The Relationship between Vessel Traffic and Noise Levels Received by Killer Whales (Orcinus orca)
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{"title"=>"The relationship between vessel traffic and noise levels received by killer whales (Orcinus orca)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Juliana", "last_name"=>"Houghton", "scopus_author_id"=>"56808835900"}, {"first_name"=>"Marla M.", "last_name"=>"Holt", "scopus_author_id"=>"36158171600"}, {"first_name"=>"Deborah A.", "last_name"=>"Giles", "scopus_author_id"=>"55410810900"}, {"first_name"=>"M. Bradley", "last_name"=>"Hanson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401973488"}, {"first_name"=>"Candice K.", "last_name"=>"Emmons", "scopus_author_id"=>"23018721500"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeffrey T.", "last_name"=>"Hogan", "scopus_author_id"=>"57089804600"}, {"first_name"=>"Trevor A.", "last_name"=>"Branch", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701718865"}, {"first_name"=>"Glenn R.", "last_name"=>"VanBlaricom", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602364524"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84956673323", "pui"=>"607884186", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0140119", "sgr"=>"84956673323", "pmid"=>"26629916"}, "id"=>"764afc94-1a74-3624-9039-8d70b18da9ef", "abstract"=>"Whale watching has become increasingly popular as an ecotourism activity around the globe and is beneficial for environmental education and local economies. Southern Resi- dent killer whales (Orcinus orca) comprise an endangered population that is frequently observed by a large whale watching fleet in the inland waters of Washington state and Brit- ish Columbia. One of the factors identified as a risk to recovery for the population is the effect of vessels and associated noise. An examination of the effects of vessels and associ- ated noise on whale behavior utilized novel equipment to address limitations of previous studies. Digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGs) measured the noise levels the tagged whales received while laser positioning systems allowed collection of geo-referenced data for tagged whales and all vessels within 1000mof the tagged whale. The objective of the current study was to compare vessel data and DTAG recordings to relate vessel traffic to the ambient noise received by tagged whales. Two analyses were conducted, one including all recording intervals, and one that excluded intervals when only the research vessel was present. For all data, significant predictors of noise levels were length (inverse relationship), number of propellers, and vessel speed, but only 15% of the variation in noise was explained by this model. When research-vessel-only intervals were excluded, vessel speed was the only significant predictor of noise levels, and explained 42% of the variation. Simple linear regressions (ignoring covariates) found that average vessel speed and number of propellers were the only significant correlates with noise levels.We conclude that vessel speed is the most important predictor of noise levels received by whales in this study. Thus, measures that reduce vessel speed in the vicinity of killer whales would reduce noise expo- sure in this population.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/relationship-between-vessel-traffic-noise-levels-received-killer-whales-orcinus-orca", "reader_count"=>60, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>17, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>17}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Iceland"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597234"], "description"=>"<p>Model-averaged predicted noise levels compared to observed noise levels (for all complete intervals, including research vessel-only intervals, n = 57). About 15% of the variation in observed noise levels was explained by the multi-model inference.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vessel speed", "Noise Levels Received", "noise levels", "Orcinus orca", "DTAG", "Southern Resident killer whales"], "article_id"=>1616416, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Juliana Houghton", "Marla M. Holt", "Deborah A. Giles", "M. Bradley Hanson", "Candice K. Emmons", "Jeffrey T. Hogan", "Trevor A. Branch", "Glenn R. VanBlaricom"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_predictions_vs_observed_noise_levels_all_intervals_/1616416", "title"=>"Model predictions vs. observed noise levels, all intervals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:19:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597235"], "description"=>"<p>Model-averaged predicted noise levels compared to observed noise levels (excluding research vessel-only intervals, n = 30). About 42% of the variation in observed noise levels was explained by the multi-model inference.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vessel speed", "Noise Levels Received", "noise levels", "Orcinus orca", "DTAG", "Southern Resident killer whales"], "article_id"=>1616417, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Juliana Houghton", "Marla M. Holt", "Deborah A. Giles", "M. Bradley Hanson", "Candice K. Emmons", "Jeffrey T. Hogan", "Trevor A. Branch", "Glenn R. VanBlaricom"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_predictions_vs_observed_noise_levels_excluding_research_vessel_only_intervals_/1616417", "title"=>"Model predictions vs. observed noise levels, excluding research vessel-only intervals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:19:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597242"], "description"=>"<p>Received noise levels (dB re 1 μPa) increased significantly with the average vessel speed per interval (F <sub>1, 55</sub> = 6.704, p = 0.012). There was substantial variation in vessel speed per interval, although no intervals had on average a vessel speed of “Very Fast 7+ knots”.