Impact of Malaria Control on Mortality and Anemia among Tanzanian Children Less than Five Years of Age, 1999–2010
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{"title"=>"Impact of malaria control on mortality and anemia among Tanzanian children less than five years of age, 1999-2010", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Smithson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003639788"}, {"first_name"=>"Lia", "last_name"=>"Florey", "scopus_author_id"=>"55327677200"}, {"first_name"=>"S. Rene", "last_name"=>"Salgado", "scopus_author_id"=>"57014938600"}, {"first_name"=>"Christine L.", "last_name"=>"Hershey", "scopus_author_id"=>"57014914300"}, {"first_name"=>"Honorati", "last_name"=>"Masanja", "scopus_author_id"=>"16943082700"}, {"first_name"=>"Achuyt", "last_name"=>"Bhattarai", "scopus_author_id"=>"23033301000"}, {"first_name"=>"Alex", "last_name"=>"Mwita", "scopus_author_id"=>"8533020000"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter D.", "last_name"=>"McElroy", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006266616"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84951065914", "sgr"=>"84951065914", "pui"=>"607325338", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic), 1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"26536354", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0141112"}, "id"=>"45324331-7b8e-337a-8f6e-138d81adf7e8", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Mainland Tanzania scaled up multiple malaria control interventions between 1999 and 2010. We evaluated whether, and to what extent, reductions in all-cause under-five child mortality (U5CM) tracked with malaria control intensification during this period.\\n\\nMETHODS: Four nationally representative household surveys permitted trend analysis for malaria intervention coverage, severe anemia (hemoglobin <8 g/dL) prevalence (SAP) among children 6-59 months, and U5CM rates stratified by background characteristics, age, and malaria endemicity. Prevalence of contextual factors (e.g., vaccination, nutrition) likely to influence U5CM were also assessed. Population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) estimates for malaria interventions and contextual factors that changed over time were used to estimate magnitude of impact on U5CM.\\n\\nRESULTS: Household ownership of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) rose from near zero in 1999 to 64% (95% CI, 61.7-65.2) in 2010. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy reached 26% (95% CI, 23.6-28.0) by 2010. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine replaced chloroquine in 2002 and artemisinin-based combination therapy was introduced in 2007. SAP among children 6-59 months declined 50% between 2005 (11.1%; 95% CI, 10.0-12.3%) and 2010 (5.5%; 95% CI, 4.7-6.4%) and U5CM declined by 45% between baseline (1995-9) and endpoint (2005-9), from 148 to 81 deaths/1000 live births, respectively. Mortality declined 55% among children 1-23 months of age in higher malaria endemicity areas. A large reduction in U5CM was attributable to ITNs (PAR% = 11) with other malaria interventions adding further gains. Multiple contextual factors also contributed to survival gains.\\n\\nCONCLUSION: Marked declines in U5CM occurred in Tanzania between 1999 and 2010 with high impact from ITNs and ACTs. High-risk children (1-24 months of age in high malaria endemicity) experienced the greatest declines in mortality and SAP. Malaria control should remain a policy priority to sustain and further accelerate progress in child survival.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/impact-malaria-control-mortality-anemia-among-tanzanian-children-less-five-years-age-19992010-1", "reader_count"=>77, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>27, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>17, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>27}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>17}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "Tanzania"=>2, "Kenya"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2407397"], "description"=>"<p>Severe anemia prevalence and all-cause mortality (deaths per 1000 live births) according to age group (A) and (B) and malaria endemicity (C) and (D), respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["par", "U 5CM rates", "malaria interventions", "representative household surveys", "U 5CM", "malaria control intensification", "contextual factors", "influence U 5CM", "malaria control interventions", "survival gains.ConclusionMarked declines", "ci", "malaria endemicity", "itn", "sap", "U 5CM ownership", "malaria endemicity areas", "malaria intervention coverage", "Multiple contextual factors"], "article_id"=>1593936, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Paul Smithson", "Lia Florey", "S. Rene Salgado", "Christine L. Hershey", "Honorati Masanja", "Achuyt Bhattarai", "Alex Mwita", "Peter D. McElroy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141112.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Severe_anemia_prevalence_and_all_cause_mortality_deaths_per_1000_live_births_according_to_age_group_A_and_B_and_malaria_endemicity_C_and_D_respectively_/1593936", "title"=>"Severe anemia prevalence and all-cause mortality (deaths per 1000 live births) according to age group (A) and (B) and malaria endemicity (C) and (D), respectively.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-04 04:26:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2407394"], "description"=>"<p>Timeline depicting years when national-level implementation of specific malaria control policies and interventions began in Mainland Tanzania, 2000–2010.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["par", "U 5CM rates", "malaria interventions", "representative household surveys", "U 5CM", "malaria control intensification", "contextual factors", "influence U 5CM", "malaria control interventions", "survival gains.ConclusionMarked declines", "ci", "malaria endemicity", "itn", "sap", "U 5CM ownership", "malaria endemicity areas", "malaria intervention coverage", "Multiple contextual factors"], "article_id"=>1593933, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Paul Smithson", "Lia Florey", "S. Rene Salgado", "Christine L. Hershey", "Honorati Masanja", "Achuyt Bhattarai", "Alex Mwita", "Peter D. McElroy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141112.