Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana
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{"title"=>"Fast and powerful: Biomechanics and bite forces of the mandibles in the American cockroach Periplaneta Americana", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Tom", "last_name"=>"Weihmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"28268173000"}, {"first_name"=>"Lars", "last_name"=>"Reinhardt", "scopus_author_id"=>"28268076200"}, {"first_name"=>"Kevin", "last_name"=>"Weißing", "scopus_author_id"=>"57076984400"}, {"first_name"=>"Tobias", "last_name"=>"Siebert", "scopus_author_id"=>"23393704700"}, {"first_name"=>"Benjamin", "last_name"=>"Wipfler", "scopus_author_id"=>"25523067100"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"607878084", "sgr"=>"84949947316", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"26559671", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84949947316", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0141226"}, "id"=>"7875fdbb-87cf-3e23-8c70-91a44c88cd51", "abstract"=>"Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches' mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2) to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/fast-powerful-biomechanics-bite-forces-mandibles-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana", "reader_count"=>22, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2437008"], "description"=>"<p>A) <i>F</i><sub><i>act</i></sub>, i.e. forces generated by the faster muscle fibres (for details see text). B) <i>F</i><sub><i>tot</i></sub>, i.e. total bite forces including tonic and passive contributions. C) Residual forces at the position of the second right and third left teeth over the functional range of the mandibles. Residual forces represent the sum of passive joint forces and tonic contributions while their effective contributions depend on the opening angle. Forces were determined for the instances directly prior to a contraction and are consequently restricted to medium and large opening angles. In B and C, the red lines show the mean (solid), ± standard error (s.e.m.; dashed) and ± standard deviation (s.d.; dotted) of the passive forces, i.e. those forces necessary to open the mandibles of freshly killed specimens. At small and medium opening angles, the residual forces (<i>F</i><sub><i>res</i></sub>) are primarily generated by tonic muscle fibres while at high opening angles passive forces dominate.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["species number", "stag beetles", "mandibular range", "American Cockroach Periplaneta americana", "2 D force transducer", "opening angle", "jawed organisms", "muscle stress values", "mandible opening angles", "mouth parts", "Bite Forces", "muscle fibres", "cockroach Periplaneta americana", "masticatory apparatuses", "ground beetles", "video system"], "article_id"=>1600497, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tom Weihmann", "Lars Reinhardt", "Kevin Weißing", "Tobias Siebert", "Benjamin Wipfler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Resulting_forces_at_the_position_of_the_second_right_and_third_left_teeth_over_the_functional_range_of_the_mandibles_/1600497", "title"=>"Resulting forces at the position of the second right and third left teeth over the functional range of the mandibles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-11 03:46:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2437009"], "description"=>"<p>A)<i>F</i><sub><i>m</i>,<i>act</i></sub> i.e. forces generated by faster muscle fibres. The values for left (red) and right mandibles are highly concordant B)<i>F</i><sub><i>m</i>,<i>tot</i></sub>. i.e. total muscular forces. Mean passive forces (see Figs <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226#pone.0141226.g004\" target=\"_blank\">4b</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226#pone.0141226.g005\" target=\"_blank\">5</a>) were subtracted from the residual forces prior to the calculation of <i>F</i><sub><i>m</i>,<i>tot</i></sub>. Mean muscle fibre lengths and length changes were described in [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226#pone.0141226.ref014\" target=\"_blank\">14</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["species number", "stag beetles", "mandibular range", "American Cockroach Periplaneta americana", "2 D force transducer", "opening angle", "jawed organisms", "muscle stress values", "mandible opening angles", "mouth parts", "Bite Forces", "muscle fibres", "cockroach Periplaneta americana", "masticatory apparatuses", "ground beetles", "video system"], "article_id"=>1600498, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tom Weihmann", "Lars Reinhardt", "Kevin Weißing", "Tobias Siebert", "Benjamin Wipfler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Contraction_forces_of_the_mandible_closer_muscle_over_the_functional_range_of_the_mandibles_in_degrees_lower_abscissa_and_the_mean_fibre_length_of_the_closer_muscle_in_mm_upper_abscissa_/1600498", "title"=>"Contraction forces of the mandible closer muscle over the functional range of the mandibles in degrees (lower abscissa) and the mean fibre length of the closer muscle in mm (upper abscissa).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-11 03:46:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2437010", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2437011", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2437012", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2437013", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2437014", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2437015"], "description"=>"<div><p>Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach <i>Periplaneta americana</i>, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches’ mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2) to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["species number", "stag beetles", "mandibular range", "American Cockroach Periplaneta americana", "2 D force transducer", "opening angle", "jawed organisms", "muscle stress values", "mandible opening angles", "mouth parts", "Bite Forces", "muscle fibres", "cockroach Periplaneta americana", "masticatory apparatuses", "ground beetles", "video system"], "article_id"=>1600499, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tom Weihmann", "Lars Reinhardt", "Kevin Weißing", "Tobias Siebert", "Benjamin Wipfler"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Fast_and_Powerful_Biomechanics_and_Bite_Forces_of_the_Mandibles_in_the_American_Cockroach_Periplaneta_americana_/1600499", "title"=>"Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach <i>Periplaneta americana</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-11-11 03:46:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2437004"], "description"=>"<p>A) Morphology of the cockroach head from a μCT scan with emphasis to the mandibles (coloured light blue) and their driving muscles (light red). 