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vessel speed", "Noise Levels Received", "noise levels", "Orcinus orca", "DTAG", "Southern Resident killer whales"], "article_id"=>1616419, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Juliana Houghton", "Marla M. Holt", "Deborah A. Giles", "M. Bradley Hanson", "Candice K. Emmons", "Jeffrey T. Hogan", "Trevor A. Branch", "Glenn R. VanBlaricom"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Noise_levels_and_average_vessel_speed_/1616419", "title"=>"Noise levels and average vessel speed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:19:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597243"], "description"=>"<p>Received noise levels (dB re 1 μPa) increased significantly with the average number of propellers on the vessels per interval (F1, 55 = 5.476, p = 0.023). There was a lack of variation in the number of propellers among vessels, as most vessels had two propellers. There were occasionally vessels with one or three propellers, but not enough of them to calculate a meaningful average number of vessels of one or three.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vessel speed", "Noise Levels Received", "noise levels", "Orcinus orca", "DTAG", "Southern Resident killer whales"], "article_id"=>1616420, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Juliana Houghton", "Marla M. Holt", "Deborah A. Giles", "M. Bradley Hanson", "Candice K. Emmons", "Jeffrey T. Hogan", "Trevor A. Branch", "Glenn R. VanBlaricom"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Noise_levels_and_average_number_of_propellers_/1616420", "title"=>"Noise levels and average number of propellers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:19:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597244"], "description"=>"<p>Quantification of vessel characteristics based on categorical qualities collected in the field. For vessel orientation, two field-based categorical qualities were used in conjunction to determine the relevant orientation of the vessel motor relative to the whale.</p><p>Quantification of vessel characteristics.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vessel speed", "Noise Levels Received", "noise levels", "Orcinus orca", "DTAG", "Southern Resident killer whales"], "article_id"=>1616421, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Juliana Houghton", "Marla M. Holt", "Deborah A. Giles", "M. Bradley Hanson", "Candice K. Emmons", "Jeffrey T. Hogan", "Trevor A. Branch", "Glenn R. VanBlaricom"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantification_of_vessel_characteristics_/1616421", "title"=>"Quantification of vessel characteristics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:19:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597245"], "description"=>"<p>Results of the negative log likelihood model (for all complete intervals, including research vessel-only intervals, n = 57). Model parameters are the vessel characteristics that contribute to received noise. The model that best fit the data was model 3. However, models with additional parameters also had an adequate amount of weight but due to the nature of AICc, could represent uninformative parameters.</p><p>Negative log likelihood model results, all intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vessel speed", "Noise Levels Received", "noise levels", "Orcinus orca", "DTAG", "Southern Resident killer whales"], "article_id"=>1616422, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Juliana Houghton", "Marla M. Holt", "Deborah A. Giles", "M. Bradley Hanson", "Candice K. Emmons", "Jeffrey T. Hogan", "Trevor A. Branch", "Glenn R. VanBlaricom"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Negative_log_likelihood_model_results_all_intervals_/1616422", "title"=>"Negative log likelihood model results, all intervals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:19:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597247"], "description"=>"<p>Results of the negative log likelihood model (excluding research vessel-only intervals, n = 30). Model parameters are the vessel characteristics that contribute to received noise. The model that best fit the data was model 2. However, models with additional parameters also had an adequate amount of weight but due to the nature of AICc, could represent uninformative parameters.