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Timeline_depicting_years_when_national_level_implementation_of_specific_malaria_control_policies_and_interventions_began_in_Mainland_Tanzania_2000_8211_2010_/1593933", "title"=>"Timeline depicting years when national-level implementation of specific malaria control policies and interventions began in Mainland Tanzania, 2000–2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-04 04:26:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2407395"], "description"=>"<p>Conceptual framework for constructing an adequacy and plausibility assessment to support the Mainland Tanzania malaria impact evaluation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["par", "U 5CM rates", "malaria interventions", "representative household surveys", "U 5CM", "malaria control intensification", "contextual factors", "influence U 5CM", "malaria control interventions", "survival gains.ConclusionMarked declines", "ci", "malaria endemicity", "itn", "sap", "U 5CM ownership", "malaria endemicity areas", "malaria intervention coverage", "Multiple contextual factors"], "article_id"=>1593934, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Paul Smithson", "Lia Florey", "S. Rene Salgado", "Christine L. Hershey", "Honorati Masanja", "Achuyt Bhattarai", "Alex Mwita", "Peter D. McElroy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141112.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conceptual_framework_for_constructing_an_adequacy_and_plausibility_assessment_to_support_the_Mainland_Tanzania_malaria_impact_evaluation_/1593934", "title"=>"Conceptual framework for constructing an adequacy and plausibility assessment to support the Mainland Tanzania malaria impact evaluation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-04 04:26:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2407398", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2407399", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2407400", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2407401"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Mainland Tanzania scaled up multiple malaria control interventions between 1999 and 2010. We evaluated whether, and to what extent, reductions in all-cause under-five child mortality (U5CM) tracked with malaria control intensification during this period.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Four nationally representative household surveys permitted trend analysis for malaria intervention coverage, severe anemia (hemoglobin <8 g/dL) prevalence (SAP) among children 6–59 months, and U5CM rates stratified by background characteristics, age, and malaria endemicity. Prevalence of contextual factors (e.g., vaccination, nutrition) likely to influence U5CM were also assessed. Population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) estimates for malaria interventions and contextual factors that changed over time were used to estimate magnitude of impact on U5CM.</p><p>Results</p><p>Household ownership of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) rose from near zero in 1999 to 64% (95% CI, 61.7–65.2) in 2010. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy reached 26% (95% CI, 23.6–28.0) by 2010. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine replaced chloroquine in 2002 and artemisinin-based combination therapy was introduced in 2007. SAP among children 6–59 months declined 50% between 2005 (11.1%; 95% CI, 10.0–12.3%) and 2010 (5.5%; 95% CI, 4.7–6.4%) and U5CM declined by 45% between baseline (1995–9) and endpoint (2005–9), from 148 to 81 deaths/1000 live births, respectively. Mortality declined 55% among children 1–23 months of age in higher malaria endemicity areas. A large reduction in U5CM was attributable to ITNs (PAR% = 11) with other malaria interventions adding further gains. Multiple contextual factors also contributed to survival gains.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>Marked declines in U5CM occurred in Tanzania between 1999 and 2010 with high impact from ITNs and ACTs. High-risk children (1–24 months of age in high malaria endemicity) experienced the greatest declines in mortality and SAP. Malaria control should remain a policy priority to sustain and further accelerate progress in child survival.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["par", "U 5CM rates", "malaria interventions", "representative household surveys", "U 5CM", "malaria control intensification", "contextual factors", "influence U 5CM", "malaria control interventions", "survival gains.ConclusionMarked declines", "ci", "malaria endemicity", "itn", "sap", "U 5CM ownership", "malaria endemicity areas", "malaria intervention coverage", "Multiple contextual factors"], "article_id"=>1593937, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Paul Smithson", "Lia Florey", "S. Rene Salgado", "Christine L. Hershey", "Honorati Masanja", "Achuyt Bhattarai", "Alex Mwita", "Peter D. McElroy"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141112.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141112.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141112.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141112.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Impact_of_Malaria_Control_on_Mortality_and_Anemia_among_Tanzanian_Children_Less_than_Five_Years_of_Age_1999_8211_2010_/1593937", "title"=>"Impact of Malaria Control on Mortality and Anemia among Tanzanian Children Less than Five Years of Age, 1999–2010", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-11-04 04:26:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2407396"], "description"=>"<p>Footnote: Each rate presented as the mid-point of the five-year interval it reflects (e.g., 2010 survey, measuring mortality 2005–2009, was plotted at 2007). Mortality among children 1–59 months of age declined 54% between 1999 and 2010 (from 111 to 57 deaths per 1000 live births) compared to the 45% relative decline for the traditional 0–59 month age group described in text.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["par", "U 5CM rates", "malaria interventions", "representative household surveys", "U 5CM", "malaria control intensification", "contextual factors", "influence U 5CM", "malaria control interventions", "survival gains.ConclusionMarked declines", "ci", "malaria endemicity", "itn", "sap", "U 5CM ownership", "malaria endemicity areas", "malaria intervention coverage", "Multiple contextual factors"], "article_id"=>1593935, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Paul Smithson", "Lia Florey", "S. Rene Salgado", "Christine L. Hershey", "Honorati Masanja", "Achuyt Bhattarai", "Alex Mwita", "Peter D. McElroy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141112.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Trends_in_5_year_estimates_of_all_cause_neonatal_infant_and_under_five_year_mortality_rates_in_Mainland_Tanzania_1990_8211_2010_/1593935", "title"=>"Trends in 5-year estimates of all-cause neonatal, infant, and under-five year mortality rates in Mainland Tanzania, 1990–2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-04 04:26:05"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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