Vertical Movements and Patterns in Diving Behavior of Whale Sharks as Revealed by Pop-Up Satellite Tags in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico
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{"title"=>"Vertical movements and patterns in diving behavior of whale sharks as revealed by pop-up satellite tags in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"John P.", "last_name"=>"Tyminski", "scopus_author_id"=>"8658502900"}, {"first_name"=>"Rafael", "last_name"=>"De La Parra-Venegas", "scopus_author_id"=>"37119997800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jaime González", "last_name"=>"Cano", "scopus_author_id"=>"52063136300"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert E.", "last_name"=>"Hueter", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603023738"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84957538631", "pui"=>"608121527", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0142156", "sgr"=>"84957538631", "pmid"=>"26580405"}, "id"=>"d02bc048-ba9f-3e62-b963-97fa3dc2b9c1", "abstract"=>"The whale shark ( Rhincodon typus ) is a wide-ranging, filter-feeding species typically observed at or near the surface. This shark’s sub-surface habits and behaviors have only begun to be revealed in recent years through the use of archival and satellite tagging technology. We attached pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags to 35 whale sharks in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico off the Yucatan Peninsula from 2003–2012 and three tags to whale sharks in the northeastern Gulf off Florida in 2010, to examine these sharks’ long-term movement patterns and gain insight into the underlying factors influencing their vertical habitat selection. Archived data were received from 31 tags deployed on sharks of both sexes with total lengths of 5.5–9 m. Nine of these tags were physically recovered facilitating a detailed long-term view into the sharks’ vertical movements. Whale sharks feeding inshore on fish eggs off the northeast Yucatan Peninsula demonstrated reverse diel vertical migration, with extended periods of surface swimming beginning at sunrise followed by an abrupt change in the mid-afternoon to regular vertical oscillations, a pattern that continued overnight. When in oceanic waters, sharks spent about 95% of their time within epipelagic depths (<200 m) but regularly undertook very deep (“extreme”) dives (>500 m) that largely occurred during daytime or twilight hours (max. depth recorded 1,928 m), had V-shaped depth-time profiles, and comprised more rapid descents (0.68 m sec -1 ) than ascents (0.50 m sec -1 ). Nearly half of these extreme dives had descent profiles with brief but conspicuous changes in vertical direction at a mean depth of 475 m. We hypothesize these stutter steps represent foraging events within the deep scattering layer, however, the extreme dives may have additional functions. Overall, our results demonstrate complex and dynamic patterns of habitat utilization for R . typus that appear to be in response to changing biotic and abiotic conditions influencing the distribution and abundance of their prey.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/vertical-movements-patterns-diving-behavior-whale-sharks-revealed-popup-satellite-tags-eastern-gulf", "reader_count"=>53, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>12, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>12}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Mexico"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445103"], "description"=>"<p>The high amplitude peak at 1 cycle day<sup>-1</sup> is indicative of a diel rhythm in the vertical movements of the shark.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish eggs", "habitat utilization", "Vertical Movements", "whale sharks", "oceanic waters", "twilight hours", "descent profiles", "foraging events", "Rhincodon typus", "abiotic conditions", "Archived data", "Yucatan Peninsula", "Diving Behavior", "stutter steps", "Whale shark", "gain insight", "Eastern Gulf", "northeast Yucatan Peninsula", "movement patterns", "31 tags", "35 whale sharks", "475 m", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1606528, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Tyminski", "Rafael de la Parra-Venegas", "Jaime González Cano", "Robert E. Hueter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142156.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fast_Fourier_transform_generated_periodogram_for_depth_data_of_Sharks_30_/1606528", "title"=>"Fast Fourier transform-generated periodogram for depth data of Sharks 30.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:02:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445105"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Depth-temperature profiles during the period of October 29 through November 2. Tag measured light levels are shown as gray trace. (B-E) Close-up depth profiles of extreme dives coinciding with sunrise or sunset (marked with arrows in A). Note the stutter steps during descent at depths of 400–500 m.