Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps
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{"title"=>"Insect biometrics: Optoacoustic signal processing and its applications to remote monitoring of McPhail type traps", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ilyas", "last_name"=>"Potamitis", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603939972"}, {"first_name"=>"Iraklis", "last_name"=>"Rigakis", "scopus_author_id"=>"14631057000"}, {"first_name"=>"Konstantinos", "last_name"=>"Fysarakis", "scopus_author_id"=>"55427860800"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"607426567", "sgr"=>"84952690686", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"26544845", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84952690686", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0140474"}, "id"=>"36cf44a7-0c57-3d33-8ff0-f7f4189fdd41", "abstract"=>"Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann), Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term 'insect biometrics' in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/insect-biometrics-optoacoustic-signal-processing-applications-remote-monitoring-mcphail-type-traps", "reader_count"=>24, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Computer Science"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417512"], "description"=>"<p>Cost breakdown of the hardware of the electronic McPhail trap (date last viewed 30/6/2015).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597321, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cost_breakdown_of_the_hardware_of_the_electronic_McPhail_trap_date_last_viewed_30_6_2015_/1597321", "title"=>"Cost breakdown of the hardware of the electronic McPhail trap (date last viewed 30/6/2015).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
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Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term ‘insect biometrics’ in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597407, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s022", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s023", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s024", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s025", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s026", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s027", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s028", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s029", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s030", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s031", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s032", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s033", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s034", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s035", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s036", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s037", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s038", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s039", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s040", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.s041"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>25, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Insect_Biometrics_Optoacoustic_Signal_Processing_and_Its_Applications_to_Remote_Monitoring_of_McPhail_Type_Traps_/1597407", "title"=>"Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417454"], "description"=>"<p>The insect flying in occludes with its flapping wings the path of light from emitter to receiver. The electronics of the trap analyze the light fluctuation of the receiver. Light intensity fluctuations constitute a ‘biometric signature’ directly related to insect’s wingbeat frequency, size and shape of its wings. The signature is compared to pre-embedded patterns from the target pest. Finally, counts of the target pest, temperature, humidity and GPS coordinates are transmitted through the mobile GSM network from the field to the monitoring agency.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597282, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_sketch_diagram_summarizing_the_concept_of_the_electronic_McPhail_trap_/1597282", "title"=>"A sketch diagram summarizing the concept of the electronic McPhail trap.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417455"], "description"=>"<p>The fundamental frequency of <i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i> typically drifts between 170 and 210 Hz.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597283, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_top_A_typical_200_ms_B_oleae_wingbeat_event_recorded_as_the_insect_crossed_the_optical_sensor_18_C_bottom_Magnitude_spectral_density_/1597283", "title"=>"(top) A typical 200 ms <i>B</i>.<i>oleae</i>. wingbeat event recorded as the insect crossed the optical sensor (18°C). (bottom) Magnitude spectral density.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417457"], "description"=>"<p>The time domain plots show 30 ms of data. The spectrum is derived from approximately 2.5 s from the same signals. Note how the flute and violin time-domain plots have the same period but different shapes leading to a different weighting on the importance of the harmonics.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597285, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Top_Flute_playing_Note_A4_at_440_Hz_Middle_Violin_playing_the_same_note_Bottom_Wingbeat_of_the_insect_Musca_domestica_/1597285", "title"=>"Top: Flute playing Note A4 at 440 Hz. Middle: Violin playing the same note. Bottom: Wingbeat of the insect <i>Musca domestica</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417461"], "description"=>"<p>As insects fly freely in the cage, some of them randomly pass through the square thus interrupting the light path from emitter to receiver.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597289, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_top_A_diagram_of_the_candlestick_optoelectronic_sensor_in_mm_bottom_the_optical_sensor_in_its_final_standing_inside_the_insectary_cage_/1597289", "title"=>"(top) A diagram of the candlestick optoelectronic sensor in mm, (bottom) the optical sensor in its final standing inside the insectary cage.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417463"], "description"=>"<p>Each time an insect incidentally flies through the rectangle, a recording of a wing flap is acquired.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597290, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_optical_sensors_in_their_final_setup_inside_insectary_cages_with_B_oleae_/1597290", "title"=>"The optical sensors in their final setup, inside insectary cages with <i>B</i>.<i>oleae</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417465"], "description"=>"<p>Both sensors resolve the fundamental frequency of the wingbeat around 180 Hz. The diodes resolve better the harmonics at multiples of ~180 Hz.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597291, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Normalized_Power_Spectral_Density_of_B_oleae_wingflap_as_measured_by_a_photodiodes_array_vs_a_phototransistors_array_/1597291", "title"=>"Normalized Power Spectral Density of <i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i> wingflap as measured by a photodiodes array vs a phototransistors array.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417466"], "description"=>"<p>PSD of photodiodes array vs microphone transducer. Both sensors resolve the fundamental frequency of the wingbeat and have good accordance until the 5<sup>th</sup> harmonic. In this particular controlled setup, the microphone can resolve higher harmonics as well.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597292, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_optical_sensor_and_a_microphone_transducer_embedded_in_the_same_cage_holding_B_oleae_insects_/1597292", "title"=>"An optical sensor and a microphone transducer embedded in the same cage holding <i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i> insects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417467"], "description"=>"<p>PSD of photodiodes array resolving the spectrum of two typical flying patterns: straight, short-time passes (left) and slower maneuvering passes of insects (right).