New Archaeological Evidence for an Early Human Presence at Monte Verde, Chile
Publication Date
November 18, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Tom D. Dillehay, Carlos Ocampo, José Saavedra, Andre Oliveira Sawakuchi, et al
Volume
10
Issue
11
Pages
e0141923
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0141923
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26580202
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4651426
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26580202
Web of Science
000365154600027
Scopus
84957581656
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/new-archaeological-evidence-early-human-presence-monte-verde-chile
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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445370"], "description"=>"<p>Map of the Monte Verde and Chinchihuapi sites showing the different site sectors, block excavation, test pits and cores carried out during the 2013 excavation season.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["research reexamined", "bp", "New Archaeological Evidence", "interdisciplinary research problems", "New evidence", "Interdisciplinary debate", "climate environment", "stone artifacts", "Monte Verde area", "understanding", "colonization", "horizon", "Chile Questions", "interdisciplinary data", "americas", "challenge", "site", "anthropogenic origins", "artifact analysis", "Human Presence", "Monte Verde"], "article_id"=>1606764, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tom D. Dillehay", "Carlos Ocampo", "José Saavedra", "Andre Oliveira Sawakuchi", "Rodrigo M. Vega", "Mario Pino", "Michael B. Collins", "Linda Scott Cummings", "Iván Arregui", "Ximena S. Villagran", "Gelvam A. Hartmann", "Mauricio Mella", "Andrea Gonzalez", "George Dix"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_Monte_Verde_and_Chinchihuapi_sites_showing_the_different_site_sectors_block_excavation_test_pits_and_cores_carried_out_during_the_2013_excavation_season_/1606764", "title"=>"Map of the Monte Verde and Chinchihuapi sites showing the different site sectors, block excavation, test pits and cores carried out during the 2013 excavation season.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:27:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445406", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445407", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445408", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445409", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445410", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445411"], "description"=>"<div><p>Questions surrounding the chronology, place, and character of the initial human colonization of the Americas are a long-standing focus of debate. Interdisciplinary debate continues over the timing of entry, the rapidity and direction of dispersion, the variety of human responses to diverse habitats, the criteria for evaluating the validity of early sites, and the differences and similarities between colonization in North and South America. Despite recent advances in our understanding of these issues, archaeology still faces challenges in defining interdisciplinary research problems, assessing the reliability of the data, and applying new interpretative models. As the debates and challenges continue, new studies take place and previous research reexamined. Here we discuss recent exploratory excavation at and interdisciplinary data from the Monte Verde area in Chile to further our understanding of the first peopling of the Americas. New evidence of stone artifacts, faunal remains, and burned areas suggests discrete horizons of ephemeral human activity in a sandur plain setting radiocarbon and luminescence dated between at least ~18,500 and 14,500 cal BP. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including sedimentary proxies and artifact analysis, we present the probable anthropogenic origins and wider implications of this evidence. In a non-glacial cold climate environment of the south-central Andes, which is challenging for human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, these horizons provide insight into an earlier context of late Pleistocene human behavior in northern Patagonia.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["research reexamined", "bp", "New Archaeological Evidence", "interdisciplinary research problems", "New evidence", "Interdisciplinary debate", "climate environment", "stone artifacts", "Monte Verde area", "understanding", "colonization", "horizon", "Chile Questions", "interdisciplinary data", "americas", "challenge", "site", "anthropogenic origins", "artifact analysis", "Human Presence", "Monte Verde"], "article_id"=>1606800, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tom D. Dillehay", "Carlos Ocampo", "José Saavedra", "Andre Oliveira Sawakuchi", "Rodrigo M. Vega", "Mario Pino", "Michael B. Collins", "Linda Scott Cummings", "Iván Arregui", "Ximena S. Villagran", "Gelvam A. Hartmann", "Mauricio Mella", "Andrea