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish eggs", "habitat utilization", "Vertical Movements", "whale sharks", "oceanic waters", "twilight hours", "descent profiles", "foraging events", "Rhincodon typus", "abiotic conditions", "Archived data", "Yucatan Peninsula", "Diving Behavior", "stutter steps", "Whale shark", "gain insight", "Eastern Gulf", "northeast Yucatan Peninsula", "movement patterns", "31 tags", "35 whale sharks", "475 m", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1606530, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Tyminski", "Rafael de la Parra-Venegas", "Jaime González Cano", "Robert E. Hueter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142156.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Crepuscular_pattern_of_extreme_dives_observed_in_Shark_9_while_in_the_central_Gulf_of_Mexico_/1606530", "title"=>"Crepuscular pattern of extreme dives observed in Shark 9 while in the central Gulf of Mexico.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:02:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445106"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Time-depth profile for a V-dive. (B) Consecutive V-dives with stutter steps on descent. (C) U-dive. (D-F) Corresponding rates of vertical movement (m s<sup>-1</sup>) during these same dives. Data were recorded by the tag at 3 second intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish eggs", "habitat utilization", "Vertical Movements", "whale sharks", "oceanic waters", "twilight hours", "descent profiles", "foraging events", "Rhincodon typus", "abiotic conditions", "Archived data", "Yucatan Peninsula", "Diving Behavior", "stutter steps", "Whale shark", "gain insight", "Eastern Gulf", "northeast Yucatan Peninsula", "movement patterns", "31 tags", "35 whale sharks", "475 m", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1606531, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Tyminski", "Rafael de la Parra-Venegas", "Jaime González Cano", "Robert E. Hueter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142156.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Profiles_of_extreme_dives_gt_500_m_and_vertical_dive_velocities_from_Shark_30_/1606531", "title"=>"Profiles of extreme dives (>500 m) and vertical dive velocities from Shark 30.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:02:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445107"], "description"=>"<p>* Tag recovered</p><p><sup>F</sup> Tagged off west Florida coast</p><p><sup>†</sup> GoM = Gulf of Mexico; Carib. = Caribbean Sea; Str. FL = Straits of Florida; Yuc. Chan. = Yucatan Channel</p><p>Summary of results from PSATs deployed on whale sharks (<i>Rhincodon typus</i>) off the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico and west Florida 2003–2012 (n = 31).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish eggs", "habitat utilization", "Vertical Movements", "whale sharks", "oceanic waters", "twilight hours", "descent profiles", "foraging events", "Rhincodon typus", "abiotic conditions", "Archived data", "Yucatan Peninsula", "Diving Behavior", "stutter steps", "Whale shark", "gain insight", "Eastern Gulf", "northeast Yucatan Peninsula", "movement patterns", "31 tags", "35 whale sharks", "475 m", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1606532, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Tyminski", "Rafael de la Parra-Venegas", "Jaime González Cano", "Robert E. Hueter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142156.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_results_from_PSATs_deployed_on_whale_sharks_Rhincodon_typus_off_the_northeastern_Yucatan_Peninsula_Mexico_and_west_Florida_2003_2012_n_31_/1606532", "title"=>"Summary of results from PSATs deployed on whale sharks (<i>Rhincodon typus</i>) off the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico and west Florida 2003–2012 (n = 31).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:02:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445108"], "description"=>"<p>The inshore and offshore phases of their tracks were analyzed separately.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish eggs", "habitat utilization", "Vertical Movements", "whale sharks", "oceanic waters", "twilight hours", "descent profiles", "foraging events", "Rhincodon typus", "abiotic conditions", "Archived data", "Yucatan Peninsula", "Diving Behavior", "stutter steps", "Whale shark", "gain insight", "Eastern Gulf", "northeast Yucatan Peninsula", "movement patterns", "31 tags", "35 whale sharks", "475 m", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1606533, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Tyminski", "Rafael de la Parra-Venegas", "Jaime González Cano", "Robert E. Hueter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142156.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistical_results_of_day_vs_night_comparison_of_whale_shark_mean_depths_from_recovered_PSAT_tags_/1606533", "title"=>"Statistical results of day vs night comparison of whale shark mean depths from recovered PSAT tags.