1<sup>l</sup>-4<sup>l</sup>: teeth of the left mandible; 1<sup>r</sup>-3<sup>r</sup>: teeth of the right mandible; α: opening angle of the right mandible (approx.. 70°); ‘ce’: right complex eye; ‘md’: mandibles; ‘C<sub>left</sub>‘ and ‘C<sub>right</sub>’: anterior condyles of the left and right mandible joints; ‘m1’: left mandible closer muscle; ‘m2’: left mandible opener; mf: main direction of the muscle force; ‘mt’: apodeme connecting the mandible closer muscle with the median edge of the mandible; mr: molar region B) Camera view onto the mandibles (light blue) and the sensor tip (light red) during the bite experiments. The horizontal line is defined by the anterior condyles of the left and right mandible joints C<sub>left</sub> and C<sub>right</sub>; ‘1<sup>r</sup>’ depicts the distal tip of the right mandible and α is the mandible angle with respect to the horizontal line, i.e. the opening angle of the right mandible before mathematical correction (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226#sec002\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a>). C) Side view of the general setup with the fixated specimen at the right and the force transducer at the left side.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["species number", "stag beetles", "mandibular range", "American Cockroach Periplaneta americana", "2 D force transducer", "opening angle", "jawed organisms", "muscle stress values", "mandible opening angles", "mouth parts", "Bite Forces", "muscle fibres", "cockroach Periplaneta americana", "masticatory apparatuses", "ground beetles", "video system"], "article_id"=>1600493, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tom Weihmann", "Lars Reinhardt", "Kevin Weißing", "Tobias Siebert", "Benjamin Wipfler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphology_of_the_mandibular_apparatus_of_P_americana_kinematics_and_general_experimental_setup_/1600493", "title"=>"Morphology of the mandibular apparatus of <i>P</i>. <i>americana</i>, kinematics and general experimental setup.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-11 03:46:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2437005"], "description"=>"<p>The structural basis of the force transducer consisted of stereolithographically hardened PVC and provided two cantilever beam springs aligned perpendicular to each other; this way allowing for spatial resolution in two directions. The cross talk was very low in all loading situations. The sensitive structure was equipped with two semiconductor strain gages and integrated in a CNC-fabricated aluminium housing (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226#pone.0141226.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1c</a>). For simplicity the bevelled sensor tip, i.e. the tip of the hypodermic needle that engaged with the mandible teeth was modelled as a cylinder.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["species number", "stag beetles", "mandibular range", "American Cockroach Periplaneta americana", "2 D force transducer", "opening angle", "jawed organisms", "muscle stress values", "mandible opening angles", "mouth parts", "Bite Forces", "muscle fibres", "cockroach Periplaneta americana", "masticatory apparatuses", "ground beetles", "video system"], "article_id"=>1600494, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tom Weihmann", "Lars Reinhardt", "Kevin Weißing", "Tobias Siebert", "Benjamin Wipfler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Finite_element_model_of_the_force_sensor_8217_s_general_structure_loaded_laterally_Colours_encode_deformation_of_the_structure_blue_no_deformation_and_red_high_deformation_/1600494", "title"=>"Finite element model of the force sensor’s general structure loaded laterally (Colours encode deformation of the structure; blue: no deformation and red: high deformation).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-11 03:46:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2437006"], "description"=>"<p>The residual forces <i>F</i><sub><i>res</i></sub> changed little during a trial and are generated by slow muscle fibres and passive elasticity of the muscle-joint complex while the changes on top of this basis (<i>F</i><sub><i>act</i></sub>) are generated by faster muscle fibres.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["species number", "stag beetles", "mandibular range", "American Cockroach Periplaneta americana", "2 D force transducer", "opening angle", "jawed organisms", "muscle stress values", "mandible opening angles", "mouth parts", "Bite Forces", "muscle fibres", "cockroach Periplaneta americana", "masticatory apparatuses", "ground beetles", "video system"], "article_id"=>1600495, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tom Weihmann", "Lars Reinhardt", "Kevin Weißing", "Tobias Siebert", "Benjamin Wipfler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141226.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_sequence_of_measured_F_tot_/1600495", "title"=>"Example sequence of measured <i>F</i><sub><i>tot</i></sub>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-11 03:46:53"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"88", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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