Gonzalez", "George Dix"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_New_Archaeological_Evidence_for_an_Early_Human_Presence_at_Monte_Verde_Chile_/1606800", "title"=>"New Archaeological Evidence for an Early Human Presence at Monte Verde, Chile", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:27:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445377"], "description"=>"<p>a: <i>in situ</i> burned feature (No. 3) with charcoal, burned bone fragment (top arrow), and ash associated with an embedded, knapped flake of unsourced limestone (bottom arrow) in Unit 56, site MV-I. The thin, light yellowish orange (10YR 8/3) tephra lens has been removed in and around portions of the feature to expose the underlying gray sand. Inset shows a close-up of the flake after the overlying lens was brushed from its upper surface; b: <i>in situ</i> scorched bone fragment (left arrow) and a percussion flake of unsourced limestone (see S7f Fig) directly associated with a burned feature (No. 6, dotted line defines dark ashy areas) in Unit 56, site MV-I.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["research reexamined", "bp", "New Archaeological Evidence", "interdisciplinary research problems", "New evidence", "Interdisciplinary debate", "climate environment", "stone artifacts", "Monte Verde area", "understanding", "colonization", "horizon", "Chile Questions", "interdisciplinary data", "americas", "challenge", "site", "anthropogenic origins", "artifact analysis", "Human Presence", "Monte Verde"], "article_id"=>1606771, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tom D. Dillehay", "Carlos Ocampo", "José Saavedra", "Andre Oliveira Sawakuchi", "Rodrigo M. Vega", "Mario Pino", "Michael B. Collins", "Linda Scott Cummings", "Iván Arregui", "Ximena S. Villagran", "Gelvam A. Hartmann", "Mauricio Mella", "Andrea Gonzalez", "George Dix"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Excavated_archaeological_features_/1606771", "title"=>"Excavated archaeological features.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:27:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445379"], "description"=>"<p>Location of the corresponding radiocarbon dates and cultural and non-cultural levels in the MV-I and MV-II sites also are shown. Not shown is the stratigraphic profile for the CH-I and CH-II sites; however, their profiles are comparable to that for the MV-I site. The dates listed under the MV-II site represent the range of radiocarbon assays for the overlying non-cultural strata MV-3 (P), MV-4 (Q) and MV-5 (R) and for the single cultural component of MV-II on the buried surface of stratum MV-7 (S). Since these dates were published previously [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923#pone.0141923.ref013\" target=\"_blank\">13</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923#pone.0141923.ref014\" target=\"_blank\">14</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923#pone.0141923.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>], their laboratory numbers are not provided here (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923#pone.0141923.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). Radiocarbon dates in site MV-I are in stratigraphic order but at slightly different depths due to the downward sloping strata in site MV-I (see Text B in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923#pone.0141923.s006\" target=\"_blank\">S1 File</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["research reexamined", "bp", "New Archaeological Evidence", "interdisciplinary research problems", "New evidence", "Interdisciplinary debate", "climate environment", "stone artifacts", "Monte Verde area", "understanding", "colonization", "horizon", "Chile Questions", "interdisciplinary data", "americas", "challenge", "site", "anthropogenic origins", "artifact analysis", "Human Presence", "Monte Verde"], "article_id"=>1606773, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tom D. Dillehay", "Carlos Ocampo", "José Saavedra", "Andre Oliveira Sawakuchi", "Rodrigo M. Vega", "Mario Pino", "Michael B. Collins", "Linda Scott Cummings", "Iván Arregui", "Ximena S. Villagran", "Gelvam A. Hartmann", "Mauricio Mella", "Andrea Gonzalez", "George Dix"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_the_stratigraphic_cross_sections_of_the_MV_I_and_MV_II_sites_divided_by_the_drainage_of_Chinchihuapi_Creek_/1606773", "title"=>"Schematic representation of the stratigraphic cross-sections of the MV-I and MV-II sites divided by the drainage of Chinchihuapi Creek.