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:02:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445109"], "description"=>"<div><p>The whale shark (<i>Rhincodon typus</i>) is a wide-ranging, filter-feeding species typically observed at or near the surface. This shark’s sub-surface habits and behaviors have only begun to be revealed in recent years through the use of archival and satellite tagging technology. We attached pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags to 35 whale sharks in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico off the Yucatan Peninsula from 2003–2012 and three tags to whale sharks in the northeastern Gulf off Florida in 2010, to examine these sharks’ long-term movement patterns and gain insight into the underlying factors influencing their vertical habitat selection. Archived data were received from 31 tags deployed on sharks of both sexes with total lengths of 5.5–9 m. Nine of these tags were physically recovered facilitating a detailed long-term view into the sharks’ vertical movements. Whale sharks feeding inshore on fish eggs off the northeast Yucatan Peninsula demonstrated reverse diel vertical migration, with extended periods of surface swimming beginning at sunrise followed by an abrupt change in the mid-afternoon to regular vertical oscillations, a pattern that continued overnight. When in oceanic waters, sharks spent about 95% of their time within epipelagic depths (<200 m) but regularly undertook very deep (“extreme”) dives (>500 m) that largely occurred during daytime or twilight hours (max. depth recorded 1,928 m), had V-shaped depth-time profiles, and comprised more rapid descents (0.68 m sec<sup>-1</sup>) than ascents (0.50 m sec<sup>-1</sup>). Nearly half of these extreme dives had descent profiles with brief but conspicuous changes in vertical direction at a mean depth of 475 m. We hypothesize these stutter steps represent foraging events within the deep scattering layer, however, the extreme dives may have additional functions. Overall, our results demonstrate complex and dynamic patterns of habitat utilization for <i>R</i>. <i>typus</i> that appear to be in response to changing biotic and abiotic conditions influencing the distribution and abundance of their prey.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish eggs", "habitat utilization", "Vertical Movements", "whale sharks", "oceanic waters", "twilight hours", "descent profiles", "foraging events", "Rhincodon typus", "abiotic conditions", "Archived data", "Yucatan Peninsula", "Diving Behavior", "stutter steps", "Whale shark", "gain insight", "Eastern Gulf", "northeast Yucatan Peninsula", "movement patterns", "31 tags", "35 whale sharks", "475 m", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1606534, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Tyminski", "Rafael de la Parra-Venegas", "Jaime González Cano", "Robert E. Hueter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142156", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vertical_Movements_and_Patterns_in_Diving_Behavior_of_Whale_Sharks_as_Revealed_by_Pop_Up_Satellite_Tags_in_the_Eastern_Gulf_of_Mexico_/1606534", "title"=>"Vertical Movements and Patterns in Diving Behavior of Whale Sharks as Revealed by Pop-Up Satellite Tags in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:02:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445081"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The most probable tracks of whale sharks satellite-tagged off the northeast Yucatan Peninsula (n = 22) and Florida’s west coast (n = 2). The long distance tracks from recovered tags are shown with a thicker trace and identified in the legend. (B) The two main aggregation sites off the Yucatan Peninsula, north of Cabo Catoche and east of Isla Contoy (Afuera). (C) The most probable track of Shark 15 (Rio Lady). Portions of tracks that cross land due to temporal gaps in the data are shown with a broken line. Reprinted from [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0142156#pone.0142156.ref008\" target=\"_blank\">8</a>] under a CC BY license, with permission from [Robert E. Hueter], original copyright [2013].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish eggs", "habitat utilization", "Vertical Movements", "whale sharks", "oceanic waters", "twilight hours", "descent profiles", "foraging events", "Rhincodon typus", "abiotic conditions", "Archived data", "Yucatan Peninsula", "Diving Behavior", "stutter steps", "Whale shark", "gain insight", "Eastern Gulf", "northeast Yucatan Peninsula", "movement patterns", "31 tags", "35 whale sharks", "475 m", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1606506, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Tyminski", "Rafael de la Parra-Venegas", "Jaime González Cano", "Robert E. Hueter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142156.