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597293, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PSD_of_photodiodes_array_resolving_the_spectrum_of_two_typical_flying_patterns_straight_short_time_passes_left_and_slower_maneuvering_passes_of_insects_right_/1597293", "title"=>"PSD of photodiodes array resolving the spectrum of two typical flying patterns: straight, short-time passes (left) and slower maneuvering passes of insects (right).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417469"], "description"=>"<p>Processing is continued to the next stage only in case of a positive event otherwise transmission stage rests in sleep mode</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597294, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_chart_of_processing_stages_/1597294", "title"=>"Flow chart of processing stages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417471"], "description"=>"<p>Spectra of 20 different cases of <i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i> optoacoustic, in-flight recordings.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597295, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spectra_of_20_different_cases_of_B_oleae_optoacoustic_in_flight_recordings_/1597295", "title"=>"Spectra of 20 different cases of <i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i> optoacoustic, in-flight recordings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417472"], "description"=>"<p>Dimensions are in mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597296, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_detailed_3D_CAD_of_the_electronic_McPhail_trap_/1597296", "title"=>"A detailed 3D CAD of the electronic McPhail trap.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417474"], "description"=>"<p>Different views of the prototype electronic trap.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597297, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Different_views_of_the_prototype_electronic_trap_/1597297", "title"=>"Different views of the prototype electronic trap.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417476"], "description"=>"<p>Confusion matrix of Verification results of <i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i> vs <i>Mosquitoes</i> (<i>A</i>. <i>gambiae</i> and <i>C</i>. <i>pipiens molestus)</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597298, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Confusion_matrix_of_Verification_results_of_B_oleae_vs_Mosquitoes_A_gambiae_and_C_pipiens_molestus_/1597298", "title"=>"Confusion matrix of Verification results of <i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i> vs <i>Mosquitoes</i> (<i>A</i>. <i>gambiae</i> and <i>C</i>. <i>pipiens molestus)</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417479"], "description"=>"<p>To help interpret system operating characteristics, the analog output from the sensor is recorded before it is sent to the microcontroller, and recordings are also made after the signals are processed by amplifier and filter circuits.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597299, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_electronic_McPhail_trap_inside_an_insectary_cage_with_B_oleae_/1597299", "title"=>"The electronic McPhail trap inside an insectary cage with <i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417480"], "description"=>"<p><b>(Left)</b><i>B</i>.<i>oleae</i>, <b>(right)</b><i>A</i>. <i>gambiae</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597300, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spectrum_of_wingbeat_recording_of_insect_flying_in_the_trap_/1597300", "title"=>"Spectrum of wingbeat recording of insect flying in the trap.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417482"], "description"=>"<p><b>(Left)</b><i>B</i>.<i>oleae</i>, <b>(right)</b><i>A</i>. <i>mellifera</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597301, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g016", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spectrum_of_wingbeat_recording_of_insect_flying_in_the_trap_/1597301", "title"=>"Spectrum of wingbeat recording of insect flying in the trap.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417484"], "description"=>"<p>Confusion matrix of Verification results of <i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i> vs <i>A</i>. <i>mellifera</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597302, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g017", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Confusion_matrix_of_Verification_results_of_B_oleae_vs_A_mellifera_/1597302", "title"=>"Confusion matrix of Verification results of <i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i> vs <i>A</i>. <i>mellifera</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417485"], "description"=>"<p><b>(Left)</b><i>B</i>.<i>oleae</i>, <b>(right)</b> member of the <i>Chironomidae</i> family.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597303, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g018", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spectrum_of_wingbeat_recording_of_insect_flying_in_the_trap_/1597303", "title"=>"Spectrum of wingbeat recording of insect flying in the trap.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417491"], "description"=>"<p>Confusion matrix of Verification results of <i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i> vs <i>Chironomidae</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597305, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g019", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Confusion_matrix_of_Verification_results_of_B_oleae_vs_Chironomidae_/1597305", "title"=>"Confusion matrix of Verification results of <i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i> vs <i>Chironomidae</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417494"], "description"=>"<p><b>(Left)</b><i>B</i>.<i>oleae</i>, <b>(right)</b><i>Lonchaea aristella</i> (Diptera: Lonchaeidae).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597306, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g020", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spectrum_of_wingbeat_recording_of_insect_flying_in_the_trap_/1597306", "title"=>"Spectrum of wingbeat recording of insect flying in the trap.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417495"], "description"=>"<p>Confusion matrix of verification results using a random forest classifier (<i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i> vs <i>L</i>. <i>aristella</i>) accuracy measures.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597307, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g021", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Confusion_matrix_of_verification_results_using_a_random_forest_classifier_B_oleae_vs_L_aristella_accuracy_measures_/1597307", "title"=>"Confusion matrix of verification results using a random forest classifier (<i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i> vs <i>L</i>. <i>aristella</i>) accuracy measures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2417498"], "description"=>"<p>Confusion matrix of verification results using the absolute distance between spectra and a codebook of 4 spectrum prototypes for each species <i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i> vs <i>L</i>. <i>aristella</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spraying process", "Optoacoustic Signal Processing", "McPhail type trap", "McPhail Type Traps Monitoring traps", "ground pesticide sprays"], "article_id"=>1597309, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Ilyas Potamitis", "Iraklis Rigakis", "Konstantinos Fysarakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140474.g022", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Confusion_matrix_of_verification_results_using_the_absolute_distance_between_spectra_and_a_codebook_of_4_spectrum_prototypes_for_each_species_B_oleae_vs_L_aristella_/1597309", "title"=>"Confusion matrix of verification results using the absolute distance between spectra and a codebook of 4 spectrum prototypes for each species <i>B</i>. <i>oleae</i> vs <i>L</i>. <i>aristella</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-06 05:05:19"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"123", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"42", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"21", "supp-data"=>"43", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"14", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"16", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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