</p><p>Negative log likelihood model results, excluding research vessel-only intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vessel speed", "Noise Levels Received", "noise levels", "Orcinus orca", "DTAG", "Southern Resident killer whales"], "article_id"=>1616424, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Juliana Houghton", "Marla M. Holt", "Deborah A. Giles", "M. Bradley Hanson", "Candice K. Emmons", "Jeffrey T. Hogan", "Trevor A. Branch", "Glenn R. VanBlaricom"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Negative_log_likelihood_model_results_excluding_research_vessel_only_intervals_/1616424", "title"=>"Negative log likelihood model results, excluding research vessel-only intervals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:19:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597252", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597253", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597254", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597255", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597256", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597257", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597258", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597259", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597260", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597262", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597263", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597264"], "description"=>"<div><p>Whale watching has become increasingly popular as an ecotourism activity around the globe and is beneficial for environmental education and local economies. Southern Resident killer whales (<i>Orcinus orca</i>) comprise an endangered population that is frequently observed by a large whale watching fleet in the inland waters of Washington state and British Columbia. One of the factors identified as a risk to recovery for the population is the effect of vessels and associated noise. An examination of the effects of vessels and associated noise on whale behavior utilized novel equipment to address limitations of previous studies. Digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGs) measured the noise levels the tagged whales received while laser positioning systems allowed collection of geo-referenced data for tagged whales and all vessels within 1000 m of the tagged whale. The objective of the current study was to compare vessel data and DTAG recordings to relate vessel traffic to the ambient noise received by tagged whales. Two analyses were conducted, one including all recording intervals, and one that excluded intervals when only the research vessel was present. For all data, significant predictors of noise levels were length (inverse relationship), number of propellers, and vessel speed, but only 15% of the variation in noise was explained by this model. When research-vessel-only intervals were excluded, vessel speed was the only significant predictor of noise levels, and explained 42% of the variation. Simple linear regressions (ignoring covariates) found that average vessel speed and number of propellers were the only significant correlates with noise levels. We conclude that vessel speed is the most important predictor of noise levels received by whales in this study. Thus, measures that reduce vessel speed in the vicinity of killer whales would reduce noise exposure in this population.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vessel speed", "Noise Levels Received", "noise levels", "Orcinus orca", "DTAG", "Southern Resident killer whales"], "article_id"=>1616429, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Juliana Houghton", "Marla M. Holt", "Deborah A. Giles", "M. Bradley Hanson", "Candice K. Emmons", "Jeffrey T. Hogan", "Trevor A. Branch", "Glenn R. VanBlaricom"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.s012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Relationship_between_Vessel_Traffic_and_Noise_Levels_Received_by_Killer_Whales_Orcinus_orca_/1616429", "title"=>"The Relationship between Vessel Traffic and Noise Levels Received by Killer Whales (<i>Orcinus orca</i>)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:19:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597231"], "description"=>"<p>Locations of tag deployments during which vessel data were collected concurrently (n = 20). The color of the ring corresponds to the year as follows: 2010 –red, 2011 –green, 2012 –blue. The size of the ring depicts the duration of the tag deployment in minutes. The tagged whale travelled beyond the area designated by the ring throughout the deployment period.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vessel speed", "Noise Levels Received", "noise levels", "Orcinus orca", "DTAG", "Southern Resident killer whales"], "article_id"=>1616413, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Juliana Houghton", "Marla M. Holt", "Deborah A. Giles", "M. Bradley Hanson", "Candice K. Emmons", "Jeffrey T. Hogan", "Trevor A. Branch", "Glenn R. VanBlaricom"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Locations_of_tag_deployments_/1616413", "title"=>"Locations of tag deployments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:19:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597233"], "description"=>"<p>Version 2 DTAG on SRKW 9/22/2010 (left) and version 3 DTAG on SRKW 9/17/2012.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vessel speed", "Noise Levels Received", "noise levels", "Orcinus orca", "DTAG", "Southern Resident killer whales"], "article_id"=>1616415, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Juliana Houghton", "Marla M. Holt", "Deborah A. Giles", "M. Bradley Hanson", "Candice K. Emmons", "Jeffrey T. Hogan", "Trevor A. Branch", "Glenn R. VanBlaricom"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140119.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DTAGs_on_SRKW_/1616415", "title"=>"DTAGs on SRKW.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:19:36"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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