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_sites_for_the_tagging_of_Rhincodon_typus_in_the_Eastern_Gulf_of_Mexico_/1606506", "title"=>"Study sites for the tagging of <i>Rhincodon typus</i> in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:02:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445083"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Shark 15 (Rio Lady) traveled farther than any other shark in the study (7,772 km). (B) Shark 37 demonstrated the deepest dive of the study (1,928 m) as indicated by an open circle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish eggs", "habitat utilization", "Vertical Movements", "whale sharks", "oceanic waters", "twilight hours", "descent profiles", "foraging events", "Rhincodon typus", "abiotic conditions", "Archived data", "Yucatan Peninsula", "Diving Behavior", "stutter steps", "Whale shark", "gain insight", "Eastern Gulf", "northeast Yucatan Peninsula", "movement patterns", "31 tags", "35 whale sharks", "475 m", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1606508, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Tyminski", "Rafael de la Parra-Venegas", "Jaime González Cano", "Robert E. Hueter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142156.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_daily_range_in_depth_blue_and_temperature_red_from_satellite_summary_data_for_two_whale_sharks_Rhincodon_typus_/1606508", "title"=>"The daily range in depth (blue) and temperature (red) from satellite summary data for two whale sharks (<i>Rhincodon typus</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:02:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445086"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The 190-day track of Shark 9. (B) The120-day track of Shark 10. (C) The 82-day track of Shark 17. (D) The 180-day track of Shark 30. Based on their most probable tracks, the approximate geographic area is indicated within the grey (continental shelf) and black (offshore) boxes above the profiles. Broken lines delineate the epipelagic, mesopelagic, and bathypelagic zones.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish eggs", "habitat utilization", "Vertical Movements", "whale sharks", "oceanic waters", "twilight hours", "descent profiles", "foraging events", "Rhincodon typus", "abiotic conditions", "Archived data", "Yucatan Peninsula", "Diving Behavior", "stutter steps", "Whale shark", "gain insight", "Eastern Gulf", "northeast Yucatan Peninsula", "movement patterns", "31 tags", "35 whale sharks", "475 m", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1606511, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Tyminski", "Rafael de la Parra-Venegas", "Jaime González Cano", "Robert E. Hueter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142156.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Depth_temperature_profiles_from_recovered_PSATs_deployed_on_whale_sharks_Rhincodon_typus_off_the_Yucatan_Peninsula_Mexico_/1606511", "title"=>"Depth-temperature profiles from recovered PSATs deployed on whale sharks (<i>Rhincodon typus</i>) off the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:02:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445090"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Time-at-depth. (B) Time-at-temperature. Values are mean ±SE. Broken lines in A delineate the epipelagic, mesopelagic, and bathypelagic zones.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish eggs", "habitat utilization", "Vertical Movements", "whale sharks", "oceanic waters", "twilight hours", "descent profiles", "foraging events", "Rhincodon typus", "abiotic conditions", "Archived data", "Yucatan Peninsula", "Diving Behavior", "stutter steps", "Whale shark", "gain insight", "Eastern Gulf", "northeast Yucatan Peninsula", "movement patterns", "31 tags", "35 whale sharks", "475 m", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1606515, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Tyminski", "Rafael de la Parra-Venegas", "Jaime González Cano", "Robert E. Hueter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142156.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Composite_histograms_for_satellite_tagged_whale_sharks_Rhincodon_typus_off_the_northeast_Yucatan_Peninsula_and_west_Florida_/1606515", "title"=>"Composite histograms for satellite-tagged whale sharks (<i>Rhincodon typus</i>) off the northeast Yucatan Peninsula and west Florida.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:02:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445092"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Time-at-depth inshore. (B) Time-at-depth offshore. (C) Time-at-temperature inshore. (D) Time-at-temperature offshore. Error bars represent SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish eggs", "habitat utilization", "Vertical Movements", "whale sharks", "oceanic waters", "twilight hours", "descent profiles", "foraging events", "Rhincodon typus", "abiotic conditions", "Archived data", "Yucatan Peninsula", "Diving Behavior", "stutter steps", "Whale shark", "gain insight", "Eastern Gulf", "northeast Yucatan Peninsula", "movement patterns", "31 tags", "35 whale sharks", "475 m", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1606517, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Tyminski", "Rafael de la Parra-Venegas", "Jaime González Cano", "Robert E. Hueter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142156.