording represented RMR. Peak flight metabolic rate (PMR) is typically reached during the first minutes of the flight measurement. The mean measurement temperature was 31.7°C (s.d. 0.4). Panel e) depicts the least squares means of PMR in control females (black circles) and flight treatment females (grey circles) plotted against age. Panel f) shows the total volume of CO<sub>2</sub> emitted during the 7 min flight measurement. In both cases, the interaction between treatment and age is significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["food intake", "Butterfly Speyeria mormonia Movement", "body mass", "Total egg number", "butterfly Speyeria mormonia", "lifespan", "energy expenditure", "flight capacity"], "article_id"=>1587485, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kristjan Niitepõld", "Carol L. Boggs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140104.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_flight_treatments_on_flight_metabolic_rate_/1587485", "title"=>"Effect of flight treatments on flight metabolic rate.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-28 02:59:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2385218"], "description"=>"<p>a) Body mass decreased with age, but did not differ between females in the flight treatment (grey circles) and control females (black circles). b) Females in the flight treatment tended to experience faster wing wear than control females. C) The flight treatment elevated resting metabolic rate (RMR). The data are size-adjusted least squares means from a repeated measures mixed model. The mean measurement temperature was 31.6°C (s.d. 0.4). d) Sugar water intake was higher among females in the flight treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["food intake", "Butterfly Speyeria mormonia Movement", "body mass", "Total egg number", "butterfly Speyeria mormonia", "lifespan", "energy expenditure", "flight capacity"], "article_id"=>1587484, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kristjan Niitepõld", "Carol L. Boggs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140104.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_flight_on_body_mass_wing_area_resting_metabolic_rate_and_food_intake_/1587484", "title"=>"Effect of flight on body mass, wing area, resting metabolic rate and food intake.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-10-28 02:59:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2385221"], "description"=>"<p>RMR was modelled using a repeated measures mixed model with heterogeneous autoregressive (1) covariance structure.</p><p>Factors affecting resting metabolic rate.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["food intake", "Butterfly Speyeria mormonia Movement", "body mass", "Total egg number", "butterfly Speyeria mormonia", "lifespan", "energy expenditure", "flight capacity"], "article_id"=>1587487, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kristjan Niitepõld", "Carol L. Boggs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140104.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Factors_affecting_resting_metabolic_rate_/1587487", "title"=>"Factors affecting resting metabolic rate.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-10-28 02:59:51"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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