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:27:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445385"], "description"=>"<p>a: Group 23 manuport of a fractured pinkish quartzite probably derived from a beach of the Pacific Ocean; b. Group 5f pebble flake tool of basalt showing multiple percussion facets; c. Round Smooth possible sling stone of andesite, note the dull matte finish; d. Group 5f pebble flake tool of rhyolite (worked edge at the bottom, arrow shows percussion facet); e. two Group 5f knapped flakes of exotic, unsourced limestone raw material, note the striking platforms and bulb of percussions [arrow]; f. Group 5f pebble flake tool of basalt, note the striking platform and bulb of percussion at top [arrow]; g. Exotic discoid manuport of unknown raw material probably from a beach of the Pacific Ocean; h. Group 5f knapped core of andesite with multiple percussion flake scars; i. Group 5f flake tool of basalt, note the striking platform and bulb of percussion [arrow]; j. flake scatters of basalt produced by knapping; k. Group 5f flaked tool of basalt, note the striking platform [arrow] (see S1 and S2 Tables for more details and S7 Fig for drawings of selected lithics).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["research reexamined", "bp", "New Archaeological Evidence", "interdisciplinary research problems", "New evidence", "Interdisciplinary debate", "climate environment", "stone artifacts", "Monte Verde area", "understanding", "colonization", "horizon", "Chile Questions", "interdisciplinary data", "americas", "challenge", "site", "anthropogenic origins", "artifact analysis", "Human Presence", "Monte Verde"], "article_id"=>1606779, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tom D. Dillehay", "Carlos Ocampo", "José Saavedra", "Andre Oliveira Sawakuchi", "Rodrigo M. Vega", "Mario Pino", "Michael B. Collins", "Linda Scott Cummings", "Iván Arregui", "Ximena S. Villagran", "Gelvam A. Hartmann", "Mauricio Mella", "Andrea Gonzalez", "George Dix"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Various_cultural_stone_tools_and_manuports_from_the_2013_14_C_dated_archaeological_horizons_in_sites_MV_I_and_CH_1_classified_by_Collin_8217_s_typology_of_Groups_43_/1606779", "title"=>"Various cultural stone tools and manuports from the 2013 <sup>14</sup>C dated archaeological horizons in sites MV-I and CH-1, classified by Collin’s typology of Groups (43).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:27:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445388"], "description"=>"<p>Serpentine pebble tool from Unit 17, MV-I, showing bifacially knapped and retouched edge. Serpentine is a raw material available in the coastal cordillera west of Monte Verde.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["research reexamined", "bp", "New Archaeological Evidence", "interdisciplinary research problems", "New evidence", "Interdisciplinary debate", "climate environment", "stone artifacts", "Monte Verde area", "understanding", "colonization", "horizon", "Chile Questions", "interdisciplinary data", "americas", "challenge", "site", "anthropogenic origins", "artifact analysis", "Human Presence", "Monte Verde"], "article_id"=>1606782, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tom D. Dillehay", "Carlos Ocampo", "José Saavedra", "Andre Oliveira Sawakuchi", "Rodrigo M. Vega", "Mario Pino", "Michael B. Collins", "Linda Scott Cummings", "Iván Arregui", "Ximena S. Villagran", "Gelvam A. Hartmann", "Mauricio Mella", "Andrea Gonzalez", "George Dix"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Serpentine_pebble_tool_from_Unit_17_MV_I_showing_bifacially_knapped_and_retouched_edge_Serpentine_is_a_raw_material_available_in_the_coastal_cordillera_west_of_Monte_Verde_/1606782", "title"=>"Serpentine pebble tool from Unit 17, MV-I, showing bifacially knapped and retouched edge. Serpentine is a raw material available in the coastal cordillera west of Monte Verde.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:27:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445389"], "description"=>"<p>Arrows indicate inferred direction of force and point of impact of the blow that detached this piece.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["research reexamined", "bp", "New Archaeological Evidence", "interdisciplinary research problems", "New evidence", "Interdisciplinary debate", "climate environment", "stone artifacts", "Monte Verde area", "understanding", "colonization", "horizon", "Chile Questions", "interdisciplinary data", "americas", "challenge", "site", "anthropogenic origins", "artifact analysis", "Human Presence", "Monte Verde"], "article_id"=>1606783, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Tom D. Dillehay", "Carlos Ocampo", "José Saavedra", "Andre Oliveira Sawakuchi", "Rodrigo M. Vega", "Mario Pino", "Michael B. Collins", "Linda Scott Cummings", "Iván Arregui", "Ximena S. Villagran", "Gelvam A. Hartmann", "Mauricio Mella", "Andrea Gonzalez", "George Dix"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141923.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Basalt_wedge_showing_seven_facets_on_obverse_face_one_of_which_is_cortex_and_three_on_the_reverse_face_/1606783", "title"=>"Basalt wedge showing seven facets on obverse face (one of which is cortex) and three on the reverse face.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:27:49"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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