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Composite_histograms_from_high_resolution_data_of_recovered_tags_comparing_day_vs_night_depth_and_temperature_during_inshore_and_offshore_phases_/1606517", "title"=>"Composite histograms from high resolution data of recovered tags comparing day vs night depth and temperature during inshore and offshore phases.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:02:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445098"], "description"=>"<p>Variable patterns can be observed including: (A) reverse diel vertical migration; (B) crepuscular deep dives; (C) extended periods of low frequency oscillations at depth; and (D) near surface high frequency vertical oscillations. Vertical grey bars indicate nighttime. The recovered PSAT provided measurements at 30 second intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish eggs", "habitat utilization", "Vertical Movements", "whale sharks", "oceanic waters", "twilight hours", "descent profiles", "foraging events", "Rhincodon typus", "abiotic conditions", "Archived data", "Yucatan Peninsula", "Diving Behavior", "stutter steps", "Whale shark", "gain insight", "Eastern Gulf", "northeast Yucatan Peninsula", "movement patterns", "31 tags", "35 whale sharks", "475 m", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1606523, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Tyminski", "Rafael de la Parra-Venegas", "Jaime González Cano", "Robert E. Hueter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142156.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dynamic_patterns_of_vertical_movement_during_four_week_long_periods_of_the_track_of_Shark_10_/1606523", "title"=>"Dynamic patterns of vertical movement during four week-long periods of the track of Shark 10.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:02:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445100"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Typical reverse DVM demonstrated inshore near the northeast Yucatan Peninsula tagging site. (B) Contrasting pattern of protracted surface time at night observed offshore in the central Gulf of Mexico, north of the Yucatan Peninsula.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish eggs", "habitat utilization", "Vertical Movements", "whale sharks", "oceanic waters", "twilight hours", "descent profiles", "foraging events", "Rhincodon typus", "abiotic conditions", "Archived data", "Yucatan Peninsula", "Diving Behavior", "stutter steps", "Whale shark", "gain insight", "Eastern Gulf", "northeast Yucatan Peninsula", "movement patterns", "31 tags", "35 whale sharks", "475 m", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1606525, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Tyminski", "Rafael de la Parra-Venegas", "Jaime González Cano", "Robert E. Hueter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142156.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_the_diel_vertical_migration_DVM_pattern_for_Shark_9_/1606525", "title"=>"Changes in the diel vertical migration (DVM) pattern for Shark 9.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:02:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2445102"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Five-day period post-tagging demonstrating a pattern of daytime surface swimming beginning near sunrise followed by regular vertical movements beginning in the mid afternoon. (B) An 18-hour period demonstrating dynamic vertical oscillations beginning in the afternoon and ending near sunrise (period corresponds to the black bar in A). High frequency bounce dives were observed during the 2-hr period prior to the resumption of surface swimming (04:00–06:00). The absolute vertical velocity increased to approximately 0.25 m s<sup>-1</sup> during this period. The dark grey shading represents nighttime while the lighter gray represents twilight.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish eggs", "habitat utilization", "Vertical Movements", "whale sharks", "oceanic waters", "twilight hours", "descent profiles", "foraging events", "Rhincodon typus", "abiotic conditions", "Archived data", "Yucatan Peninsula", "Diving Behavior", "stutter steps", "Whale shark", "gain insight", "Eastern Gulf", "northeast Yucatan Peninsula", "movement patterns", "31 tags", "35 whale sharks", "475 m", "habitat selection"], "article_id"=>1606527, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["John P. Tyminski", "Rafael de la Parra-Venegas", "Jaime González Cano", "Robert E. Hueter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142156.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Depth_temperature_profiles_for_Shark_33_tagged_in_the_Afuera_aggregation_/1606527", "title"=>"Depth-temperature profiles for Shark 33 tagged in the Afuera aggregation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-18 03:02:56"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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